Tool for work
- Ratchet puller.
- A larger adjustable wrench or wrench is typically 27mm, but Honor follows the 24mm-edged pullers. It will be more convenient to use a box or socket wrench, since it will be possible to press on it with the maximum possible force, without fear that it will jump off the edges of the puller.
- Open-end wrench 14 or 15 mm for unwinding the sleeve.
- Thick lint-free rag.
- Thin center punch, if you need to disassemble the “nut”.
- The hammer never hurts.
- Non lithium grease. Thick oil generously packed inside the assembly can cause the dogs to stick. After that, the pedals often begin to scroll not only backward, but also forward.
Fill with color
Before assigning color to your shapes, think about which color scheme you will choose; for my plants below, I chose a subdued palette to give my design a retro feel. Color is especially important in design, so take the time to find some color palettes that work best for your composition.
Need some color inspiration? Take a look at these 25 free retro palettes, 101 color combinations, or these 20 seasonal palettes.
Once you’ve chosen your color scheme, import each shade into your Swatches panel. to make it easier to integrate colors.Use the Selection Tool (V) to click a shape and then select from color swatches to add to your design. Switch the Fill and Stroke colors to X To switch the stroke color to fill, press Shift X Continue assigning colors until your design is complete.
Take your art a step further by experimenting with blending modes or adding gradients, textures, brushes or grain.
The difference between a ratchet and a cassette
Do not confuse a bicycle ratchet with a cassette, as they are not interchangeable. Currently, the former can only be found on old and very cheap bicycles. On modern bicycles, a more advanced part is used, such as a cassette.
The main drawback of the ratchet is its incompatibility with the 15 mm diameter hollow shaft of the new QR15 standard. Loose loading from off-center sprockets can cause local bending on the hollow axis.
In a ratchet, the smallest sprocket is not smaller than with 14 teeth, and its more modern modification. the cassette. can have even smaller sprockets, with 11 or 12 teeth
On the inside of the ratchet there are ratchet pawls, on top of it an external bushing with sprockets is installed. The role of the nut holding these two parts is played by the cone, which is the working surface for the ball bearing. Inside there are two bulk bearings, each of which is assembled from balls of the same size.
The hidden part of the ratchet. the inner sleeve. is screwed onto the threaded part of the rear wheel, and to remove it, you need a special puller.
Internal ratchet bushing
Digitizing a sketch in Illustrator
Turning a sketch into a vector is one of my favorite techniques to bring a drawing to life, and Adobe Illustrator’s extensive library of tools, colors, and effects makes digitizing easy. What’s more, vectors have a big advantage when digitizing your artwork with their infinite scalability, smoother curves and smaller file sizes.
Textures used from 50 Free Distressed Textures Pack.
Quick tips for repairing a ratchet
- After you have disassembled the nut, notice the color of the grease inside it. Black oil, so to speak, dirty or with noticeable metal particles, indicates the extreme wear of the working surfaces of the dial bearings. In this case, it would be more correct to replace the entire unit entirely with a new one.
- The removed ball bearings should be cleaned of grease and then inspected for damage. Balls with dents and dark spots must be replaced with undamaged ones.
- Always check the interior surfaces for moisture before assembly. If there are still water droplets, then they must be dried with an ordinary household hairdryer or compressed air from a compressor.
- The flare nut must be tightened with force, and the adjustment of a small backlash for the ratchet sprockets relative to the wheel axis should be made using set thin rings.
Tip 2. Refine your sketch
Many artists and designers prefer to sketch ideas in general terms before finalizing them later. Once you have a clear drawing, use a fine pen or marker to polish those sketchy lines. Erasers are also your friend here, as smudges and extra lines can often make it difficult to scan and interfere with the digitizing process. Clean erasers are very important, as dirty erasers can further confuse your drawings by smearing out the rest of the pencil lead.
Add color to the lines
Now let’s decorate your sketch with a few colors. This technique can be accomplished in two ways: using Color Range to highlight the paths in your sketch, or using Photoshop brushes. If you have a tablet, you can easily preview your original sketch using raster brushes.
Before we add color to your illustration, add a new layer by clicking the folded square icon in the Layers panel From here you can activate the Brush tool (B) and fine-tune the appearance of the brush in the Brush Settings menu (F5),
To go to the Color Range route, go back to the original sketch layer, then go to Select Color Range and click on the white background with the eyedropper. This will highlight all areas of your design in white. Reduce the Fuzziness value to 12.then click OK
Invert the active selection with Shift Command I. then activate the new layer you just created. Use the Brush Tool (B) to paint the path with the desired color. Change the brush size to [/] if necessary
Continue painting the paths until you have colored all aspects of the illustration, when you’re done press Command D to deselect the marching ants.
