12 important criteria for choosing a bike
The classic bicycle is a vehicle with two wheels, propelled by pedals using the legs. But models with an electric drive are also produced. electric bicycles.
12 types of bicycles
All bicycles are divided into several types according to their application, structure, type of frame, drive and gears, rider’s height and weight, number of speeds, etc.
Regarding the purpose, they are divided into the following types:
Road bicycles are the classic version, designed for riding on a flat road. Equipped with front and rear fenders to protect the rider from mud and splashes. They have a simple braking system, a rigid frame.
It will not be possible to gain high speed, since they are heavy due to the large weight of the frame and tires and without switching speeds (single-speed). Advantages: reliability, practicality, reasonable cost, simplicity of design.
The walking bike is an urban type and is an improved road bike. This type has usually an open frame, a seatpost or front shock absorber, a wide padded seat, fenders, a rack or basket, and chain protection. Multi-speed (7-12 speeds), with cassette gear shift mechanism.
It is not designed for high loads, that is, it is not suitable for jumping and overcoming difficult obstacles. Designed for walks in squares and parks of the city, suitable for older people leading an active lifestyle.
A common type for off-road driving. Characteristic features of the type: reinforced frames and handlebars, wide tires, high tread. All mountain bikes are divided into subspecies according to the intended use.
- For the entry level. Inexpensive models look like true mountain bikes. The only difference is in the quality of attachments. High landing, medium shocks.
- For cross country. The frame of these models is strong and lightweight with butted applications. Suspension forks short-travel with the ability to block. Disc brakes are used. The seat is hard, the landing is low.
- For freestyle and trial. Designed to perform tricks. The frame is solid, the wheels are wide, the braking system is powerful, and there is usually no other optional equipment. There are models without a saddle. This type of bike is suitable for freestyle lovers.
- For downhill. Designed for high-speed driving from the mountains, withstand enormous loads. The frame is heavy and solid, the brakes are powerful, the shock absorbers are long travel. Designed for this riding style only.
The road bike is designed to ride on flat road surfaces at high speeds. Cross-country driving is highly discouraged. The frame is strong and light, the wheels are thin and large diameter, the steering wheel is in the form of “ram’s horns”, everything is provided for high speed.
Track models are designed exclusively for high speed cycling. The design is simplified to the limit, the weight of the bike is lightweight. There are no brakes, a fixed transmission, one gear ratio, narrow aerodynamic wheels, with hard rubber. everything is done to increase driving speed.
Touring bikes are called touring bicycles. Similar to road models, with a sophisticated drivetrain for steep climbs. They have thicker wheels, there is the ability to attach a trunk and outboard lights.
A hybrid two-wheeler is a combination of a road and mountain bike. You can also drive it on the highway at high speed and drive into uneven terrain. Wheels have a large diameter of 28 inches, treads are medium, the frame is high, suspension forks and disc brakes are provided.
Stunt bikes are characterized by small wheels, in the order of 20 inches. BMX models are equipped with a mechanism that allows you to turn and twist the steering wheel in one direction without harming the brake cables.
Unicycles or unicycle. have only one wheel with a seat. Subdivided into subspecies:
A bike for two or more people, great for family walks. The seated person in front is responsible for control, and the pedals can be turned simultaneously or in turn. The design features a long frame, no shock absorbers, a split drive system and two seats. Tandems are both walking, mountain, and road.
The cruiser is equipped with a massive frame, a high handlebar, with an unusual fit and a wide saddle, not intended for racing, it is used for leisurely walks on smooth asphalt roads.
Exotic bicycles include unusual models that differ from all the others in appearance and functionality. Exotic bikes look unusual, and sometimes even strange, and they cannot always be used for their intended purpose.
Children’s bicycles: types, equipment, features
Designed for children of all ages from toddlers to teenagers. Most models in this category are equipped with a foot brake and one speed, but there are also options depending on the age and height of the child.
For every age, bicycles are equipped with special mechanisms, for example, for the smallest, additional balancing wheels are provided.
A two-year-old baby is quite capable of mastering pedaling. If the child knows how to walk, run, bend over and crouch, then you can give him his first lessons in cycling.
Children’s models are classified by age group:
- From one to three years. This group includes bicycles with pedals on the front wheel and tricycles. The child’s height for this category must be within 75-95 cm.
- 3-4 years old. The age of the kid allows you to ride more actively. The bikes are equipped with full wheels and two additional side wheels. It is important to have a guard on the handlebars to cushion shocks. The bicycles are equipped with a chain guard so that less dirt gets into the chain and the child’s pants do not get caught. The saddle is soft and durable. The frame is low for easy sitting. One speed, rear brake, wheels 12 inches. The growth of the baby for this category should be within 95. 101 cm.
- 4 to 6 years old. The models are similar in appearance to the previous group, only with larger diameter wheels, the size is 16 inches. Child’s height. within 101- 115 cm.
- 6. 9 years old. Additional wheels are missing. The design can be different, there are mini copies of adult bicycles. Several additional options appear: wheel diameter 20 inches, handbrake, multiple speeds and a suspension fork. The child’s height should be within 115. 128 cm.
- 9 to 13 years old. Designed for children with a height in the range of 126. 155 cm. With a height of up to 135 cm, the diameter of the wheels is chosen 24 inches, if the child is taller, then the wheels are needed 26 inches. This category of bikes is almost an adult model. The number of speeds reaches 24. Rear and front brakes are provided, as well as shock absorption.
Side wheels included
In some models of children’s bicycles, side wheels are included in the amount of two pieces. Toddlers, just getting used to the new transport, cannot always keep their balance, therefore, additional wheels are extremely necessary for the child to be able to balance normally and ride calmly without tipping over on its side. When the movements become more confident, the wheels are removed.
The side wheels are a safety net and guarantee. Sizes can be different from 12 to 20 inches, when choosing, you must focus on the age of the child.
Possibility of mounting side wheels
The main function of the additional casters is to prevent it from falling over. They can be attached to any children’s bike, the main thing is to know how to install and adjust correctly.
The wheels are mounted under the nut on the rear wheel axle using a wrench and then fixed to the rear stays. To screw the wheels correctly, you need to rely on their size, this is 12. 20 inches.
Special divisions are marked on the bar for any size (lower under 12, upper under 20 inches, respectively), the nut is inserted into the desired division. After installation, setup is performed.
It is also impossible to raise the balancing wheels too high, otherwise they lose their meaning, they cease to perform their functions and will not protect the baby from falling.
Disc brake fork mountable. The parameter assumes the presence of special holes on the plug. The disc brake is screwed on with a suitable wrench. The installation location must be rigidly fixed.
Disc brake hub mountable. The fastening of this element requires the presence of a thread on the sleeve for installing the brake disc flange.
Mountable to disc brake frame. Rear brake mounting requires special mounting points on the frame.
After installing the balance wheels, it is important to inspect the chain. it may have loosened from loosening the nuts. Tighten the chain if necessary.
4 types of bicycles for adults: pros and cons
Bicycles for adults are usually not gender-specific and can be used by both men and women. However, specialized female models are produced. with a wide saddle and a special frame design.
Bicycles with a low frame are considered to be women’s bicycles, since they can be ridden even in a skirt. In addition, the women’s models have a high seating position, wide rims and tires, an increased wheelbase, a wide and comfortable saddle.
Due to the differences in the physical anatomy of the sexes, the distance from the saddle to the handlebars is less for the transport for women. The frame is made of aluminum for a lightweight bike. The design of the pedals is comfortable and allows you to move around in any shoe, even with a small heel. The steering wheel is a few centimeters narrower than the male models, and the brake lever matches the anatomy of a female palm.
Women’s bikes are divided into:
Before buying, pay attention to the weight of the bike. For models for girls, it is 9-13 kg. Heavy bicycles are difficult to lift and carry. An important factor when choosing is the presence of additional elements (baskets, shields, trunk). they add weight to the entire structure, but add functionality.
Folding models, when assembled, are compact, able to fit in a backpack or bag, and when disassembled, they become a full-fledged two-wheeled transport.
These bicycles are easy to transport in a passenger elevator and store at home as they do not take up much space compared to conventional models. Assembly and disassembly is carried out without any additional tools, you just need to fasten the lock.
Folding bikes are a good option for short people.
It is not recommended to buy cheap products from unknown companies, for several reasons: it is difficult to assemble and disassemble, heavy weight, the quality of the equipment is not up to par, the folding mechanism is not reliable, there is no way to fold the steering column, which does not make the structure compact.
- Type. road. Easy to ride, straight back, no stress on your arms.
- The base is short, so good maneuverability, which is important on city streets.
- Compactness is an important plus, it is easy to store and transport. There are bicycles that even fold the pedals and handlebars.
- Ease of construction.
- Many models come with a bag that can be used to pack a folded bike.
- Frame strength is less because there is no structural integrity.
- Disc brakes and other attachments are not included in the kit, everything is purchased if necessary additionally.
- The road performance of foldable vehicles is not excellent. Obstacles must be overcome with great care so as not to damage the connecting lock.
An electric bike is a type of lightweight electric vehicle with a low-power motor (150-1000W) that can be ridden without any effort.
There are models in which the engine becomes an auxiliary force along with the pedals, but is not the main driving element.
How many kilometers a bike will travel depends on the capacity of the batteries, the degree of their charge and the power of the electric motor. Electric vehicles can also be used like a regular bicycle, i.e. use only pedals when driving, not turning on the motor.
- Persons who are physically impaired or with disabilities can easily move and climb steep climbs.
- When the battery is discharged, you can continue to move using the pedals.
- The batteries are being charged from a household outlet.
- Compared to any other form of motor transport, the electric bike is more economical in terms of costs.
- Takes up little space in parking and storage compared to a car.
- Due to the increased weight of the bike, steering and pedaling is not easy.
- Standard models have a range of 30-50 km.
- Charging one battery takes about 3. 5 hours.
- Lead and lithium batteries last no more than three years.
Electric bike top speed
Electric bike manufacturers guarantee a top speed of 20-30 kilometers per hour.
This speed is optimal for most cyclists.
A further increase in speed is no longer rational, because more battery power is consumed. Increasing speeds equates bicycles to electric mopeds and requires a license to drive.
Those for whom the speed of 20-30 km / h is not enough, it is necessary to strengthen the attachments, install more powerful brakes, strengthen the front fork and the front wheel attachment point. It may be necessary to replace the rim and tires with more suitable ones. The choice is made in accordance with the weight and physical capabilities of the user.
The engine will increase the gyroscopic effect when cornering, which leads to additional bearing loads.
There are e-bicycles for which the permitted speed exceeds 30 km / h, which is regulated by the manufacturer. When buying a bike, it is important that the seller provides you with technical regulations (copies of the supplier’s documents), which confirms the safety of this vehicle for people and the environment.
Electric bike motor power
Electric bike motor power ranges from 150 to 1500 watts.
The higher the power of the unit, the faster it will pick up speed.
The battery of an electric bike is the most important element of the entire mechanism. The price of the bike depends on the technical characteristics of the battery.
Rechargeable batteries are of different types:
- SLA (Lead Acid). Budgetary, but for one bike you need 2. 4 pieces, each weighs 4 kg. The resource will last for about 1.5-2 years of operation, and if the battery is not used for a long time, then the charge is lost faster.
- Nickel metal hydride (NiMH). Medium price category, light weight, service life of about three years. Unlike SLA batteries, their power does not decrease over time.
- LI (lithium). There are several subcategories: with m cobalt, manganese, polymer and iron phosphate. The application is different for each type. They weigh a little, the size is small and will last about 5 years.
The operating voltage for e-bikes is 24.36.48 V. Depending on the voltage, the speed of transport also increases, but not in all cases. For more accurate calculations, the efficiency of the motor should be considered.
In addition to voltage, the main parameter of batteries is capacity. It is measured in Ah (ampere-hours). Capacity indicates the distance that a two-wheeled device on batteries can travel, that is, the amount of mileage.
For example: 4 batteries of 10A / h on an electric bike make it possible to travel 40 km (without pedaling), taking into account the geographical features of the terrain, the distance will be less, because the load on the entire mechanism increases. If you increase the capacity of the batteries, then this will not in any way affect the entire electronic system as a whole, there should be no breakdowns from this.
Mileage on one charge
Mileage depends not only on engine power, bike weight, but also on the cyclist’s weight. If the power is 250W, the weight of the transport is 24 kg, and the weight of the person is 75 kg, then 2.5 watts will fall on 1 kg of mass. At this power density, environmental conditions will greatly affect the power consumption of the battery and the distance it can travel.
To understand what the run will be on the charge in one cycle, a number of measurements were carried out with different conditions.
- When the bike moves without pedals on smooth asphalt and in calm weather, at a speed of 13 km / h, 27 thousand joules per 1 km are consumed. The distance will be 48 km.
- When driving at a speed of 25 km / h on a flat road and without wind, 40 thousand joules are consumed. Distance. 32 km.
- With uniform movement at a speed of 18 km / h and with a wind of 5 meters per second, the energy consumption is 53 thousand. The distance will be 24 km.
The following factors affect mileage:
- Road condition,
- Road relief,
- Motor type,
- The presence of wind and its direction,
- Riding style,
- Cyclist weight,
- Load weight on the trunk,
- Air temperature,
- Battery capacity.
To increase your mileage, you must follow these rules:
- Do not exceed a speed of more than 20 kilometers per hour.
- Do not brake abruptly and do not accelerate quickly.
- Maintain high tire pressure.
- The weight of the bike should be as small as possible.
- Install a larger battery.
A tandem is a bicycle that is designed for several people, most often two. The seats are arranged in such a way that people sit one after another.
A tandem, unlike a conventional bike, has its own saddle and pedals for each person. There are tandem options with two rear wheels. The frame is made of aluminum, titanium or carbon.
In most models, the front cyclist is the main one, and control is given to him, but there are designs where there is a possibility of switching the steering.
Modern models weigh less than two conventional bikes. Tandems are faster and more stable than conventional bicycles.
People with any physical fitness can ride a tandem. several people can handle any load. A two-seater bike accelerates faster than a regular bike and, accordingly, a powerful and reliable braking system is used.
Drum or hydraulic disc brakes are installed on tendems. They are able to maintain a stable speed while descending.
There are also some disadvantages:
- Tandem takes up more storage space.
- If there are obstacles behind, the seated rider is not able to notice them and prepare in time.
- Low maneuverability when cornering.
- The need for a well-coordinated ride.
Before buying, make sure the bike has good, easy-to-change brakes, a wide and comfortable handlebar, a shock absorber seat post, an adjustable rear stem and clipless pedals.
An adjustable rear stem is important because there will be an opportunity to edit the distance between riders as it suits them. It should be noted that the height of the riders is not so important. all the details can be adjusted for each.
5 types of bicycle frames. Criterion
Frame size is measured from the BB axis to the edge of the seat tube. It is calculated depending on how tall the cyclist is.
To calculate the size that suits you, we measure the inner length of the leg (the distance from the foot to the groin) and multiply by 0.59.
Bicycles are produced with a range of frame sizes. Walking tours come in three sizes, on road ten sizes.
Different manufacturers measure the height of the seat tube differently, so the same markings from different companies can be completely different. Before buying an iron horse, check all parameters.
Frames are marked with numbers or letters, on most bikes the size can be seen on the frame itself.
Maximum and minimum frame size
The bike frame comes in various sizes. The maximum frame size is 24 inches, in centimeters it is 64, the symbol is XXLlarge. It is suitable for a person’s height 195. 210 cm. Basically, such frames are intended for men.
The minimum frame size is 13 inches, in centimeters it is 33. The designation is XSmall. Suitable for a person’s height 130. 145 cm. Bicycles with small frames are designed for children and teenagers.
Basically, frames are made from alloys of various metals such as steel, aluminum, magnesium, titanium, carbon fiber to give them strength and lightness.
An important parameter of any material is stiffness. The higher the rigidity, the stronger the metal and, accordingly, the heavier.
- Aluminum. Alloys of zinc, silicon and magnesium are always added to aluminum, each has its own marking. Aluminum frames are the lightest, but have a large tube diameter. Most bike frames are made from this material. The plus is that aluminum is corrosion resistant. The service life of the aluminum frame during active driving
10 years. Butting is added to the alloy to increase strength during manufacture.
Steel. A frame made of steel is inexpensive, so steel is a very common material. Most often, chromium-molybdenum or simple alloys are used. Butting is also added to steel frames during manufacture to reduce the overall weight of the structure, but this adds value to the product. Chrome-molybdenum steel is very flexible, so when driving there is a softening of shocks and vibrations. Because of its flexibility, the steel frame has restrictions on the rider’s weight.
Beginner cyclists are advised to buy bikes with frames made of aluminum or steel, but if the budget allows, then it is worth looking at other materials (titanium or carbon fiber).
It should be noted that in addition to the metal from which the frame is made, it is necessary to pay attention to the manufacturer, who must have a good reputation and give guarantees for long-term operation.
Types and characteristics of bicycle wheels. Criterion
Wheel size is important and depends on the size of the rim and the height of the tire. Almost all bicycle wheels are measured in inches, except for road wheels, they are in millimeters. Today, wheels are produced with a diameter of 20 to 29 inches.
The diameter of the wheels depends on the type of bike:
- 20 inches fits 4.06 cm rim for kids, foldable bikes and BMX models;
- 24 inches fits 5.07 cm rim for teenage models, extreme and outdated brands, such as Salute;
- 26 inches fits a 5.59 cm rim for standard walking bikes;
- 27 ” fits 6.22cm rim on road bikes;
- 28 inches fits a 6,22 cm rim for Soviet and road bikes;
- 29 ” fits 6.22cm rim for mountain MTB.
For touring bikes, 28-inch wheels are usually chosen. the speed is constant, the roads are good, the stops are rare. For mountain models, a diameter of 26 inches is suitable, because the stops are private, the speeds are low, the roads are uneven.
The diameter of the wheel affects the bike’s flotation and speed performance. The larger the diameter, the longer the distance will be covered with less time. But more energy will be expended in order to turn the wheel. Torque is lost, more acceleration time is required.
It turns out that on 20 “wheels it will be much easier and easier to accelerate than on 28” wheels, but at the same time it will be much more difficult to maintain a sufficiently high speed.
The rim must be strong and lightweight, so the main parts of this part are made of aluminum and alloys. Aluminum is considered the most reliable material for their production.
Some bike models use steel rims, but they are heavy and not durable. The steel rim is mainly used on inexpensive models. If you are purchasing a budget bike, it is recommended to additionally purchase aluminum rims for the wheels.
Bead Cord Material
The cord is located inside the tire and is made of Kevlar fiber.
The material used, Kevlar, is highly durable. Kevlar is also used to reinforce tires.
Number of wheels
The total number of wheels on a bike most likely depends on the age of the rider. Adult models have two wheels, while bicycles for children and teenagers have two additional wheels for normal balancing. There is also a three-wheeled children’s bike.
In addition to the common two, three and four wheel designs, there are unicycle, these are unicycles. They consist of just one wheel, pedals, carriage, frame and seat. There is another modification called Ultimate, it only has a wheel and pedals.
3 types of bicycle brakes. Criterion
In the process of cycling, brakes play an important role, they are extremely necessary when descending from an incline and when driving over bumps. The brakes are rear and front.
Rear devices are classified into:
- sleeve (drum),
- rim (tick),
- disk (mechanical, hydraulic).
Each type of brake has its own characteristics, so it is very important to pay attention to this when choosing them.
Drum brake. It can now be found on single speed bikes. By the type of drive, drum brakes are divided into two types: with a foot drive and with a manual drive. Foot brake is located on the rear hub.
The advantages include: durability, strength, good power, no effect on the rim. Disadvantages: heavy load on the wheel spokes and hub, overheating when pressed for a long time, use only in single-speed bicycles.
Rim brake. Braking occurs due to the friction of the pads on the rear wheel rim, provides good power. The principle of operation of this brake can be different, despite the same type of device.
Disc brake. The most common type of brakes, the mechanism is similar to the braking system of motorcycles and cars. The design includes:
- hydraulic line,
Disc brakes are designed to perform their function smoothly. The wheel rim does not wear out.
The front brake is more effective when braking, accounting for 70 percent of the braking force. It is best not to use the front brake during steep descents or when cornering.
When braking with the front wheel, the entire mass moves forward and it is necessary to move back as much as possible so that the center of gravity moves closer to the rear wheel. Thus, braking is more efficient and traction is better.
When braking with the front brake, it is best to transfer body weight to the pedals rather than the steering wheel. The bike has two brakes, but if you learn how to correctly control the front one, then there is no need for the rear one.
In case of emergency braking, the front brake must be squeezed very strongly so that the rear wheel tries to get off the ground, in no case should the rear brake be pressed at this moment, otherwise the bike will skid.
The class of this parameter is determined depending on the use of the bike, riding style, and model. There are several classes of front and rear brakes:
For a trial, the brake must be powerful, sometimes BMX bicycles are sometimes not braked at all.
5 types of wheel drive for bicycles. Criterion
When choosing a bike, an important factor to pay attention to is the type of drive.
Drive types are classified into:
- Electric drive,
- Hydraulic drive.
Drive is a functional unit of the bicycle, with the help of which the force from the rotation of the pedals is transmitted to the wheels.
The chain drive is the most common today. When pedaling, mechanical energy is transmitted to the wheels by a chain that engages the transmission stars. One chain transmits motion to several stars.
The chains are very strong, so the load on the wheel can be quite heavy. The efficiency of the chain drive is about 95%. Installation and replacement of the chain is easy. The disadvantages include rapid wear and tear during long-term use.
Instead of a chain, a belt drive of torque is used. The system does not need to be lubricated, it does not corrode and does not make noise, unlike the chain one. To shift the gear system, special devices are used, called planetary bushings.