Depending on the type of bike
Mountain bikes are fitted with cassettes with sprocket ranges from 11-28T to 11-36T, 8-10 stars.
On road bikes, the sprocket range is 11 (12). 22T to 11 (12). 27T, in a cassette 8-11 stars. The 12-27T cassette is considered to be intermediate between road and mountain packages.
Road bike cassettes, excluding Compagnolo, interchangeable with mountain bike cassettes, with the same number of stars in the cassette.
Classification of cassettes
Dismountable. the cassette is assembled from individual sprockets fastened with rivets or screws. The easiest and hardest option. It is theoretically possible to replace individual stars in a cassette if the package of stars can be divided.
On a spider. A center light alloy hub (spider) with ray mounts mounts stars in the form of rings. The system is lighter than collapsible, but more expensive. The advantages of the design include high resistance to pollution.
Several spiders. The stars are fastened in groups of 2-3 pieces, each group on its own spider. The advantages of this scheme include the ease of replacing worn out star groups without changing the entire cassette.
OpenGlide. Developed by SRAM’s road bike brand. The cassette is assembled as a hollow cone from individual ring-shaped stars. There are only two points of attachment of the cassette to the hub. through the largest and smallest sprocket of the usual shape. Very lightweight and very expensive construction.
X-Dome is an evolution of SRAM OpenGlide technology, used in SRAM XX cassettes. Ultimately lightweight but also extremely expensive system. The large sprocket of the system is made of aluminum with slots for mounting on the bushing. The smaller stars are machined from a single piece of steel in a hollow cone that attaches to the largest and smallest stars. The cassette is installed on the bushing through the splines on the outer stars. Very expensive construction that wears out almost faster than the cheapest steel bag.
By the number of stars in the package
A modern cassette can have 7 to 12 stars. Most common cassettes with 8-10 stars.
A bicycle cassette is a multi-sprocket assembly on the rear axle of a modern bicycle. The kit is fastened with projections (slots) on the inner surface of the cassette, which engage with the counter projections on the rear hub drum. This mounting method is called “slotted”. The cassette is prevented from turning by the slots, and the stop nut prevents displacement along the axis of the bushing. Rigid fastening of the cassette to the axle is necessary for reliable transmission of torque from the pedals to the rear wheel.
The bike ratchet is part of the drivetrain. The ratchet system appeared earlier, but today it is gradually giving way to a more progressive cassette system. In fact, this is the same package of sprockets as in the first case, but combined (through a ratchet mechanism) with the bushing into one piece. When free running or rotating in the opposite direction, the ratchet emits a crackle, for this feature the design was named.
Ratchets are often found on cheap and old bicycles. A ratchet usually contains fewer gears than a cassette and is less reliable. When hitting hard obstacles, jumping, the chance of bending or breaking the rear hub on a ratchet bike is much higher compared to a cassette system due to the design of the ratchet. In addition, if the sprockets in the cassette are worn out, it is possible to replace an individual sprocket from the cassette set. With a ratchet, such manipulations are difficult.
Among the pluses of the ratchet. the price is lower, however, the reliability is also lower. Cassette and ratchet are not compatible with each other. If you want to change from one system to another, you will also need to change the rear hub. Typically, a cassette has more gears than a ratchet. In addition, on mass ratchets, the minimum sprocket usually contains 14 teeth, on cassettes, small sprockets of 11-12 teeth are used.
Ratchets differ in the number of stars in the set and in the number of teeth on the stars. 6-star ratchets with 14-28 teeth (the type is called 14-28T) are considered mass, 7-star ratchets (14-34T) are also often found. The procedure for replacing a ratchet requires the use of a special tool. a “ratchet puller” and is difficult to perform in the field. In addition, due to the design features of the fastening on the axle, when dismantling the ratchet, much greater physical effort is required than when dismantling the cassette.
Cassettes are also divided into groups according to the number of stars in the package, as well as the minimum and maximum number of teeth for the stars in the cassette. For example, marking 11-36T 10 speed means that we have a cassette of 10 stars with a range from 11 teeth on the smallest chainring to 36 on the largest. If we are talking about cassettes for roadways, then they can be compatible with one of two systems. SHIMANO or Compagnolo. Cassettes from other manufacturers may or may not be compatible with the two major standards.