Instead of a chain, a shaft is used to transmit torque. This type of drive is usually called cardan, although the cardan itself is not here, a straight shaft with a transmission does all the work.
The shaft drive is easy to operate and will last a long time, because the whole mechanism is protected from dirt and dust. But to change gears, you need additional planetary bushings.
Electric bicycles are equipped with a motor that converts electricity into mechanical energy. Actually there is no drive. the motor is usually located in the wheel hub and immediately transmits torque to the wheel.
The hydraulic drive is a pump that pumps fluid and transmits torque from the carriage to the wheel. The fluid flow generated by the pressure of the pump piston is converted into mechanical energy.
The drive works silently and can be used as a hydraulic brake. This mechanism requires minimal maintenance. Torque is transmitted in both directions (forward, backward), so the drive can be installed on the front, rear or both wheels,
- Low efficiency, about 70%,
- Heavy mechanism weight,
- If the hydraulic actuator breaks, then the entire system will fail.
Speed switches: types, design, characteristics. Criterion
Inside the planetary hub there is a gear mechanism that adjusts the gear ratio changes. The gear clutch is adjusted using the speed switch located on the steering wheel of the bike.
The device of this mechanism is very complex, to some extent resembles the device of a car gearbox. The design of the planetary hub includes several elements: a sun gear, satellites, a carrier and an epicycle.
The “Sun” gear is fixed on the rear wheel axle, planetary gears (satallites) cling to it. To fix them, a carrier is used, which in turn determines the direction of rotation of the satellite and does not allow them to interlock with each other. The epicycle rotates by pedals.
Pros of using planetary hubs:
- Low sprocket wear and straight chain travel.
- Compared to cassettes, the mechanism is very durable, as it is hidden from external influences.
- The sleeve is difficult to accidentally break, so periodic maintenance is not required.
Cons of using planetary bushings:
- Very high cost, especially apart from the bike.
- Does not apply to racing bikes.
- Large weight, about a kilogram.
- Difficulty in repair, it is better to immediately purchase a new one.
Number of stars in the cassette
A cassette in a two-wheeled vehicle is a kind of pyramid, which is made up of stars of various sizes with more or less teeth.
The number of gears depends on the number of stars. There are usually 6 to 9 stars. Cassettes with different numbers of stars are suitable for different models and riding style.
Number of stars in the system
How many stars should be in the system determines the total number of gears the bike has. The total number of stars is different, it all depends on the bike model. In the pedal carriage, the stars are located from 2 to 3 and in the cassette from 5 to 10. Accordingly, the system includes from 10 to 30 stars. Each sprocket has a different number of teeth and a different diameter.
The number of stars you need to choose is how many speeds you want to have on your bike.
Number of speeds
Modern two-wheeled vehicles are equipped with a complete speed system. You can understand how many speeds a bike has by the number of stars. They can be installed not only on the cassette, but also on the rear wheel. To calculate the number of speeds, you need to multiply the number of stars in the front by the number of stars in the back. For example, on the pedals there are three stars, and on the rear wheel there are five, then you get only fifteen speeds.
In order for the gearshift system to last a long time and not break down, it is important to follow some rules. How to switch gears correctly:
- There is no need to switch when going uphill, the load on the chain increases significantly. When climbing, it is best to select the slowest speed, that is, the first on both switches.
Number of teeth
The total number of teeth on the first sprocket ranges from 15 to 68. Cycling becomes much easier when there are more teeth. The parameter depends on the total number of stars in the equipment.
- Three star system. 44:34:22 or 46:34:22 (On one star 44/46 teeth, on the other 34, on the third 22).
- Two star system. 52:42 (on the first 52, on the second 42 teeth)
Medium sprocket typically has 22 to 46 teeth.
On the third star, the sum of the teeth varies from 20 to 38.
Cassette and front derailleur level
The class of cycling cassettes is:
- Elementary. For a calm measured ride.
- Walking. For active driving.
- Professional. For professional athletes.
- Semi-professional. Close to professional, but the price and quality are lower.
- Sports. For amateur athletes.
Rear derailleur level
- Professional. It is used by professional athletes. Such a switch is quite expensive, but the quality is high. Operation without settings is designed for 5 thousand km.
- Semi-professional. It is close to professional, combines value for money.
- Sports. These switches are designed for amateur athletes.
- Walking. For lovers of bike rides. Without settings, it will last up to 3 thousand km. The switch is inexpensive, the durability is low.
- Elementary. The simplest and most inexpensive option. Adjustment is required every half a kilometer.
Shifters also have a second name, shifters. They are designed to shift gears, a long time ago they were attached to the frame, now they are installed on the steering wheel. Gears are shifted by transferring the load from the shifters to the derailleurs via a cable.
The shifter design consists of several blocks. A cable is wound / unwound on the movable block, it pulls the speed switch, then the block is fixed with a spring clip in the form of a ratchet. The movable block is moved with a handle.
The mechanism must be arranged in such a way that one click coincides with the change of one speed.
Depending on the number of gears, the shifters are divided into several types:
- With revolving handle,
- Trigger with two levers,
- Index with one lever,
- Combined with brake levers.
Which type of shifters to choose depends only on your preferences.
The carriage has strict requirements for reliability, installation and accuracy of each part, so it is important to know how it works.
The carriage has a large force and abrasive load. Force loading implies the weight of the cyclist pressing against the mechanism, and abrasive loading implies contamination of the bearings.
Structurally, the carriage is made of several parts:
- Axis. It is located inside the case and allows free rotation. At the end of the axle are the connecting rods.
- Slots. These are special attachments for connecting rods.
- Housing. Bearings are attached to it, and an axis with a cup is also inserted into the body cavity.
- A cup. Detail for fixing the device in a glass.
The carriage is attached to the frame in the place of the carriage glass. The bottom bracket is a small part of a bicycle.
There are several types of carriages, which are subdivided according to their design parameters:
- Body length.
- Axle length.
- Thread type.
- Connecting rod mounting type.
All data should be in the documentation. It is better to choose a non-integrated carriage depending on the type of front derailleur. In modern models, in addition, there is a special key.
Carriage shaft seat type
On inexpensive bicycles, the bottom bracket shaft and crank arms are combined into one piece. On older bikes, the connection is made with a key. Most modern products involve connecting the shaft with the connecting rods to a square.
The most expensive mountain and road bike models use a splined connection. This connection assumes greater rigidity than a square one, as well as the ability to use shafts of larger diameter.
Cycling carriage class is:
Bicycle saddles: features and characteristics. Criterion
Saddle frame material
The saddle frame is available in a variety of metals. Modern frames are made of steel, chrome-molybdenum, carbon fiber, vanadium or titanium alloys.
- Steel saddle frames. They are inexpensive, heavy by weight, durable, but if the weight of the cyclist is more than 90 kg or riding in a sporty style, then it is better to choose another metal.
- Carbon fiber. Very light and durable material, but it is rarely used for the saddle frame, only when it is necessary to lighten the total weight of the structure.
- Titanium saddle frames. Frames made of titanium alloys are lightweight, durable, but their cost is quite high. These frames are suitable for cross-country riding style.
- Vanadium. Vanadium alloys are durable, suitable for bikes used in extreme conditions. But this alloy is not popular.
The saddle top can be made from a variety of materials. Natural leather is considered the most comfortable and more hygienic. If the leather material is made with the right technology, the seat will take on the anatomical shapes of the cyclist, which gives additional comfort.
For strength and durability, the edges of the leather saddle are sheathed with Kevlar. It is important to note that if the weight of the rider exceeds 85 kg, a leather saddle is not recommended, it will wear out very quickly.
The budget option is an imitation leather saddle. There are also plastic seats. Gel inserts can be added to the saddle for extra softness.
Saddle with springs
Spring saddle cushions bumps and bumps. Spring suspension is not often used in modern bicycles, because such saddles are used only in older models of bikes. it is only suitable for slow walks through the city streets. In addition, spring saddles can rock the bike a lot when cornering.
Experienced cyclists do not need softened saddles at all, as their own legs serve as shock absorbers. On irregularities, while riding, the legs bend at the knees, and the pelvis at this time rises without touching the saddle. But with prolonged loads, the legs get tired, additional suspension for softening is sometimes still necessary.
Mountain bikes are fitted with bulky and wide tires and shock absorbers for added comfort, enough to cushion the impact.
Pass-through slots in the saddle of the bike are provided for additional ventilation and for comfort. But it is convenient for everyone to move around on such seats, for each person the concept of comfort is different and the slots in the saddle are not comfortable for everyone. It is recommended that before buying a two-wheeled vehicle, test several seat options to understand which one is right for you.
6 types of bicycle handlebars. Criterion
Bicycle handlebars are designed differently, each type of two-wheeled unit needs a different shape.
- Mountain steering wheel. This is an off-road option. At the helm, only one hand position is possible, but if you additionally attach the horns, then two positions will already be available. These handlebars are not suitable for road bikes.
- Vertical rudder. It is installed mainly on hybrids. The vertical rudder has two hand positions.
- Ram’s horns. In appearance, it resembles a ram’s horns, from this and such a name. Installed on road and touring bikes. Hands can be held in four positions.
- Butterfly. The shape resembles a butterfly. Have four hand positions.
- Mustache. Similar to a butterfly wheel, has three hand positions.
- Cowhorn. For racing or cycling purposes only, has three hand positions.
The most popular are aluminum.
The stem of a bicycle handlebar is adjustable and non-adjustable. The adjustable stem is only used on mountain bikes, which is especially important for beginners.
At first, a non-vertical landing is usually unusual, so with the help of an adjustable stem, you can gradually lower the level until it becomes comfortable to ride. In other cases, steering wheel adjustment is not important, and moreover, it is even dangerous, especially with extreme and high-speed driving.
Adjustable handlebar lift
The angle of inclination of the handlebars affects the tension of the muscles of the arms and the general condition of the cyclist. Handlebar adjustment is necessary in various cases.
The steering wheel is raised during tourist arrivals. This parameter is configured individually for each riding style. Saddle level is zero position.
A sharp angle stem helps raise the handlebars. On BMX bikes, the handlebars are high, as the height of the grip point is increased by the steering tube. Before you start adjusting the steering wheel lift, you need to pay attention to the type of column.
Bicycle forks: types, design and characteristics. Criterion
The fork is a part of the steering system, provides steering and is responsible for securing the front wheel. The front and rear forks are not very different from each other. Front provides reliable fastening of the main structural parts.
The fork rod passes through the steering column, to which the steering wheel is attached.
The type of fork is chosen depending on the model of the bike. The suspension fork allows you to ride more comfortably than a stiff one.
The structure of the suspension fork is more complex than that of a rigid one, but knowing all the functions of individual elements and the parameters of each part, it will not be difficult to service a two-wheeled vehicle.
According to the principle of the damping mechanism and the differences in the design features, the forks can be divided into several types:
- Aerial forks,
- Forks with springs,
- Elastomeric spring devices,
- Rigid forks,
- Spring oil models of forks,
- Air-oil varieties.
The first three types are able to soften hard blows during sharp descents, but jumps when hitting small stones cannot be removed. The fork with great stiffness allows the bike to reach good speed on level ground. The last two types allow you to soften small jumps when driving over small bumps on the road.
A pressure pump is required to adjust fork stiffness.
There are some peculiarities in the design of the plug, therefore there are several types:
- Regular (or one-sided). Use on bikes for hiking, light rides on rough terrain, riding on forest paths or for speed racing.
- Double-crown. These forks are used in high-speed models for off-road racing, descents from mountains.
- One-horned. One-legged forks are able to hold the axle only on one side, which is convenient when replacing the camera in case of a breakdown, you do not need to remove the wheel.
- Inverted. Inverted forks are used on bikes designed for high jumping.
The external device of the plug consists of several connected elements:
- Stock. The stem is the main axis connected to the crown. The stem is made of steel, carbon or aluminum. This part is needed to install the fork on the frame.
- Crown. The stem and fork are attached to it. Crowns are usually made of aluminum or carbon alloy.
- Leg. The moveable element is a hollow tube that rigidly holds the front wheel. Inside the leg there are springs, a spring blocker and a shock absorption blocker. Zero stroke forks have legs called feathers.
The internal structure of the fork is a rather complex structure, consisting of certain parts.
Anthers. Neoprene forks are installed on some varieties of high-end forks, rubber boots made in the shape of an accordion are installed on cheaper forks.
Springs. Springs are needed to soften the rebound when hitting a bump. In spring forks, coil springs are made of steel or titanium alloy. Air-oil forks use compressed air instead of springs.
Additional air chambers are used in expensive springs.
Guides. They are bushings with thin walls, made of plastic. Guides are installed inside the pants of the fork. Fastening is done using fixing elements.
Hardness regulator. It is a bolt installed inside a nut. The bolt compresses the spring inside the fork. The regulator is quite simple: inside the nut there is a threaded rod on the outside. The action in the form of rotation is transmitted from the handle to the axis, then it is converted into a linear movement of the axis.
Depreciation blocker. Designed to lock the shock absorption in the fork. With one push of the lever, the fork becomes rigid. The lever is located either directly on the fork or on the handlebars, remotely brought out via a connecting cable. On inexpensive models, instead of a blocker, plugs are installed.
The blocker mechanism itself is structured as follows. The part consists of two parts, an upper and a lower limiter. When the lever is switched, the upper limiter flips over, in this position the lower limiter rod blocks the entry into the hole of the upper limiter, it turns out that the fork is jammed.
Oil seals. Designed to keep dust and dirt out of the fork to help keep lubricant in good condition for extended periods.
Damper. In a shock-absorbing fork, this part is necessary in order to slow down its rebound after squeezing the spring. Typically, fork bounce loses traction. The damper dampens sudden bounces. It should be noted that there is no such device in spring forks and in air models, only friction from the legs and oil seals slightly reduces the spring rebound energy.
In spring-elastomeric forks, a damper is used, which is a piece of flexible plastic inserted into the spring. When the spring is compressed, the plastic expands, and when the spring rebounds, it slows down. To prevent the plastic from bursting from the action of a rigid spring, it is lubricated abundantly and regularly with grease.
In spring-oil and air-oil, oil is used as a damper. When the fork moves down, oil seeps through the valve; when it moves back up, the oil slowly flows through the small holes. Oil dampers come in open bath, half bath and closed bath.
Do not forget that during long-term operation, the parts wear out, and therefore it is necessary to regularly lubricate the plug, but at least once a year.
A double-crown fork is more reliable in design than a single-crown fork, since it is attached to the pipe in two places. Soft fork withstands heavy loads, such as descending from a mountain at high speed.
Soft fork level
The class of a suspension fork depends on many characteristics, construction and materials used. There are 4 levels:
- The entry-level fork assumes the most basic forks, usually with a travel of 0.6 cm.Spring forks are usually not adjustable and become soft or stiff over time.
- The walking level implies a stroke of more than 0.6 cm. There is a hardness adjustment. Ride more comfortably with this fork than with entry-class forks.
- The sports level is intended for amateur athletes, they serve several seasons.
- Professional level fork suitable for true professionals who love aggressive driving.
For turtle, the travel of the fork cannot be more than 10 cm.For downhill, the travel is selected from 18 cm.For cross-country, the travel needs about 8. 10 cm.For freeriding. from 15 to 18 cm. For trial 0 cm, the fork is rigid.
Adjusting the length of the fork
Changing the dimensions of the fork (Extension Control) means smooth or irregular changes in the fork travel.
For correct adjustment, put the bike on its side, measure the distance between the boot and the bottom point of the fork. Then lift the bike to its normal position, push the front fork several times and measure the result again.
If the indicator is less, then you need to reduce the preload, if more, then increase it. To do this correctly, you need to read the instruction manual of the bike.
Fork spring stiffness adjustment
The spring rate can be determined by measuring the dynamic deflection. It is measured as a percentage of the full stroke. If the dynamic deflection is less than 1 cm, then the springs must be replaced with softer ones, and if the indicator is more than 1 cm, then with hard ones.
There are several settings for the stiffness of the forks:
- Preload (negative stroke). responsible for the stiffness of the spring. Usually does not exceed 10% of the stroke. It is configured once for the weight of a specific user. Adjustments are only required when changing the riding style from soft to harder.
- Rebound. the setting responsible for the rebound, which is important when changing the road surface. For a flat, asphalt road, minimal rebound is required to reduce pedaling energy consumption. For rough, rough road, the settings are unscrewed so that the fork can operate at full strength. There are complicated models of surebets that change the bounce rate by themselves.
- Compression. settings for the compression speed of the fork. Adjusts the time the fork is compressed by external shock. Compression can be high-speed and low-speed.
- Extension control. regulates the stroke with the possibility of blocking. In modern devices, the setting is able to memorize positions and independently adjust the speed and travel of the fork.
- LockOut. a rare setting that completely locks the fork in one position.
- Positive sprin (compression spring). The spring adjustment is located at the top of the fork leg. In air forks, adjustment is made by changing the air pressure in the chamber.
- Negative spring. Indicates the original parameters of the fork.
4 types of bicycle steering columns. Criterion
The steering column is the mechanism by which the direction of movement of the bike is controlled. The steering gear consists of several elements:
- Steering wheel. This is a hand grip. The simplest option is a straight tube, but modern rudders are more complex.
- Removal. A short tube attached to the handlebar has two bolts for the head tube and handlebar.
- Steering tube. The device that connects the fork and the handlebar (otherwise, this is the stem).
- Steering column. A device with two cups and two bearings. The steering column allows the tube to rotate easily in the head tube. There is an anchor at the top of the pipe.
- Head tube. A short tube, located on a frame with internal chamfers, cups and bearings are inserted into the glass.
Which steering column is right for you, you can only understand by trying to ride different types. It is also important to know what riding style you will be using.
Steering column design
This part of the bike should provide high reliability of fastening and ease of rotation of the fork and stem. There are several types of steering columns.
- Threaded. The most common headset, used primarily on cruising models. The fork is held in place by an internal thread and a nut in the top cup. Cups are pressed inside the frame on both sides, bearings with a washer are placed on them. The plug is inside the assembly. The threaded steering column is not very reliable and difficult to configure, but it is not expensive, it weighs a little, and is unpretentious in operation.
- Threadless. This column is used primarily on bikes with an aluminum frame. In this case, the fork is fixed not due to the thread, since it is not here, but due to the fork spacer, which is pressed into the stem. The threadless steering column consists of cups pressed into the head tube. The bearing is installed in the column and closed with a ring. The pipe is fixed after the rings are installed and removed.
- Semi-integrated. Used in models with a frame made of aluminum or carbon. The bearings and the cup are placed in the inner part of the pipe, the boot is located on the outside. Fastening is carried out according to the principle of threadless columns.
If a backlash appears in the column, you can fix it yourself. Knowing the structure of the column, it is not difficult to do this, it is important to follow some recommendations:
- The stem bolts are released using a special tool.
- The bolt is tightened, which is located on the cover.
- Then the steering wheel bolts are tightened.
- Check for backlash.
- If everything is correctly adjusted, then the steering wheel should rotate freely without much effort.
The design of the steering column is selected depending on the driving style.
Steering column size
This part of the bike is a device consisting of several parts: an anchor, two cups, two bearings and spacer rings.
There are 4 sizes of steering columns:
- 1 inch, for threaded speakers
- 1 1/8 ”, for A-Head steering columns,
- 1 1/4 inch,
- 1.5 inch.
Bicycle Shock Absorbers: Properties and Performance. Criterion 0
The main shock absorption when cycling is the legs. However, it is not always possible to smooth out irregularities in the road in this way; a whole shock-absorbing system comes to the rescue.
In addition to the shock absorbing seat post, the springs are applied to the saddle. Mountain bikes are supplied with bulky and wide tires that absorb shock and minor bumps best for a comfortable ride.
There are three types of bicycles:
- Rigid. no shock absorption,
- Hard Trail. with suspension fork,
- Full Suspension. with shock absorber and suspension on the rear wheel.
Shock absorbing seat post
A cushion pin located under the seat provides an additional cushioning function.
Structurally, shock-absorbing pins are divided into two groups:
- Telescopic. It is inexpensive but wears out quickly. Short service life due to strong friction, the direction of compression of the pin does not coincide with the direction of impacts from below.
- Lever. It is also called a parallelogram seatpost. Parallelogram construction provides cushioning with elastomer. When pushing, the saddle tilts back. The part has increased reliability, but the hinges are subject to high wear and tear and are highly contaminated, frequent diagnostics are required. Lever seatpost costs significantly more than telescopic seatpost.
The cushioning seatpost is chosen according to several parameters.
Rear shock absorber travel lock
Reverse lock offers the ability to lock the shock absorber. Locking the shock at the rear transforms the bike from two-suspension to Hard Trail. Such actions are taken mainly during slow descents from the mountain. But not every shock absorber is equipped with this function, it is an additional option that is installed on more expensive models of two-wheeled vehicles.
Fork travel lock (front shock absorber)
Fork travel blocker. a mechanism that blocks the front fork making it rigid (installed on bicycles with front shock absorbers), the fork must be blocked when driving on a flat road, during high-speed acceleration or when entering a mountain.
If the fork is not locked, the pressure applied to the pedals will be partially transferred to the front shock absorber, thereby reducing the efficiency. First of all, such a device is needed by racers.
The travel lock is mainly equipped on expensive bicycle models. Difference in design: the fork is locked using a lever located on the handlebar (optional) or directly on the fork itself.
Adjusting the spring rate of the rear shock absorber
Setting the spring stiffness assumes the concept of seg.
Measured as a percentage, typically 30% of the entire stroke. To measure the seg, you must first measure the length of the rod without the cyclist, and then with it, you get the difference, which is the amount of compression of the spring.
If the indicator is more than 30%, then the spring is set softer, if less, then harder. A spring that is too stiff will shock the pedals, a spring that is too soft will cause the shock absorber to break through, and the wheels will fail on every bump.
It is important to find the middle, that is, to reach 30%. Sega is set using a special ring that presses the spring.
Changing the length of the shock absorbing device located at the back is carried out by changing the stiffness of the spring, for this, special tools are used.
Rear Shock Reverse Speed Adjustment
Setting this parameter assumes rebound damping after the rear shock is compressed. When setting up a fast rebound, the throttle must be turned counterclockwise, this will allow the suspension to swing, which, with a strong impact, can throw the cyclist out of the saddle.
If you need to adjust the slow speed, you need to turn it clockwise, but the shock absorber will not work normally on uneven road surfaces. Correct setting assumes something between fast and slow rebound.
There are no clear recommendations, since the operation of the shock absorber depends entirely on the suspension option and on the rider’s weight.
Rear shock absorber compression speed adjustment
Adjustment at the start of the stroke. Adjustment is made counterclockwise, the softness increases, but the activity of the shock absorber decreases.
In downhills this setting is best promoted. On XC bikes, the suspension is adjusted first, then the compression rate of the shock is adjusted. For biker cross, the setting is twisted all the way. No effort is required when turning the knob, it should turn easily.
End-of-travel compression adjustment. You need to start with the minimum setting, by turning it counterclockwise until it stops, until the chamber volume is filled with air. If left in this position, the suspension will provide softness.
If you turn clockwise, then this setting is suitable for those who like jumping from high heights.
Bicycle pedals: types and features. Criterion 1
The pedals on a two-wheeled unit are just as important as other major parts of the entire mechanism. A large load is obtained on the pedals, the torque presses and the weight of the cyclist’s body. Pedals must withstand all shock loads, therefore, they are designed in such a way that their strength is at a height.
Manufacturers offer a lot of types of pedals, the choice is quite large, but most bicycles, as a rule, are already equipped with pedals. The types of pedals are as follows:
- Walking or ordinary.
- With additional fixation of the feet, special spikes are provided in the design.
- With additional fixation by means of a special fastening in the form of straps.
- Contact, with a fixation device and shoes included.
The design of the pedals consists of several connected parts. The axle is the base, it is screwed into the connecting rod. The platform revolves around the axis. For easy rotation, bearings are provided.
The axis of one pedal has one thread direction, and the other, respectively, another.
The types of pedals are different, there are models with a platform equipped with removable spikes, there are models with light reflectors, and there are also pedal platforms with toeclip attachment points. Folding bikes can be equipped with folding pedals.
The pedal axis is made of metal, the platform can be made of rubberized tubes or metal plates. Modern, inexpensive pedal options can be found in plastic. Aluminum options will be stronger.
Toe clips are made of plastic or metal, the strap is made of nylon or leather. Contact pedals are usually made of aluminum, have a chrome-molybdenum axis, a metal contact mechanism and sealed bearings.
10 types of bicycle accessories. Criterion 2
The call is necessary so that the cyclist is paid attention on the road while driving. On inexpensive models of two-wheeled vehicles, the bell is set intentionally, and on sports bikes they are very rare.
In fact, a call is not necessary, in any situation you can always find a way to attract attention.
There are a lot of types of signaling devices, manufacturers offer them for every taste.
- Mechanical. It is very popular as it is very easy to use. This is the bell for inexpensive bicycles. The sound is pretty recognizable. The mechanism itself is in a metal case, the sound is produced when the tongue hits the case. There are models with a built-in compass.
You need to choose a bell depending on your riding style. For those who like to ride on the highway, it is better to purchase a pneumatic bell, for those who like city walks, a mechanical option will be suitable, in other cases. an electronic signal.
The mudguards provide the wheels with protection from adverse weather conditions. Also, the fenders protect the cyclist from splashing from the wheels while driving.
On outdated models, the wings were made of metal, today they are all made of lightweight plastic, which lightens the weight of the entire structure.
The wings can be divided into two types that are popular:
- Stationary. Installed initially, have a long shape, cover the entire wheel from above.
- Quick release. Lightweight, short, quick and easy to remove. They also include shields attached to the frame at the front wheel.
Fenders on a bike are not always the right option. You may have to buy them separately and install them yourself, which will not be difficult. Fenders are needed not only for the rear wheel, since splashes and dirt can fly from under any wheel. purchase a set immediately.
It is important to choose the right wings for your iron horse. It is necessary to pay attention to such parameters as: ergonomics, functionality and suitability for the vehicle. Some models may not fit your bike, touch the wheel, which will not allow you to ride normally.
In most cases, when buying a bike, the pump is included and attached to the frame. There are many types of pumps: compact, high-grade, pneumatic, high pressure pumps and others.
Before buying, you need to familiarize yourself with all the characteristics of this device, tk. each type has its own disadvantages and advantages. Before choosing a bicycle pump, pay attention to some criteria:
- What is the quality of the material from which the pump is made.
- Reliability of construction, resistance to wear during use.
- The cost.
- How convenient the pump will be to operate.
- How compact is the bicycle accessory, can it be carried with you, if necessary.
- Productivity, given out the maximum number of atmospheres.
- Handle type, T-shaped is much more comfortable.
Inflation is slow, there is no hose, the pressure gauge is made of plastic. But you can always take it with you and use it for its intended purpose at any time.
Stationary devices are much more reliable, give out more pressure, but you cannot take such a pump with you on the road. They can quickly inflate the wheel, as a rule, they are equipped with a long hose.
Pneumatic pumps are equipped with gas cartridges, so there is no need to pump manually, everything happens automatically. The main disadvantage is the high cost, one cylinder is usually enough for two wheels. For cyclists, pneumatic pumps will save a lot of time.
However, specialized drifts will do their job much better.
Which pump is better cannot be determined. It is most correct to have everything, carry one with you in case of emergency, and let the other stand in the garage.
Biking is an active sport or recreation, so there is a risk of injury. To protect yourself and your iron horse, a chain damper is installed on the bike.
Today, there are two types of pacifiers: rocking and roller pacifiers.
- Rocking. Detail of the star’s power protection against impacts on various obstacles. The rocking device is a circle slightly larger than the largest star. This accessory is made of metal or plastic.
- Roller damper. Part that allows the chain to be held in position. The damper prevents the chain from slipping off the stars in any extreme conditions.
Another type of protection is a frame structure. A special frame holds the chain in place, prevents it from flying off.
The mounting standards for dampers are as follows:
- Frame mounting with bolts. Distance between fixings 47 mm
- ISCG 05. Distance between fixings 55 mm.
- BB. carriage mount.
Protective pad on the steering wheel
The pads are made of foam rubber, they are a soft tube that is placed on the rudder bar. It not only prevents hard bumps on the steering wheel when overcoming difficult sections of the path, but can also prevent an emergency.
Protective pads are also made luminous, while they illuminate the road and the cyclist becomes clearly visible even in the dark. The illuminated steering wheel pad is a flexible tube with holes in which small LED flashlights are inserted.
But the main purpose of the handlebar pad is to cushion chest impacts on the steering bar. The pad is not needed for all cyclists, if the riding style is not extreme, then this additional protection is not necessary.
A roof rack is necessary for transporting small-sized cargo; some cyclists install a child bicycle seat on the trunk. Bicycle racks are limited in weight, please note before buying what you will transport.
Materials used in the manufacture of roof racks:
- Steel. capable of supporting up to 25 kg. (depends on the manufacturer and the brand of the trunk).
- Aluminum. for carrying small loads up to 15 kg.
- Titanium. lifting capacity up to 35 kg.
There are several types of bike rack attachments depending on the size of the wheels. The cantilever view attaches directly to the seatpost. The width of the bottom mounts is different for all models.
In addition to roof racks, straps or springs are commonly available for securing cargo. Instead of trunks in some models, baskets for groceries are installed.
The gel inserts in the saddle are designed for a more comfortable ride. Usually these inserts are used in saddles made of unnatural materials.
Also, it does not depend on how soft you sit, on your weight, the ischial bones will be in contact with the saddle in exactly the same way for both thin people and obese people.
It seems that the gel inserts will solve the problem of stiffness, but this is not entirely true, all the load goes to the pelvis, and after an hour of soft driving, the comfort will disappear. In addition, the soft seat sways during sharp turns.
Two-wheeled vehicles with gel inserts in the seat are suitable only for those people who rarely and for a short time ride a bicycle. There are, of course, special gel saddles on which you can overcome long distances and for a long time, but the cost of those is very high, and will not suit beginners.
When riding on a hard saddle, there is an alternative to softening. these are special shorts for cyclists, and they are excellent at absorbing sweat.
When buying a two-wheeled friend, pay attention to the quality of the rims, the better they are, the longer the bike will ride without problems. A bad rim affects the appearance of the “eight”.
Most bicycles are equipped with box rims with high sides and some indentation for installing the tire. For road bikes, rims with low sides are used, then the tire is glued.
The single-wall rim profile is used only in cheap models, mainly modern bicycles use a double rim, which gives it more strength and durability. The double-walled rim design has horizontal bridges that affect the rigidity of the rim. There are also three-walled rims, but this is rare.
The electrical equipment of a bicycle is headlights and flashlights. But sometimes in addition there are brake lights, turn signals and decorative lighting. The source of energy is a generator, accumulator or batteries.
Generators are used on road bikes, while mountain models use batteries. The generator works only when the two-wheeled vehicle is moving, and the higher the speed, the more energy it generates. Batteries can be internal or external.
The most common headlights are those with internal batteries and handlebar mounts. They can also be used separately from the bike. The only drawback of such headlights is that the emitted light is not formed in the form of a trapezoid, but a round spot is obtained.
The cost of lamps can be completely different, it all depends on the design, material, manufacturer, etc.
Battery powered headlights shine brighter and last longer, but the outboard battery takes up extra space on the bike, attaches to a bottle cage or fits in a bag attached to the frame.
LED headlights are gaining popularity. They are economical, so headlights with halogen lamps and incandescent lamps are practically not used anymore.
The rear and front side lights are powered by an AAA battery. The operating time of LEDs with such a power supply reaches 100 hours. Flashlights can work in two modes, in flashing or continuous.
The dimensions are designed to improve human safety when driving in the dark. Conventional reflectors are not as bright as headlights. The front clearance is not necessary to install, it is needed when there is no headlight.
To choose the right battery type, you need to know the technical specifications of the bike itself. Basically, batteries come with the bike, but batteries can be purchased separately from a trusted manufacturer with the required parameters.
It is important to test the battery for performance before purchasing. There is another option, to assemble the battery yourself, but here you need to know all the subtleties of the principle of operation of batteries.
- Lead acid. The cheapest batteries are unpretentious in operation, safe, work well in cold weather. The only drawback is that the weight is very large, and this greatly overloads the bike and it becomes more difficult to control and maneuver. If you install smaller batteries, this will not give the best result, a quick discharge will not allow you to travel normally, you will have to replace the batteries three times more often. It is best to buy a battery of the capacity recommended by electrical equipment manufacturers.
- Lithium polymer. They weigh a little, have a large recoil current, and are inexpensive. Such alloys are used in the manufacture of batteries for cell phones and laptops.
Depending on the technical characteristics of the bike, choose the type of battery.
When buying a battery for an electric bike, it is important to pay attention to the main characteristics, which mainly determine the performance.
For two-wheeled units, batteries with a nominal voltage of 24 Volts are mainly produced, current sources are two-battery. The three-battery power supply provides a voltage of 36 volts, such batteries are used in more expensive models of bicycles. There are also 48-volt four-battery sources, but they are very rare. From this it can be seen that the maximum possible speed of the bike depends on the number of power nodes.
How to choose a bike
Bicycles come in different weights depending on their purpose. Weight varies from 4.5 kg to 84 kg, excluding additional equipment (electrical equipment, sediment, trunk, etc.). When choosing a two-wheeled car, weight does not always play a decisive role, it is important to first decide what you need it for.
- MTV bike. Its second name is mountain bike. Such models are designed for mountain trips, for dynamic and sporty people. Unit weight is about 17. 20 kg. The body is often made of carbon fiber or other lightweight materials, the weight is given by heavy wheels.
- Road racing. Weight approx. 8 kg, very light, therefore quickly pick up speed, suitable for long journeys.
- Touring. It is a combination of road and sports bikes.
For the convenience of riding, it is necessary to choose the right bike according to the rider’s height. First of all, you should know your exact height, and then study the size grid of the manufacturer you chose. Most branded brands have their own size grids, but if this information is not provided, you should use the universal size chart.
|The size||Centimeters / Inches||Growth|
|XS. XSmall (very small)||35.4 / 14 ″||135-155|
|S. Small (small)||40.6 / 16 ″||150-165|
|M. Medium (medium)||45.7 / 18 ″||165-178|
|L. Large (above average)||50.8 / 20 ″||175-185|
|XL. Xtra Large (large)||55.8 / 22 ″||185-195|
|XXL (extra large)||60.8 / 24 ″||190-210 and more|
You can also use the formula to calculate the required height:
R = DK / 2.54
- R. size in inches
- D. leg length
- K. coefficients: for road. 0.66, for mountain. 0.56
There are many riding styles, some of them, the most popular, are described below.
Cross country. This driving style involves racing over fields, forests, slopes and short climbs. Cross-country is preferred by most cyclists, with minimal injuries.
Wheel diameters should be between 26 and 29 inches. Or else, two-suspension, short-travel light bikes will do.
Road riding style. Cycling involves racing on hard surfaces. For this riding style, light bikes are used, which usually have three stars in the front and ten in the back. The wheels have as few spokes as possible. The steering wheel should be narrow. Road bikes reach speeds of up to 90 km / h, and sometimes even higher.
Freeride. This riding style is subdivided into several more subgroups: North Shore, Dropping, Classic and others. Classic involves overcoming difficult sections of the track (from natural and unnatural surfaces), with jumps, steep descents, and movement along narrow paths.
North Shore involves riding on special structures, logs, narrow stage and swing. And serious jumping from great heights on bicycles is dropping. The strength of the bike is important here, so it has a lot of weight. From this driving style, users get a lot of impressions and a sea of emotions, not always such a hobby just for the sake of a better result.
Downhill. It involves descent at high speed on natural or artificial turf. It can be stones, special trampolines, tree roots sticking out of the ground. A downhill bike looks very similar to a freeride bike. It has a powerful braking system, a solid frame, a short stem, a wide handlebar, large tires, a suspension of about 2 cm.
The only difference is in some geometry of the frame, the angle of inclination of the cooler column is reduced, and the center of gravity is lowered, which makes it possible not to tip forward when leaving the mountain. Downhill bikes weigh about 11 kg, but professionals can easily cope with such difficult machines.
Enduro, All Mountain and Trail. They represent a cross between freeride and cross-country, sharp descents, high climbs and virtuoso jumps. These three styles are similar to each other, but there are some differences.
Enduro involves endurance and time trial racing, a style of riding that comes from motorcycling. All mountain and trail represents riding more for fun, rivalry does not matter here.
The rear shock and fork must be locked to prevent the suspension from swinging on descents. Telescopic seat posts are used to raise the seat on the slopes.
For biker cross, a hard trail with wide tires, a long frame and a light fork with 1 cm travel is great.Also use two-suspension mid-travel or short-travel bicycles.
Dirt jumping or dirt is jumping on trampolines from the ground, sometimes with performing additional tricks in the form of flips and steering. A jump represents a departure and a landing. Dirt jumping bikes are used with 26 ” wheels, single speed and 1 cm travel fork.
The brakes are usually removed from the bikes so tricks can be done easily.
Straight. This style is suitable for city travel. Driving on asphalt, obstacles only in the form of stairs, curbs and fences. Externally, the bike looks like a turtle bike, but it has a shorter frame, which allows it to balance perfectly on the rear wheel when surfing. Forks are most often used chrome-molybdenum, for greater rigidity. Wheels fit 24 and 26 inches.
Trial. Driving style with overcoming various obstacles such as logs, boards, stones, parapets. It is important to be able to balance not only on two wheels, but also on one. The trial unit does not have a seat, it also has a rigid fork and a light frame.
Only one speed is needed, but powerful brakes are needed. Long stem with forward center of gravity for easy rear wheel balance.
Rating of manufacturers and models of bicycles
Mountain bike’s patented shock absorber technology is called “brain”. Shock absorbers self-adjust and gain rigidity on a flat track, while shock absorption is activated on bumps.
- CRAVE COMP 29. Year of issue. 2015. Type: mining professional.
- Fatboy SE. Year of release. 2016. Type: mountain.
- Jett Sport Year of manufacture. 2016. Type: female.
- Jynx Elite 650B. Year of release. 2016. Type: female.
- Hotrock 12 Coaster Boys. Year of release. 2016. Type: children from 1.5 to 3 years.
- HOTROCK 20 COASTER GIRLS. Year of release. 2015. Type: children’s bicycle from 5 to 9 years.
- Diverge Elite DSW Cen. Year of release. 2016. Type: road.
- Diverge Elite DSW Cen. Year of release. 2016. Type: road.
- Crosstrail Elite Disc. Year of release. 2016. Type: urban cross.
- Sirrus Sport Disc. Year of release. 2016. Type: city fitness bike
- Turbo S. Year of manufacture. 2014. Type: electric bike
The company was founded in 1972. Affordable combined with superior product quality have made GIANT the world’s leading bicycle manufacturer. The latest technology from Compact Road Design has pioneered road cycling, and the Maestro Suspension has raised the bar for mountain biking to new heights.
- Revel 29ER 0. 2015. Type: mountain semi-professional.
- XTC 1. 2013. Type: mining professional.
- Enchant 1. 2015. Type: women’s sports.
- Simple Single W. 2015. Type: female comfortable.
- Jr Animator F / W. 2014. Type: children from 1.5 to 3 years.
- Bella 20. 2016. Type: children from 5 to 9 years.
- – 2015. Type: Folding economy.
- Expressway 1. 2014. Type: foldable premium.
- Method 02. 2015. Type: Extreme BMX.
- FastRoad CoMax. 2016. Type: road cyclocross.
- TCR Advanced Pro 1. 2016. Type: road.
- Rapid 3 triple. Type: urban fitness.
- Seek 2. Type: urban cross.
- Giant Roam XR Hybrid. 2013. Type: electric bike.
Trek is one of the leaders in bicycle manufacturing and design. The company was founded in 1976 and has gained popularity thanks to its unique technologies. From city bikes to extreme bikes, all Trek models are characterized by well thought-out construction, moderate weight, reasonable price and high quality. The company gives a lifetime warranty for its frames.
- Trek 29 Mamba. 2013. Type: Mountain.
- Lexa SL. 2015. Type: Women’s sports.
- Trek 7.5 FX WSD. 2015. Type: Women’s comfortable.
- Trek Trikester. Type: Children’s tricycle.
- Precaliber 20 SS Girls. Type: Child from 5 to 9 years old.
- Trek 7200. Type: Foldable premium.
- Ticket Exchange. 2012. Type: Extreme Street / Dirt.
- Ticket Signature. 2011. Type: Extreme Street / Dirt.
- Trek 1.5.– 2015. Type: Road.
- Trek 1.2. 2016. Type: Road.
- Trek 7.6 FX.– 2014. Type: Urban Fitness.
- Verve 4. 2014. Type: Urban cross.
- XM700.– 2016. Type: Electric bike.
Merida is a world famous manufacturer from Taiwan. The range of the company allows you to choose a bike model for any budget, riding style, personal preferences and experience. Quality, thoughtful designs and the latest technology have allowed the company to win the recognition of professional racers on all continents.
- NINE SUPERLITE TEAM-D. 2013. Type: Mining professional.
- NINE 40-MD. 2015. Type: Mountain amateur.
- Merida CROSSWAY 20-MD LADY. Type: Women’s sports.
- Crossway urban 100-lady. Type: Women’s comfortable.
- Dino 20. Type: Child from 5 to 9 years old.
- Spider 16. Type: Child from 3 to 5 years.
- MATTS J24 SUS. Type: Teenage for boys (9-12 years old).
- My HFS 400-9. Type: Foldable premium.
- NINETY-NINE 9. TEAM. 2015. Type: Two-suspension professional.
- HARDY 6 300. 2015. Type: Extreme Street / Dirt.
- Brad 5. 2014. Type: Extreme BMX.
- REACTO TEAM-E. 2015. Type: Road.
- Speeder 3000. 2016. Type: Road.
- Crossway 100. 2016. Type: Urban cross.
- Speeder T5. 2014. Type: Urban fitness.
The American company Scott started with the production of alpine skis and accessories for them. But already in 1986 they released the first line of bicycles with aerodynamic handlebars. The highest quality and environmentally friendly materials are used in production. Professional athletes have won numerous Olympic gold medals on Scott bikes.
- Aspect 730. 2015. Type: Mountain amateur.
- Scale 970. 2016. Type: Mining professional.
- Contessa 740. 2016. Type: Women’s sports.
- Sub Evo 20 Lady. 2016. Type: Women’s comfortable.
- Contessa JR 16. 2016. Type: Child from 3 to 5 years.
- Scale JR 20. 2016. Type: Child from 5 to 9 years old.
- Voltage Junior. 2016. Type: Teenage.
- Spark 960. 2016. Type: Two-suspension.
- Voltage FR 720. 2016. Type: Two-suspension.
- Voltage YZ 20. 2016. Type: Extreme Street / Dirt.
- Voltage YZ 0.1. 2015. Type: Stunt.
- Speedster 60. 2016. Type: Road.
- Solace 30 FB Disc. 2016. Cyclocross.
- Sub Speed 20. 2016. Type: Urban Fitness.
- Sub Evo 20 (2016). 2016. Type: City cross.
There is also a number of manufacturers that have proven themselves in the bicycle transport market:
- Cube (Germany),
- Cannondale (USA),
- GT (USA),
- Ghost (Germany),
- Norco (USA),
- Author (Czech Republic),
- Bianchi (Italy),
- Schwinn (USA),
- Bergamont (Germany),
- PRIDE (Ukraine),
- Orbea (Spain),
- Kellys (Slovakia),
- Comanche (Ukraine).
Fat Bike: Pros and Cons of a Fat Bike
Fatbike (English fatbike). a bicycle with thick wheels, the name literally translates as “fat bike”. It is a mountain bike with wide wheels for off-road riding in winter and summer. The idea for the bicycle belongs to Mark Grunwald, who lives in Alaska. You can ride a fat bike at any time of the year. It rolls both on flat asphalt and off-road: snow, sand, mud and stones.
Source: Photo by form PxHere
Bike with wide wheels: design and features of a fat bike
A fat bike can be easily distinguished from a regular bike by its large wide wheels, similar to motorcycle ones. Tire widths 3.5-5 inches (standard mountain bike up to 2.5 inches), rim widths 65-100 mm. The pressure in the fatbike chamber is in the range of 0.5-2 atm. Depending on the road surface, the pressure in the chamber must be reduced or increased. Wide wheels with low pressure create good shock absorption and go off-road. If you increase the pressure, it will be convenient to ride on the highway. Pressure needs to be experimented with, because very high or very low pressure will cause the bike to jump and reduce handling.
Depending on the size of the model, the weight of the fat bike can be from 10 to 20 kg. Fatbikes can withstand a load of 80-140 kg. Due to its size, the fat bike seems clumsy and dangerous.
There are steel, aluminum and carbon frames on fat bikes. The latter greatly facilitate the design, but also cost 2-3 times more expensive than the others.
A fat bike, like any SUV, accelerates slowly and develops a low speed. up to 25-30 km / h. For faster driving, there are electrophets with a motor and a battery. These models are much heavier and more expensive than regular fats.
Source: Image by Susanne Jutzeler, suju-foto from Pixabay
What is a fat bike for?
The fat bike is designed for off-road riding: mud and soft ground, loose sand, gravel and snow. Where a regular MTB does not pass, the fat bike will not notice difficulties. He won’t be able to cope with meter-long snowdrifts, but he will cope with the snow porridge. For the ability to ride on snow, a fat bike is also called a snowbike or “snow bike”. A fat bike can be used not only off-road, but also as a city all-season transport, especially in cities where snow is poorly removed.
Fat bike: pros and cons
Fat bike pluses:
- Passability: rides on snow, sand, soft ground, stones and other off-road
- The perfect bike for winter
- Smooth ride: tires swallow all bumps in the road
- Impressive appearance
Cons of a fat bike:
- expensive than MTB
- Heavier and larger than a regular bike
- Significantly inferior in speed to other bicycles
- It’s harder to pedal
- Need to adjust tire pressure on different surfaces
- Difficulty finding some parts
Source: Photo by Tim Foster on Unsplash
Fat bike or regular mountain bike
You need to start from goals and weigh well whether you really need a fat bike. If you need a bike to ride cross-country in summer and winter, a fat bike is a great option. They are easier to drive off-road. wide tires do not sink in snow and sand, swallow all the unevenness of the road.
If you ride around the city most of the time and do not ride a bike in winter, a fat bike is definitely not needed. It is more difficult to pedal and gain speed, it is massive and heavy. For commuting and driving around the city, a city bike, touring or regular MTB is better suited. It will also be a universal bike and suitable for riding in parks and even trips in winter along a trodden path.
Source: Kaur Martin on Unsplash
How to choose a fat bike and how much does it cost
Fatbikes are single-speed and multi-speed, folding, mechanical and electric, all-wheel drive. The choice of model depends on budget and goals, but the most common options are a regular fat bike with gearshift switches and an electric fat bike.
An electric fat bike is a conventional fat bike with an electric motor mounted on a frame. Electrophets are much more expensive and should only be chosen if you want to use your bike as a means of transportation. For sports purposes, choose a regular.
Choosing a fat bike in terms of frame size and body kit level is similar to a conventional mountain bike. Therefore, if you already own a bike, choose the same frame size. Read about the level of derailleurs, brakes and frame materials in our article on choosing a bike.
How much is a fat bike
Like any other bikes, fat bikes vary greatly in price depending on materials, components and brand. On average, fat bikes are more expensive than regular mountain bikes with the same drivetrain and frame material.
Fatbikes range from 300 to 5,000. Quality models with reliable hardware start at 1,000. Decent discount models can be found from 500.
Video about fatbikes
Play sports, move and travel! If you find an error or want to discuss the article. write in the comments.
What are wide tires for??
We continue the conversation. In the last article I wrote that the grip of the tire with the road does not depend on the area of the contact patch. Consequently, the braking distance and acceleration dynamics do not depend on the tire width. As well as from the tire tread pattern.
Then the question arises: “what are wide tires for?” This is what I wanted to talk about today.
Wide tires are less likely to overheat and wear out
One of the reasons why wide tires are made is so that they less overheat and wear out. That’s all, but this is very important for sports cars. That is why wide “rollers” are installed on sports cars and drag racing cars. But not only because of this, there is another reason. a decrease in tire slip, and I will talk about it in the following articles.
And of course, the wider tire width and the greater heat resistance keep the original grip for longer. For example, let’s take two sets of tires of the same composition with different widths: 4 narrow and 4 wide. On both, the coefficient of adhesion to asphalt is the same and is, say, 0.8. We put them in turn on the same sports car with the same pilot and release them onto the race track, timing the lap times. After a certain number of laps, the tires will wear out, and by the end of, say, the 20th lap, the narrow wear will be noticeably greater and the grip will decrease, say, to 0.6. And for the wide one. only up to 0.7. And, of course, therefore (for various reasons, but therefore also) on wide tires the pilot will pass the race faster than on narrow ones. But not because a wide tire supposedly has higher grip in the first place, as many believe. Like, if you took a narrow tire with a grip coefficient of 0.8, then the same one and a half times wider will immediately 1.2. Well, yes, but if we put five narrow tires on one axle next to each other, then we will have a grip coefficient of 4.0 or something. 🙂
By the way, note that rally cars for driving on dirt or snow have narrow tires, unlike asphalt sports cars. This means that in some situations wide tires even lose to narrow ones, is it logical? And if the width of the tire directly affected the traction force, everything would be simple and unambiguous: there would be wide-wide tires everywhere, both in summer and in winter, and on city and racing cars.
Releasing the gas. increasing the grip of the front tires
A small digression. I was once “pleased” with the answer to a question by an instructor of one of the Moscow driving schools. I took driving courses, we made a snake, and we were taught to throw the gas at every corner entrance, at every cone. When I asked “why?”, I heard the following in response: “Throwing gas, we increase the contact patch of the front tires with the road, thereby improving their grip, and hence the speed of cornering. Elementary physics speaks about it ”. Of course, I didn’t argue, but. We hear the ringing, we don’t know where he is.
What is the trick. Mikhail Gorbachev, whom I respect (www.drive-class.ru), has already written a lot about the gas discharge before the turn, or rather, about the meaninglessness of this, so let’s leave that aside. However, the grip of the front tires does improve for the very split second while the throttle is released. But why? We agreed that the contact patch does not affect the grip ?! Yes, it does not, but the point is different. Let’s remember Coulomb’s law. The adhesion force (static friction) is equal to:
Where N is the weight. And by the way, do not confuse weight with mass! Mass is mass (in kilograms), and weight is the force with which the body presses on the support (in newtons). Further, m is the mass of the car, g is the acceleration of gravity.
By releasing the gas, we redistribute the weight from the rear of the car to the front, increase the weight on the front axle, and thus the grip of the front tires. It is clear that under the additional weight, the front tires are further flattened, and the area of their contact with the road increases. But this is only a consequence of the increased load on the tires, and in no way the reason for the increase in their grip! The contact spot, as usual, has nothing to do with it.
Why letting go of the gas in a corner is dangerous?
I will add about the danger of letting go of the gas pedal when cornering. By doing this, we load the front axle of the machine and at the same time unload the rear. And guided by the above considerations, we come to the conclusion that the grip of the rear tires with the road at this moment deteriorates, and there is a risk of the car skidding. By the way, releasing the gas pedal at the entrance to the turn is one of the main techniques of rally racers, with which they start the car into a controlled drift. Don’t believe me? Come to the course of emergency driving “Winter emergency training” and try it yourself 🙂 This is in the compulsory program, all students of Kaminsky Driving School pass it.
When flat tires help?
Another misconception. There is such a recommendation. if you need to drive on ice, and you have summer tires, lower the pressure by half. Allegedly, the contact patch will increase, which will improve the tire’s grip on ice and shorten the braking distance. Also not true. That is, the contact patch, of course, will increase, and even the braking distance will decrease, but one does not follow from the other 🙂
Why are the police in the movies shooting at the wheels? Because there is such a thing as rolling friction. a parasitic force that arises from the deformation of a rolling body and provides unnecessary resistance to movement. The softer the body, the greater the deformation and rolling friction. It is practically absent in the train. steel wheels, rigid. A car has rolling friction, but a car with flat tires is simply enormous. Consequently, by lowering the tires, we increase the rolling friction and thereby provide additional resistance to movement and help the car to stop. And the area of the contact patch does not affect the grip of the tire with the road, and it has nothing to do with it.
It has something to do with it only in one case. When driving through a swampy area, a frozen river, you can lower the tires to increase the contact patch and reduce the tire pressure on the surface of the swamp, ice, and thereby reduce the risk of falling through. As with skis. This is the only benefit from it. Or you can put wider tires in advance. If for the city winter we put narrower ones. to push the ice surface, then here. on the contrary, wide, so God forbid not to push 🙂
What is the practical meaning?
Let’s summarize. Wide tires offer several advantages over narrow tires, and both the manufacturer and the driver can make the tire wider by temporarily reducing the air pressure in it.
Wide tires will help you if:
- you participate in sports competitions on asphalt (circuit racing, drag racing, etc.). The advantage of a wide profile is the greater resistance of tires to overheating and wear;
- you are navigating icy, loose, quick-moving or swampy terrain with the risk of collapse. Wide tires will reduce the pressure of the car on the surface of the “road” and improve the passability of the car. In this case, you can either lower the tire pressure or put on wider tires the day before the trip.
So, wide tires are needed primarily to reduce heat and tread wear. This is especially true for sports driving, so sports cars are usually “shod” in wide tires. Or, off-road enthusiasts use wide tires to tackle loose, brittle, or swampy surfaces without falling through. In the next installment, I’ll show you what low-profile tires are for.
The converse is also true. Tires that are too narrow have the risk of overheating the tread when braking, cornering or accelerating. Therefore, you should not save and put tires narrower than the manufacturer advises, they will heat up and the level of safety of your ride will noticeably decrease.
Unwinding disks. what is it for and what disadvantages it has
Wheel disks. these are elements that influence many technical parameters in a car. In addition, they can drastically change the appearance of the vehicle and make it stand out from the crowd. That is why, when tuning, the very first emphasis is on these elements.
Today in the automotive industry there are uncoiling wheels, which are expanded forged discs. With the help of such an element, you can put wider tires, which has a positive effect on drifting, and make the whole wheel visually wider. At first glance, it may seem that this is a very simple and inexpensive solution. However, bondings have not only advantages, but also some disadvantages.
Uncoiling on the car. what are they for. Today in the automotive market you can find a very large assortment of rims. In addition to classic stampings, you can find cast and forged elements. However, the size and performance may vary. However, many car owners are not entirely satisfied with the finished parts, so they turn their attention to uncoiling the disks.
This is a special way of redesigning a wheel that is used in motorsport. Today on the roads you can see VAZ cars on the unmarked and even foreign cars. Why are such elements put?
From the very beginning, unweldings were set in order to improve stability and grip on the road;
Sometimes such equipment can be found on cars from the sports world, since weldments help to improve stability during maneuvers;
The same solution can be found on cars that have been tuned. the car looks more sporty and even aggressive.
If we talk about hand-made production, we can highlight the unwelding:
created with two classic discs;
created with a metal strip.
DIY unwinding. The easiest way. weld two discs together. The main process, in this case, is to cut the discs and glue them together. The main disadvantage of this method. to make one disc, 2 standard ones are required at once. That is, in order to boil 4 discs, you must initially have 8 classic.
The second way is to integrate a metal strip to expand the drive. This option is cheaper, but takes more time and requires certain skills. The whole difficulty lies in the long selection of a specific metal, cutting the strip and giving it the correct shape. And that’s not all, because more time is spent on correct welding. Before that, you need to cut the main disk in half, and weld the manufactured element in the center.
Disadvantages. The main disadvantage is the need to trim the wheel arches. If you install such elements on VAZ cars, then no questions should arise. If we take more expensive cars and wheels, then we can think about expediency. Indeed, in the case of poor-quality work, you can lose the arch. This element will look best on low-slung cars. It’s no secret that a strong understatement is not suitable for comfortable operation on the roads of Russia. This option is better for a drift car, but not for a civilian.
Another important disadvantage of installing bondings is that the load on many elements of the car increases. transmission, engine, body, suspension and steering. Welding discs weigh a lot, thereby overloading the hub. Welded discs can crack in various places, especially where the seam passes. Not every service will be able to service a car with such an add-on, since the first problems are encountered already when removing a wheel, not to mention inflating tires.
Perhaps the most significant disadvantage is that such a car will not pass technical inspection, in addition, it cannot be used on public roads. Therefore, before going through the next MOT, the car will need to be changed.
The bottom line. Sparking discs are put on many cars today. Some do this in order to decorate the car and make it stand out from the crowd. However, most of these vehicles are found in the sports car world.
Bicycle horns: what are they and why are they needed
You may ask: why are there horns on the steering wheel, besides the mass of beautiful cables, shifters, brake levers? Then, it’s just cool to start with! The steering wheel gets an “aggressive”, brutal continuation from a completely different angle. Adults remember the Tourist bicycles, which were a welcome acquisition for every fan. In addition to shifting gears, this road bike had a special handlebar curved forward and then rings downward, “ram’s horn”. This, however, was a special shape of the handlebars, which contributed to a more “racing” fit of the cyclist and reduced wind resistance. Thus, this shape of the steering wheel was needed not only for beauty.
Not every bike needs horns: for example, if the main load is distributed to the saddle, the back is held upright, then horns are simply not needed. since the forward tilt of the body is not provided and a large load is not distributed on the arms. An example is the following bicycle model.
A mountain bike is a completely different matter:
On a bike like this, the distribution of gravity is biased towards the arms, so bike horns are very desirable.
Why does a bicycle need horns??
- The horns allow you to change your grip during a long ride. Constant tonic muscle contraction. flexors of the forearm and hand in the same position causes stagnation of blood, constant stress on the same joints leads to painful sensations, and the same static position can lead to pain and stiffness in the back. Since the horns are located in a different plane, they significantly relieve the hands and temporarily make life easier for the cyclist.
- Cycle horns act as a handlebar limiter and prevent hands from slipping, especially in wet weather without gloves.
- Provides a protective function for the steering equipment in the event that you place the bike upside down.
- If the bike (hopefully, without a cyclist) rolls forward and lands right on the bottom, on solid ground. they save all the steering equipment.
- In motion, you can hang something on the horn, for example, a flashlight or a bag with a loaf, if you are too lazy to put on a backpack.
- If you are exhausted and roll your bike up a steep hill, then it is much more convenient and easier to hold on to the horns, in addition, it is just convenient to hold the bike by the “horns” when crossing a mountain river, for example, on a hike.
- The horn can be fitted with a bicycle rearview mirror, and in the model shown below it is fitted as a folding knife.
- If it rains on the road, it is very convenient to fix the corners of the bike raincoat on the bicycle horns.
- The most important quality of the horns is that they allow standing on the pedals and grabbing them to climb steep hills. This engages additional muscles such as the biceps and abdominal muscles.
- Finally, if there are old, worn-out soft rubber grips on the steering wheel, which constantly “slip”, then the installation of horns along the edges of the steering wheel will solve this issue.
What are the disadvantages of horns?
- If you decide to fit bicycle horns, remember that there will be less space on the handlebars. There are two ways out of this: either move the shifters and brake levers to the center of the handlebars (in the event that the horns are attached to the edge of the handlebars), or install the horns inside the handlebars. This option is more dangerous, since the closer the hands are to the center of the steering wheel, the more effort is required to turn, and, therefore, the longer.
- Installing the horns increases the time it takes to pack the bike into and out of the cover, especially if the cover is “back to back”.
- If you hook a passerby with a horned steering wheel, you can cause him more serious injury than a simple steering wheel.
- If cycling tracks are too far out, then in narrow spaces (for example, on a bridge or a narrow forest path), they can suddenly catch on the steering wheel, and, even worse, turn it sharply at a speed at right angles. In this case, a fall over the head is inevitable.
- In addition, if the horns land on the cyclist after a fall, followed by the bike itself, they can cause serious injuries, for example, rib fractures.
- It is important that you ride holding the horn with one hand and the other. showing the direction of the turn is much more difficult than driving with one hand on the steering wheel. This is due to the fact that in the first case we control a small section of the steering wheel, and there is a much greater risk of incorrect movement.
- In case of passing a risky section with the possibility of emergency braking, or in the case of descent at high speed, hands should always be removed from the horns and held on the brake levers, otherwise you can lose precious time.
How to choose the right horns
Horns are subdivided in length into short, medium and long. By material, these are metal (aluminum), carbon fiber (carbon) and plastic. There are also differences in the type of attachment. Below are examples of long aluminum horn (150 mm) and short plastic horns with grips.
It is best to choose long devices. Hands do not slip off them, there are several options for gripping, they well protect the hands from whipping branches.
If you are thinking about how to choose a material, then the best compromise between price, quality and weight is aluminum. At the same time, aluminum horns can be of any color, both with a metallic sheen and matte. Plastic horns are the most unreliable, since plastic is fragile.
How to install horns
The horns are installed on the bicycle handlebars most often using clamps. You need to be extra careful if you have a carbon handlebar. So that it does not crack, look for reinforced seats on it.
One of the important points is the determination of the installation location. You need to decide whether you will leave the steering gear in place or move it inward.
Next, you need to decide whether you will move the grips or cut them. Trimming the grips at the ends is used when the horn is installed internally into the end of the rudder. This option is convenient to save space on the steering wheel.
it is worth recalling the inclination of the horns. Choose the angle that suits you best. You can experiment with any location you want, but it’s best to start at a 45 ° angle with the ground.
Bicycle handlebar horns
Various horns on the steering wheel
For some, a bicycle with horns looks cool, while others don’t like it. I have never been attracted by this invention. But one day, thanks to the author of this site, I looked at them as an additional item that makes my bike more comfortable.
Bicycle horns are different. short and straight, medium length, longer with curved ends. The material from which they can be made is steel, aluminum, plastic. You will understand how to choose the right horns for a bicycle, having learned what they are for and how they are installed.
If you are not a super-trained athlete, and after a long bike ride your back gets tired (neck, lower back, thoracic spine, etc.), you just need to install horns on the bicycle handlebars. It will allow your back to relax, release tension from the tired area of the back and engage other muscles.
How to use the horns and how to install the horns on your bike for comfort. To begin with, if you are installing them for the first time, install them “correctly”, that is, as recommended by the instructions. In fact, it is correct. this is the way it will be most convenient for you. Therefore, over time, unfold them as you see fit, until you find the position that is actually correct for you.
Personal experience in installing and using horns
I opted for a medium sized antler with a hollow end for the thumb. I put them away from myself at 30 degrees relative to the horizontal up. I start the ride with my hands on the steering wheel. When the first desires of fatigue arise, I grab the horns, and so during the trip I change the position of my hands. Even on the horns, I change the position of the thumb. So I get 3 different positions, which allows me to relax my arms and shoulders, changing the position of my arms from time to time.
If you want to ride with as much downward slope as possible, swing the horns towards you and downward. Then your body position will be closer to the horizontal, which is closer to landing on a road bike. If you chose long horns on a bicycle and with a bend, then you can install them by bending outward and at an angle upwards, then you will get a fit close to riding a city bike.
Cycling safety with horns
Having installed horns on the handlebars of your bike, do not forget that this is not only convenience, but also extra dimensions. Therefore, be especially careful when driving past parked cars, or trying to fit into a narrow passage between trees or walls and poles. Although the horns are fitted to the handlebars without going overboard, they feel wider with them, so be careful. The horn itself at speed can hook, for example, the rearview mirror of a car standing on the side of the road.
Choosing bike horns and how to install them to avoid damaging the handlebars
When installing the horns on the handlebars, be careful not to over-tighten the bolts or damage the handlebars or horns. If the horns are made of a softer material, then if the bolts are tightened too much, the horn attachment element may crack. If the horns are steel, then with excessive tightening force, the steering wheel may suffer, then you will have to change it. Therefore, when you tighten the bolts, gradually tighten them and check if the horn turns.
When installing the horns, I only had to move the bike grips closer to the center. If you don’t have enough room left with this shift, you will have to slightly move the brake levers and gear selectors. By the way, it is precisely because of this displacement that the grip becomes narrower, so do not forget about the horns when overtaking someone, or trying to fit in between some obstacles. It might not be safe.
So, attaching horns to your bike gives you a variety of options to make your bike fit easier and more varied. As they say, for every taste. It is very important to listen to your body and find several horn positions that make your bike comfortable for you. Do not forget about the dimensions on a bike with horns, their perception changes slightly.
By following all of the guidelines above for installing and choosing bicycle horns, you can enjoy your more impressive riding experiences even more. We wish you unforgettable horizons on your way!