Depending on the materials used
Steel stars. The vast majority of cassettes are made of chrome-molybdenum steel. Inexpensive and not the most durable option.
Titanium based alloy. Finds use in more advanced designs, often only on large stars. The cost is higher than that of steel, the weight is less. There is no consensus about the superiority in durability of titanium cassettes compared to high-quality steel cassettes.
Anodized aluminum alloy. Super lightweight cassettes for high-end competition. They weigh very little, the cost is the highest of all possible, they wear out extremely quickly. Durability at the level of the simplest steel cassettes.
Useful to pay attention
Any more or less complex technical structure tends to break. There are many reasons for this fact. defective structural elements, poor-quality assembly of this bicycle assembly, wear of parts, and so on. Be that as it may, the question of what to do if the pedal is unscrewed on the bike puzzles the owner of the bike, faced with this fairly common problem. In addition to the discomfort caused by the constantly unscrewing pedal, the operation of a technically faulty bike is fraught with tragic consequences.
Therefore, it is necessary to quickly solve this problem and use the bike without worrying about your own safety. We will figure out what should be done so that the bicycle pedal does not unscrew, we will answer a number of related questions to this topic, and also give some relevant recommendations.
Cassette Play. Tech Tuesday #87
If the thread on the axle “stuck” to the connecting rod and is not removed
It’s definitely not worth warming up this place with an open fire.
When you may need to remove bike pedals
- For maintenance. For example, a crunch or creak appeared and you need to clean and lubricate them.
- When replacing old pedals with new ones, or replacing connecting rods.
- When packing the bike in a cover or to reduce the space occupied when transporting it.
- When preparing your bike for long-term winter storage. Again to minimize bike space
- As an anti-theft agent. The method is very effective. well, where will you go on such a bike. The trick here is that they should be removed easily and simply. The tool for this and a small bag in which the removed pedals will be folded should always be with you in your bike bag. You will not wear them all the time in your hands.
The peculiarity of the pedals is that they have symmetrical threads.
Each of them must have a label: which is left and which is right. Usually these are the English letters L. Left (left) and R –Right (right), respectively, for the left and right pedals.
The left pedal is always made with a left hand thread. This means that it twists counterclockwise and unscrews clockwise.
On the right, there is a regular right-hand thread. Twists clockwise and unscrews counterclockwise.
This is done so that when the pedals are spinning while the bike is moving, they do not unscrew.
It is easier to remember the rule: the pedals are unscrewed against the direction of the bicycle’s movement. twist to the rear wheel, and twist in the direction of travel. twist to the front wheel.
What tool are pedals removed
- Open-end wrench 15 mm
- Various universal bicycle wrenches that have a 15mm wrench.
- Adjustable wrench.
- Some models are removable and reattached with 6/8/10 mm hex keys
- There are special pedal wrenches that combine 15 open-end wrenches and hex wrenches in one tool.
When using an adjustable wrench, be sure to pay attention to its thickness. The fact is that the distance between the pedal mount and the connecting rod is not large, and not every adjustable wrench will fit there. Some types of wrenches come with thin jaws that can be used. Open-end or special pedal keys are great for this operation.
A few words about the fixator
- the red retainer has the highest strength indicator. it will not be possible to turn the pedal after its application (you will have to resort to the help of the same “grinder”);
- the green retainer can be weak or high strength. it depends on the manufacturer;
- retainer blue or blue. medium strength.
There are also purple fixatives with moderate strength and purple compounds with the lowest performance on the market. To subsequently turn the pedal without applying titanic efforts, you should use a blue or blue retainer.
How to put a pedal on a bike.
- Check the threads for grease before installing the pedal. If not, it is better to apply a layer of lubricant to the threads. So you will protect it from corrosion, from “sticking” to the connecting rod and make your life easier in the future. it will be easier to remove later. You can use lithol, grease and other waterproof lubricants.
Degreaser (degreaser) is a special degreasing compound designed to remove dirt, grease, oil.
Removing the ratchet (for hubs with screwed-in ratchet)
On such bushings, the cassette is removed together with the ratchet, therefore, when adjusting the bearings or replacing the spokes, it is not necessary to disassemble the cassette. This only needs to be done to replace the sprockets themselves.
To replace the spoke on the right side of the rear wheel or to change the grease in the bearing, the cassette can be removed with the ratchet without touching the hub axle.
The inner surface of such a ratchet has slots into which a corresponding puller must be inserted. The sprocket block rotates here on the ratchet body. The body itself is screwed onto the bushing and the puller is inserted into the body.
We insert the puller into the slots on the ratchet, and turn it off with an adjustable or open-end wrench. It may be necessary to apply considerable force when unscrewing. We recommend using a gas wrench or a long-handled wrench 24. The ratchet thread is left-handed, unscrewed clockwise (against the freewheel of the ratchet).
Then we remove the cassette together with the ratchet and the protective plastic ring.
If you are going to replace the wheel, leaving the old ratchet, then buy a wheel with a hub just for the ratchet. With such a hub, you will only see the axle without the hub drum.
Removing the ratchet and cassette
The rear sprocket block (cassette) is mounted on a ratchet. Maintenance of the cassette is reduced to cleaning it from dirt that gets between the sprockets.
The device of different cassettes is approximately the same, they differ only in the number of stars (from 5 to 9) and in the way they are attached to each other. On many cassettes, the sprockets are simply tightened with screws. In this case, the most worn sprockets can be replaced with new ones. Sometimes a block of sprockets is made non-separable (sprockets are riveted into a single block). This increases its strength, but then when some sprockets wear out, you will have to change the entire cassette.
There are various ways of attaching the ratchet cassette to the hub. Modern imported bicycles contain rear hubs with wound ratchets. The body of such a sleeve has a thread on the right side, onto which the ratchet is screwed together with the cassette.
If you have 7 or fewer stars, then, most likely, the stars have a ratchet in themselves and to remove them you need a puller to unscrew the entire ratchet as a whole. Actually, there are 7-speed cassettes too, it’s just that a different hub is used for them. with a shorter drum. If the number of stars is 8 or 9, then a cassette hub is usually used and the ratchet is installed on the hub.
Removing the cassette
You have to remove the cassette, firstly, to adjust the bearings of the rear hub (in principle, you can not remove it, but with the cassette removed, it is more convenient to adjust the hub), or to replace the sprockets themselves. If during a trip it is necessary to replace the rear wheel spoke on the right side, then the cassette will also need to be removed.
The cassette is tightened to the ratchet with a slotted nut. In order to unscrew this nut, you need a special tool. a cassette remover. And in order to hold the cassette (you have to unscrew the cassette in the direction of free rotation of the rear wheel. counterclockwise), you need a whip.
How to Tighten Cassette for Smooth Shifting and Decrease Noise while Pedaling shimano
The cassette sprockets are put on the ratchet body and tightened with a wide nut of a special shape. A bushing with a built-in ratchet mechanism is used. Plastic washers are inserted between the sprockets.
When disassembling the cassette, you need to have Honor, which is important not only the order of the asterisks, but also their orientation relative to each other. Washers can also differ in diameter and thickness, so it makes sense to carefully lay out all the removed parts in a row.
To unscrew the nut, you need a special spline wrench, and to keep the cassette from turning, you need a whip, because the direction of rotation of the nut when unscrewing coincides with the direction of free rotation of the ratchet.
Putting the whip chain on the largest sprocket of the cassette.
We unscrew the nut with a wrench, holding the cassette with a whip. If you don’t have a whip, you can use the old chain instead, securing it in some way to hold the spider. You can also use an old, thicker, larger cloth. We fold it in several layers and throw it over the spider, holding it with our hands. The spider is held with its whole palm through a rag and turns with a key.
Remove the nut. Then remove all the sprockets and washers from the ratchet body, observing their order. If necessary, remove the bushing drum from the axle.
Shimano Cassettes & Ratchets
It is necessary to remove the cassette, firstly, to adjust the bearings of the rear hub or to replace the sprockets themselves. If during a trip it is necessary to replace the rear wheel spoke on the right side, then the cassette will also need to be removed.
In fact, there are no fundamental differences from the method described above. A special feature only in the used puller: it must have an axis that is inserted into the cassette.
The only difference is that several small sprockets can be put on the ratchet independently, and between them there must be washers. spacers. These sprockets and washers must be carefully removed so that they do not fall apart during disassembly. It is better to remove them one at a time, and carefully lay them out somewhere, so as not to be confused during assembly.
This applies to Shimano HG-30 / HG-40 / HG-50-8 eight-star cassettes.
Removed Shimano cassette: