What is the nickname for 1 bicycles with wooden wheels

NULLA

This bike cannot be said to be good or bad, as it is still under development. But when it comes out, it will have its fans and critics looking for cons.

Nulla

nickname, bicycles, wooden, wheels

The design of such a bike provides a high torque. The rear wheel is made like an inboard gear, which clings to a hub that is designed like an outboard gear, and the assembly is close to the pedals. Who knows, maybe when such bicycles are developed to the end, it will be a new stage in the development of bicycles.

What is a spokeless bicycle??

Models of bicycles without spokes and their cost

There are many, many models of bicycles without spokes, so this article will be the most popular of them. As already mentioned twice, the bike is under development, so it’s too early to talk about the variety of models.

  • The BMW X3 is an excellent mountain bike, weighing 14 kilograms, made in China;
  • Porsche is also a pretty good bike under the legendary car brand;
  • NOVABIKE NRG 27.5 is a reliable mountain bike with minimal design.

There are no specific models of this bike, and you will have to work hard to find such a transport.

On cast wheels

Alloy wheels for bicycle wheels are usually made from aluminum or an alloy with magnesium and carbon. Disks are solid and even, usually 5-6 blades are made for each disk. It may seem to Kamu that this will add more than five kilograms of weight to the bicycle, but due to the lightness of aluminum, the weight of two discs is not more than 1.5. 2 kilograms (although, compared to the spokes, this is quite a lot, because the weight of the spokes is usually about 500 gram).

Due to their racing history, bicycles with such rims are often produced under the brands of renowned car manufacturers such as:

  • BMW;
  • Ferrari;
  • Lamborghini;

A person who sees a bicycle under one of these brands, on a subconscious level, will associate it with a car, and in his eyes it will seem better than others. But unfortunately, almost all “elite” bikes are made in China.

Of the advantages of such wheels, the following can be noted:

  • High strength. It will be much more difficult to break a disc made of solid aluminum blades than regular spokes;
  • Attractive appearance. Solid aluminum wheels look much better than classic spokes. And if the wheels are also painted, so it looks gorgeous at all;
  • Bicycles with alloy wheels are much more aerodynamic. But this plus is only for those who like to drive their bike at high speed;

But, do not rush, and run to buy such a bike, after all, it also has disadvantages:

  • The first disadvantage is that such wheels do not spring at all, so using such a bike for mountain trails is unlikely to succeed.
  • The second minus is that if, nevertheless, somehow, it is possible to break the disc, you cannot restore it, unlike a conventional spoke wheel.
  • The third minus is weight, yes, for some cyclists, a couple of extra pounds on the bike will be very annoying. Well, the last minus is the price. Due to the fact that bicycles with alloy wheels are produced under well-known brands, the price for them, respectively, is not small. But, since the wheels are sold separately, this minus can be excluded.

Wheels on elliptical bands

Elliptical strips are rolled CFRP strips to secure the rim to the axis of rotation. The central part is a triangle, inside which the sleeve is placed. The middle of the bands are fixed to the rim, the edges to the outer planes of the triangle. There are three ellipses per wheel. This ensures an even attachment and distribution of forces.

The idea of ​​creating a bicycle on “elliptical” wheels belongs to the British designer Sam Pearce. The design itself was named Loopwheel, which literally means “loop wheel”. The illustration shows that the edges of the ribbons are anchored to the triangle parallel rather than overlapping, which gives the ellipses a loop shape.

The advantages of wheels on elliptical bands include:

  • high depreciation;
  • structural reliability;
  • original style.

In motion, the ellipses undergo tension and compression, due to which the wheels acquire shock-absorbing properties. Carbon plastic is a strong and lightweight material that can undergo multiple deformations while retaining its original shape. Due to this, the wheel can be attributed to reliability, stability and durability.

All the advantages are canceled out by one significant drawback. poor dynamics. Lack of rigidity will prevent the bike from accelerating and overcoming air resistance. Climbing the hill is also problematic.

However, the designer himself claims that such wheels are designed for quiet driving on roads with minor irregularities for short distances.

What is the new model?

The most popular type among such vehicles is a bicycle, which has alloy wheels instead of spokes. As practice and numerous tests of such vehicles show, alloy wheels are an excellent replacement for spokes, which, in essence, have long been a proven and reliable element in cycling. The pattern on these wheels is usually very triangle-like. Bicycles with alloy wheels without spokes belong to the elite class and, as a rule, are made only under well-known brands such as: BMW, Land Rover or Ferrari. Such brands by themselves make it known that the quality of such models is fully consistent with their brand. Now is the time to consider the benefits of spokeless designs.

Nulla. feature and design

Translated from Italian, Nulla is nothing, emptiness. These are not just wheels without spokes, they even lack centers of rotation.

The rim ring is all that remains of a familiar bicycle wheel. I must say, this simplification significantly affected the geometry of the frame. now it’s just a triangle. The minimalistic design fully lives up to the name of the bike. These bicycles are currently under development, as the lack of spokes and standard wheel drive leads to some difficulties:

  • installation of a transmission system;
  • switches;
  • brakes;
  • depreciation.

To solve speed problems, you can implement a planetary hub or supply an electric motor.

Design feature. The rear rim is made in the form of an internal gear, in engagement with which there is an external gear. a bushing. The unit is located in close proximity to the pedals, which guarantees high torque output efficiency. The forces are transmitted through the drive belt.

An alternative option is a chain drive. Principle of operation:
1. Transmission of torque from the drive sprocket to the intermediate axle. There are small and large stars at its ends.

From the large driven sprocket through the chain, the force is transmitted to the sprocket of the bushing.

When unwinding, the sleeve engages with the teeth of the rim and sets it in motion.

Rollers are attached to the steering part of the frame, on which the front wheel is mounted. These casters provide two functions. maintaining motion and turning. The front fork is missing. this is another step towards a fundamental redesign of the bike.

Summarize. Today a bicycle without spokes belongs to the category of rare and unique models. The main task of manufacturers is to provide Honor with all the design nuances, finalize technical details and carefully study the possibility of demand from buyers. Since these models radically change the standard approach to assembly, they can safely claim a separate class of bicycles.

, more!

There are also bicycles that have an unrealistically large wheel size. 36 inches! This monster easily, like a tractor, crosses the roots of trees, stones, holes, bumps. These bikes are made for those who want the biggest bike ever.!

Such a wheel diameter is used very rarely due to the fact that there is enough cross-country ability for 29ers, and the weight has become even greater. These bikes are good for city walks or off-roading, but there is no point in using them in competitions. While light and agile bikes are produced for cross-country racing, the 36er is not suitable for this discipline due to its heavy wheels and poor handling (a high fork impairs steering control).

The bike also performs well on flat, straight roads: this is facilitated by good grip and rolling. From all of the above, it follows that a 36-wheel bike is versatile, but not aerodynamic enough for road racing and too heavy for mountain bike competition. Highway and XC bike weight is critical.

36er is the choice of people for whom speed is not so much important as cross-country ability. You can even ride a bike like this up the stairs! The front wheel of the bike clings to the steps and easily climbs them. Such a bike does not even need shock absorption: the wheels act as a shock absorber.

Obviously, frames with special geometry are produced for 36 wheels. In order for the wheels to fit into the frame without greatly increasing the base, the seatpost and lower tube of the front triangle are made arched.

The bottom bracket is well below the rear dropout, which indicates a downward center of gravity on the bike. Thanks to this, the bike is more stable on any terrain.

Few companies manufacture tires, tubes, forks and other accessories for bicycles with a wheel diameter of 36 ”. Therefore, you will not find such a wide range of parts for the 36er as for other bicycles. Plus, the parts are expensive. This is a very fat minus for the described type of bikes.

  • softness even without shock absorption;
  • the ability to ride comfortably on difficult terrain;
  • stability;
  • good inertia.
  • heavy weight;
  • completely unfavorable ratio of cross-country ability / handling;
  • high cost of components.

Advantages of 29 ”inches

A mountain bike with a wheel diameter of 29 inches is called a niner. The name comes, as you might guess, from the English numeral “nine”, which in Russian means “nine”.

29 “wheels in Europe have practically replaced the so familiar to everyone 26”. Bicycles with large wheels do not crash into small obstacles because these rims are flatter in relation to various rocks, bumps and other irregularities in the road. Large wheel rims are less vulnerable to deformation from holes, because they create a kind of bridge between the two sides of the hole. That is why it is easier to go down stairs on a 29er than, for example, on 26, 24 wheels and less.

Over time, more and more cross-country riders ride 29-wheel hardtails and win the competition.

It can be practically proven that 26 and 29 wheels with the same tread patterns and tire thickness will ride differently. This is because the 29er has a larger contact area between the tire and the road, which means better grip.

For 29ers, special frames have been created, since large wheels will not fit into a 26 ”frame. And if they fit, then the geometry of the frame will be violated.

By increasing the wheels, the base of the bike increases, which entails an improvement in the stability of the bike on the track.

Niners have high forks, which can impair handling. But technology does not stand still, and manufacturers are reducing the forks as much as possible.

Big and heavy wheels are harder to accelerate than small ones, which can drastically affect the outcome of a race. But there is also a positive moment in this: the roll has become better!

Bikes with 29-inch wheels are best for tall riders. Their weight will be distributed in the same way as the average 26 ”person. While short riders will be uncomfortable on 29ers.

  • easy overcoming of small irregularities;
  • improved traction;
  • stability;
  • roll forward.
  • poor handling;
  • huge mass;
  • inconvenience for short cyclists.

Everything is good in moderation

Another standard bicycle wheel was not mentioned. 27.5 inches (or 650B). Such a wheel combines the advantages of both 26 “and 29” and is the golden mean between them. 27.5 “is the perfect choice for those who find it difficult to choose between a 29er and a 26” bike!
On descents, the 27.5 ”wheels are no worse than 29”, and in turns are as maneuverable as the 26 ”. At the same time, the grip is excellent, just like the 29ers. Also, 650B can be installed in many frames and forks designed for 26 wheels, that is, no changes in the frame design are required for them, which is an undoubted plus.

Many cyclists believe that if they initially started producing 27.5-inch wheels, then no 29- and 26-inch wheels would even appear.!

Bicycles with large wheels

Technology is moving forward, and the cycling industry is not standing still. Nowadays there are mountain bikes and dirt / street bikes and road bikes and hybrids and dirt and sand bikes. There are so many! If earlier the most common were 26-inch bicycle wheels, now 27.5, 29 and even 36-inch wheels are gaining momentum, as well as fat bikes.

How To Make Wooden Wheels With Bicycle Rims And Tyres

“Fat bike”. fat bike

A fat bike is a bike with wide, thick-walled tires. Tire sizes range from wide (26×3.5 “) to very wide (26×4.8”). This is twice as many tires as we are used to! Rims are typically 60 to 100 mm wide and are made lighter by punching holes where strength is not critical. A fat bike will allow you to ride where any other bike would drown in snow, sand, mud and other loose surfaces!

The first company to start mass production of fat bikes was Surly. At the moment, this company has a rich assortment of bicycles and accessories for them. Today fat bikes are produced by such well-known companies as Specialized, Norco, On-One.

When this type of bike was first launched, it was equipped with a rigid fork and there was no rear shock absorber. Now they began to produce special wide soft forks for fat bikes, and then double suspensions appeared. Cushioning allows the rider to have even better control of the road and overcome much more serious obstacles.

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Frames and forks are made from aluminum alloy or carbon. Because of the heavy, large wheels, even wide-wheel carbon mountain bikes weigh a lot, and aluminum ones even more so. Often, planetary bushings are installed on fatbikes, which practically do not require maintenance due to the tightness of the system.

The wider the wheel of the bicycle, the easier it is to maintain balance on it. Fatbikes come first in this! They are very stable, especially on slightly inflated wheels. A small pressure in the chambers is not only an advantage, but also a disadvantage. Tires inflated to high pressure (which is important, for example, for road bicycles) practically do not buckle under the influence of weight and do not dampen speed. Fatbikes, on the other hand, have low tire pressure, which is why most of the cyclist’s efforts are “absorbed” by the wheels, and inertia is significantly reduced. Because of this, they are absolutely not suitable for driving on asphalt.

Wide tires with low pressure in the chambers work like skis: a large surface area keeps you afloat. Thin tires would simply fail under the right conditions. It is the ability to inflate tires at low pressure (from 5 PSI) that is a key feature of fat bikes. Such a bike is indispensable for winter riding on snowy areas or for riding on sands and tall grass.

Riding a fat bike is somewhat different from riding other types of bicycles. Here you need to hone the technique and think over the trajectories of movement. This will help you get the most out of your bike.

  • excellent cross-country ability;
  • stability;
  • controllability.
  • high cost of components and spare parts;
  • not intended for driving on flat surfaces;
  • heavy weight.

The tendency to increase the wheels has been noticeable for many years. Perhaps in the near future, 26 wheels will be superseded by more practical counterparts. On the other hand, the buyer should always have a choice, and the manufacturers, most likely, will not deprive a person of choosing his favorite 26 wheel size. Or maybe bicycles with even larger wheels will become popular in the future.?

The history of the development of the bicycle

Since childhood, each of us has dealt with a bicycle in one way or another. Someone drove with might and main around the yard, someone only dreamed of an iron friend, someone asked for a ride from friends. In any case, the bicycle has already become an integral part of our life, something for granted. It is even difficult to imagine that once there were no two-wheeled vehicles at all, and someone had to reinvent the wheel. In this article, we will dive into the history of the bicycle and find out who to thank for such a useful invention.

How everyone started pedaling

When, in 1863, nineteen-year-old Pierre Lalman, who had previously made a living making baby carriages, built the first “dandy horse” with spinning pedals in his workshop in Paris, there was a truly revolutionary breakthrough in the history of the bicycle.

The following year, the industrialists Olivier brothers from Lyon, appreciating the invention of Pierre Lalmand, took him to themselves and began the mass production of “dandy horses” with pedals in collaboration with the carriage master Pierre Michaud.

Pierre Michaud was the first who thought of replacing a wooden bicycle frame with a metal one, and also (according to some sources) decided to change the name “dandy horse”, which was incongruous for the French ear, to the Latin “bicycle”.

Until now, it has not been established for certain who first came up with the name “bicycle”. the Burgundian Joseph Nicephorus Niepce (1765-1833) or the Lorraine Pierre Michaud (1813-1883). But written sources clearly recorded the first (still timid) attempts to penetrate the word “bicycle” into the Russian language precisely at this time. at the beginning of the second half of the 19th century.

Pierre Lalman, after working for a couple of years with the Olivier brothers, went to America and patented his invention there in November 1866. It is Pierre Lalman who is most often undeservedly considered the inventor of the bicycle, since outwardly his bicycle looks more like its modern descendant than the invention of Karl Dreis, who is undeservedly relegated to the background.

Making a bike

At the very beginning of 1818, Baron Karl Friedrich Christian Ludwig Dreis von Sauerbronn from the German city of Karlsruhe patented the first two-wheeled self-propelled vehicle created a year earlier, which served as the prototype of the modern bicycle. The inventor named his brainchild “Laufmaschine”, which means “running machine”. This invention was very similar to a modern bicycle, only without pedals and with a wooden frame.

The jogging machine instantly became popular throughout Europe, with many English and French carriage companies launching a fashionable new vehicle. But since the English and French the German word “Laufmaschine” strongly hurt the ear, then running machines began to be produced under the name “Drezina” (if the surname of the inventor Karl Drais (Drais) is read in the French manner and the suffix.ine is added to it, meaning belonging it will turn out Draisine, that is, in Russian speaking, a trolley).

The interest in railcars was so great, and the profits from their sales were such that at the end of 1818 the British merchant Denis Johnson announced the release of a new, improved model. There was a slight hitch. it took a new word for an improved trolley in order to distinguish the old model from the significantly redesigned new one (otherwise it would be like inventing an airship and continue to call it the old word “balloon”).

However, this awkward pause did not last long. the French inventor Joseph Nicephorus Niepce, better known as the discoverer of photography, proposed the word vélocipède “bicycle” almost immediately after the appearance of the new model of the railcar.

The French word “bicycle” is formed by the addition of two Latin words velox “fast” and pedis “legs” (ie literally “swift” or “swift”). The appeal to Latin was not accidental. firstly, Latin has always been the language of learned men, and secondly, the French more than other European peoples loved to indulge in Latin words. However, the authorship of the word “bicycle” is disputed by another Frenchman.

According to the second widespread version, the improved model of Denis Johnson was named dandy-horse (ie “horse of the English dandy”). But the word “bicycle” appeared a little later.

Other vintage bicycles

In the history of the bicycle, there are models that have not gained much popularity and have practically not influenced the evolution of the vehicle in any way. First of all, this can be attributed to the two-wheeled bicycle without pedals invented by the Scotsman Thomas McCall in 1830. The main difference between the model and the trolley is that the development has a slightly larger front wheel than the rear.

The bicycle did not become popular and another Scotsman. Kirkpatrick Macmillan. In 1839-1840, a blacksmith from a small village perfected McCall’s invention by adding a saddle and pedals to it. We can say that it was Macmillan who was the first to make a bicycle that bears the maximum resemblance to the modern one. The pedals set in motion the rear wheel, which in turn was connected by connecting rods to metal rods. It was possible to turn the front wheel with a steering wheel, the cyclist was placed between the wheels. It reminds us a lot of the bike we are used to, doesn’t it? It was only in those years that the invention remained unnoticed, since it was much ahead of its time.

In the second half of the 19th century, bicycles with a huge front wheel and a disproportionately small rear wheel, known to all of us from old photographs and engravings, appeared. Such bicycles received a special name. “penny-farthing”, given to them by the name of the corresponding English coins. penny and farthing (a farthing, which cost one-fourth of a penny, was much smaller than a penny).

However, these monsters went out of style very quickly, as the seat was located at a very high altitude, and the center of gravity in the penny-farthing was shifted to the front wheel, which made such bicycles rather dangerous.

Why reinvent the wheel

Each invention is based on the idea of ​​an individual or a group of persons, and the idea is based on an objective reason for the need for a new invention. According to many researchers, one of the main objective reasons for the invention of the bicycle was the hungry and cold year 1816, which went down in world history as the “Year without Summer”.

In April 1815, on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa (which is not far from the modern popular resort island of Bali), a powerful eruption of the Tambora volcano occurred, as a result of which more than 71 thousand inhabitants inhabiting the numerous islands of the region died. But the troubles did not end there. A huge amount of volcanic ash entered the atmosphere and spread through it for several months, which eventually provoked the effect of a volcanic winter in the northern hemisphere in 1816.

Constant floods, months of abnormal cold, incessant cold showers and even snow in the middle of summer. all this almost completely ruined the crop. The effects of the eruption were felt for several more years. Western Europe and North America were particularly affected by weather anomalies. As a result, a massive death of malnourished livestock began. The number of horses also dropped sharply, which forced an urgent search for an alternative to this method of transportation.

The birth of modern wanderers

In 1884, the Englishman John Kemp Starley created a new bicycle model and named it. which in translation from English means “wanderer”, “vagrant”. This model became so popular that in some languages ​​the word Rover began to be used to denote a bicycle in general. as, for example, in Polish (rower), from where it later got into Western Belarusian (rovar) and Western Ukrainian (rover). And John Kemp Starley, inspired by the success of the new model, founded the Rover Company a couple of years later, which eventually turned into a giant automobile concern and existed until 2005, when it suddenly went bankrupt.

The first rovers already had a chain drive to the rear wheel, the wheels themselves were the same size, and the cyclist sat between them. This design seemed like a real breakthrough after dubious penny-farthing, and was called “safe”.

Further, the history of the bicycle is only about improving the Starley rovers. In 1888, the vehicle was equipped with inflatable rubber tires (invention of John Boyd Dunlop), which made riding as comfortable and popular as possible. This is how the golden age of bicycles began.

In 1898, the problem of braking was solved. Pedal brakes came into use, and the hand brakes that appeared did not immediately find widespread use. A freewheel mechanism was also invented, thanks to which the bicycle was able to roll itself, without pedaling.

In 1878, the first folding bicycle was made, in the 1890s. an aluminum one. By the beginning of the twentieth century, gearshift mechanisms appeared. However, those systems were absolutely inconvenient and unpopular. The modern mechanism was invented in 1950 by the Italian cyclist Tullio Campagnolo.

At the end of the twentieth century, special racing and mountain bikes were designed in the United States, which we know to this day.

Selection features

The dimensions of the structure when folded are of decisive importance when choosing. This becomes especially important when it is necessary to regularly transport the product in transport. If you need a model with which you can enter the train or fit into the car, then you can stop at almost any available option. However, if you need frequent flights or daily commutes with a bike on the subway, you will need a model of a truly compact design.

In order to protect a folding two-wheeled vehicle from theft, it is worth remembering: it must be lightweight and can be quickly transformed. Then it will be possible to carry it with you everywhere, without leaving it unattended on the street. Otherwise, buying a folding bike is completely useless.

Who are inexpensive folding bikes suitable for??

The folding model is an ideal solution for owners of cramped apartments who do not have the ability to store a full-fledged model of a monolithic structure. If necessary, the product can be hidden in a closet, shoved into a closet or placed on a balcony.

A folding bike for a man is the best way to get to work, go for business or shopping, and return home, while reducing travel costs. At the first need with such a bike, you can go into any room.

Configuration

The standard folding bike for men has a small frame with a center articulated joint. However, there are currently a wide variety of models on the market with different types of designs. For example, the Strida small wheel folding bike, which is in high demand among consumers, has a telescopic mechanism for adjusting the position of the saddle and handlebars. This feature makes the configuration even more compact.

When buying, you should pay attention to the presence of functional latches that can ensure reliable fixation of mechanisms. Some models of bikes provide the ability to remove wheels during transformation. However, bicycles in which different parts have to be carried separately for transport are not very comfortable.

Certain models have a configuration that allows the structural elements to be firmly connected to each other when folded. Others require a special case, bag or backpack.

Most folding bicycles are made from steel. Aluminum structures are quite rare. As for the lightweight carbon fiber, in this case we are not talking about it at all. To the weight of the frame, it is necessary to add a rack, pedals, a saddle, various accessories, which makes some products not so light.

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disadvantages

Another obvious drawback is the relatively low travel speed. Most models have miniature wheels up to 20 inches (just over 50 centimeters). Such a disadvantage leaves an imprint on the possibility of developing the desired speed. Therefore, for people who need effective physical training or want to drive on rough terrain, a folding bike with small wheels is not a very worthy option.

Transmission

The speed parameter is not the strongest side of folding models. There are plenty of bicycles in this category with a wide gear shifting range though. However, the purchase of such products does not always justify itself due to the high price. Therefore, as a two-wheeled vehicle for movement in a city at a relatively low speed, it is quite enough to purchase a bicycle with standard three speeds.

How to choose a folding bike with small wheels?

On domestic roads, a folding bicycle with small wheels is as rare as models with an electric motor. Despite this, consumer interest in such things is gradually returning. This is due to the desire of numerous urban residents to switch to compact and inexpensive two-wheeled vehicles.

Benefits

Thanks to the introduction of innovative developments in the production of folding bicycles, modern options are distinguished by the use of more reliable materials of manufacture, durable construction, minimum weight, and the presence of a high-quality transformation system.

What are the benefits of using a folding bike? Let’s take a look at the highlights.

  • Possibility of transportation by private and public transport.
  • Saving free space during transport and storage.
  • Ability to move by public transport and bicycle alternately.
  • High resale value.

There are models that are compactly transformed and packed in a special carry-on suitcase. When folded, such a structure can be easily taken with you to the office. In addition, models of this configuration are easily transported on a train, subway car, bus and plane without having to pay money for the cargo.

Compact folding bicycles are the presence of “wheels” in any hiking trip. Buying a model with the possibility of a compact transformation opens up completely new horizons for avid tourists.

When the bicycle was invented?

First graders will get acquainted with the history of the development of the bicycle and its structure; learn the rules of safe cycling.

EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS: samples of children’s bicycles (two-wheeled and three-wheeled), interactive whiteboard, presentation (slides with images of old and modern bicycles).

There are two pedals at the bottom, they twist them with their feet.

That’s right, it’s a bike. It will be discussed in today’s lesson. precisely, we learn about when the bicycle was invented.

It turns out that these are different names for a familiar bicycle. It’s just that at different times the bike was arranged differently and had different names.

The project of the first bicycle was proposed back in 1495 by the great Italian scientist Leonardo da Vinci. He drew a two-wheeled mechanism with all the details. But people saw this drawing only at the end of the 19th century. Therefore, so many inventors around the world tried to create this two-wheeled car in the 17th and 18th centuries.

In 1817, a two-wheeled bicycle appeared in Germany. It was a heavy, rigid structure with equal-sized wooden wheels reinforced with iron hoops. The movement was carried out by pushing the feet off the ground. Apparently, that is why the new car was called a bicycle. after all, in translation “bicycle” means “fast foot”.

It was inconvenient to move on it, the rider was shaking. This car was nicknamed “bone shaker” then. Consider the image of the “bone shaker” on page 22. It has been replaced by the “spider”. It was a bicycle in which, instead of wooden wheels, metal hoops with a large number of spokes appeared. The metal hoops were covered with rubber tires. The diameter of the wheels was increased to increase the travel speed. The Spiders already had control levers and pedals attached to the front wheel. The front wheel was enlarged and the man sat over it. This situation was dangerous.

Consider the image of this bike in the tutorial.

20 years later, the “spider” was replaced by a car that looks like a modern bicycle.

Nowadays, residents of many countries use the services of a bicycle, preferring it over a car.

Children work in pairs, then 2-3 pupils go to the board, show and name parts of the bike.

Steering wheel. a device for controlling movement in a given direction.

Tire. a rubber casing (tire) with a rubber tube filled with compressed air. Attaches to the wheel rim to improve movement.

Spoke. a metal rod used to connect the wheel hub to the rim.

Rim. the outer part of the wheel in the form of a circle, resting on the spokes and covered with a tire from above.

Is it possible to travel by bike everywhere? Look at the signs on page 18 of the notebook. Who knows what they mean?

A bicycle on a blue background is a permit sign. It denotes a cycle path, that is, the place where you can ride. Any sign in the red circle is prohibitive. What does he forbid us? (You cannot ride a bike.)

Correctly. You cannot ride a bike in this place. Color these signs in your workbook and memorize them.

The teacher writes down the titles on the chalkboard. Bicycle slides appear as the story progresses.

Look at the pictures of bicycles in the first task of the notebook. What bike do you ride in early childhood? What do teenagers ride? And which one. adults? Number the images.

Road bikes have a sturdy frame, wide tires, high-positioned handlebars.

Sports bicycles have a lightweight design, made of special steel, they have a low handlebar, a speed switch and hand brakes. Where are these bicycles used??

A type of sports bike is a tandem two-wheeled bicycle. It can reach speeds of up to 70 kilometers per hour.

Special bicycles are circus, cargo, tricycle and cycle carriages.

There are cargo bicycles with a trailed sidecar, into which several kilograms of cargo can be folded. Mail is delivered to them. There are tricycles for adults. They are specially designed for the elderly. There are pedal boats.

Modern bicycles can be folded easily.

Reading the conclusion drawn by the Wise Turtle.

The teacher gives an assignment for self-examination. After completing it, the children check their answer with the modular answer, which the teacher writes on the board, and show the grade.

Presentation. Bicycle scheme, history of creation

Text of this presentation

A bicycle is a vehicle that has two or more wheels and is set in motion by the muscular force of a person. The bicycle is the central figure in road traffic. Cyclist

History of the bicycle The project of the first bicycle was proposed back in 1495 by the great Italian scientist Leonardo da Vinci. He drew a two-wheeled mechanism with all the details. But people saw this drawing only at the end of the 19th century. Therefore, so many inventors around the world tried to create this two-wheeled car in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The history of the bicycle In 1817, the two-wheeled bicycle appeared in Germany. It was a heavy, rigid structure with equal-sized wooden wheels reinforced with iron hoops. The movement was carried out by pushing the feet off the ground. Apparently, that is why they called the new car a bicycle. after all, in translation “bicycle” means “fast leg”. It was inconvenient to move on it, the rider was shaking. They called this car then “bone shaker”

The history of the bicycle It was replaced by a “spider” It was a bicycle in which instead of wooden wheels, metal hoops with a large number of spokes appeared. The metal hoops were covered with rubber tires. The diameter of the wheels was increased to increase the travel speed. The Spiders already had control levers and pedals attached to the front wheel. The front wheel was enlarged and the man sat over it. This situation was dangerous.

Rooster The Rooster is a metal bracket to which the rear derailleur is attached. It can be fixed and removable. Removable in high-level frames. it is obligatory Bicycle scheme FRAME Bicycle frame Modern bicycle frames are made of steel alloys (Hi Ten, Cromo), titanium, aluminum, and there is also a class of frames made of polymer materials such as carbon. Universal mounts on the frame The mounts on the frame can be used to mount various accessories. flask with water, pump, etc. High-end frames have disc brake connectors.

Grips Grips are grips that fit over the handlebars for easy handling. Grips can be rubber, foam, gel, etc. Bicycle scheme STEERING COLUMN Bicycle handlebars The handlebars of a bicycle can be straight, curved and road (ram’s horns). On a straight steering wheel, “horns” (handles on the edges of the steering wheel) are often placed. Handlebar Stem The handlebar stem largely determines the rider’s position. Choosing the lift and the length of the stem, you can take both a walking (almost vertical) and high-speed (lower and aerodynamic) landing. There are adjustable stem models.

Front derailleur The front derailleur is a mechanism that allows the chain to move over the sprockets of the system. It is connected to monoblocks by means of a cable system. The front derailleur is one of the most unpretentious mechanisms in a bicycle. Diagram of a bicycle GEARSHIFTING SYSTEM Shifters (monoblocks) This is the center of bicycle control. brake levers and gearshift levers. Rear Derailleur Roller This is a fairly quickly wearing component that also requires maintenance and lubrication.

Bicycle diagram BRAKING SYSTEM Brakes One of the most important components of a bicycle is the brake. There are three main types of brakes: drum brakes. braking starts when the cyclist pedals in the opposite direction. rim brakes. caliper brakes, these are V-brakes or cantilever brakes that clamp the rim of a bicycle wheel. disc brake. brakes where braking occurs due to the compression of the disc mounted on the wheel hub (as in motorcycles).

Scheme of a bicycle CUSHIONING SYSTEM Fork Forks are of two types. shock-absorbing and rigid. The rigid fork is mainly used on bicycles aimed at speed. road, touring and track models, and a shock-absorbing fork, on mountain bikes and hybrids, since it absorbs not only shocks, but also some of the energy from pedaling and gives extra weight on the highway. Suspension forks are distinguished by stroke length and type of mechanics. air, oil, elastomeric and mixed types. Rear shock absorber Rear shock absorber is equipped with mountain and touring models, its installation is possible only on a specialized frame. The rear shock absorber, like the front (fork), eats up part of the cyclist’s efforts, adds weight to the bike, comfort and controllability for the cyclist.

Bicycle Diagram SYSTEM System This is a set of chainrings and a connecting rod. Usually, it consists of three, rarely two or one stars. Road bikes typically have two stars at 52.32. Mountain bikes usually have 48,38,28 or 42 (44-46), 32.22 teeth on their sprockets. Some systems are equipped with a protective plastic ring. this prevents clothing from getting between the teeth and the chain. Pedals There are two basic types of pedals. toe clips (regular pedals with a strap for attaching a foot), a regular platform (with which you can ride in any shoe) and contact pedals (require special attachment on cycling shoes).

Bicycle scheme SYSTEM Cassette Rear sprocket set. Mountain bikes typically have sprockets between 11 and 34. The number of teeth on the system relative to the teeth on the cassette is called the gear ratio On a modern bicycle, the number of cassette sprockets is 6 to 10. Cranks Cranks are attached to the system and pedals are attached to them. Chain The chain is the most complex mechanical device in a bicycle. The chain is constantly subject to wear and is subject to constant maintenance, lubrication and timely replacement.

Bicycle scheme WHEELS Nipple A simple mechanism for keeping air in the chamber. In the modern bicycle, there is a car or a bicycle. Tire Stability of the bike on different types of road surface and speed directly depend on the type of tire. Tires are distinguished by rubber density, tread type and width. Wheel rim The durability of the wheel as a whole and, in many respects, the speed of the bicycle, depend on the strength of the wheel rim. For a mountain bike, the standard wheel diameter is 26 (but there are models and 28, 29)

Bicycle layout WHEELS Spokes Spokes are a very vulnerable component, which, in addition to the stress from the cyclist, is constantly subjected to impacts on bumps in the road. Usually the wheels are spoked crosswise (in three crosses) or radially (in the sun). Wheel hubs A sophisticated mechanism, closed from dirt, which provides rotation of the wheel on the axle and holds the spokes. It is subject to great stress, since it carries the entire weight of the cyclist and bicycle. There are many types of hubs that are designed for different types of load, type of brakes and number of spokes.

Bicycle layout SADDLE AND VERB Saddle The part of the bike that the cyclist touches during the entire ride. Road saddles are narrow and long, mountain bike saddles are wider, and city bikes are very wide and spring loaded. There is a division into male and female. Material: leather, imitation leather, others. Eccentric Seat Clamp. Clamps the seat post into the frame. They come with an eccentric or a regular bolt. Seatpost. a verb The position of the cyclist and the distance of the legs to the ground directly depend on the height of the seatpost. Seatposts are rigid. aluminum, steel or carbon tube with saddle attachment and shock absorption.

Cycling Cycling is not permitted on most city streets, in settlements and on highways. The bicycle as a vehicle has its own characteristics: Firstly, it is driven not by the engine, but by the muscular efforts of the cyclist. Therefore, its speed depends on the physical fitness of the driver. Secondly, the bike is highly maneuverable. Thirdly, it is characterized by insufficient stability. Therefore, it is necessary to seriously learn to ride a bike, be prepared for various situations that may arise on the road.

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Cycling rules You can ride only on special bike paths and areas closed to road transport; It is prohibited to drive on the streets and roads under the age of 14; If you need to cross a road, get off your bike and, holding it by the handlebars, walk along the pedestrian crossing. You cannot ride a bike holding the handlebars with one hand or not at all. Cyclists are allowed to transport cargo on bicycles, but the transported items must not interfere with the control of the bike. Every cyclist, like any driver, is obliged to know well the structure of his car and to keep the bike in good technical condition at all times. Sometimes you want to ride someone on your bike. But this idea is dangerous, an overloaded bike is difficult to control, you can get run over by a car or fall.

Cycling Rules 3.9 “Cycling is prohibited”. 4.5 “Cycle path. Only bicycles and mopeds are allowed.”

Everyone should know this! Basic requirements for the technical condition of the bicycle: The bicycle must always have serviceable brakes and a sound signal.When driving on roads at night, the bicycle must be equipped with a white flashlight (headlight) in front, a red light or reflector at the back.Bicycle drivers are prohibited: system or steering system Ride a bicycle without grasping the steering wheel with at least one hand. Carry passengers, except for a child under the age of 7, in an additional seat Move along the carriageway, if there is a cycle path nearby

What do you need for a bike trip? General equipment: Tent. the main criterion is weight, ease of construction, quality of material and workmanship Map and compass Timetable of electric trains Boilers for cooking Either a cable or taganok or a burner, in the latter case, the boilers must be suitable for the burner Fire mittens. Food for breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks Chainsaw Ax.

What do you need for a bike trip? Individual equipment: Backpack, biker or bicycle (backpack on the trunk) KLMN (Mug, Spoon, Bowl, Knife) Foam. tourist mat Sleeping bag Two sets of clothes in which to ride (the best bicycle uniform) and in which to bite (cotton ) A suit made of waterproof fabric or a cape in case of rain Personal hygiene items First aid kit a. Bicycle helmet Money and passport

What do you need for a bike trip? For a bicycle: Bicycle first aid kit for repairing tubes and tires. Spare spokes Wrenches (hexagons, adjustable). Chain lubricants. Spare tube and tire (one for several people). Pump Rag Underframe Bag

Cycling Bags Underframe Bag Cycle Backpack Narrow Bag Cycle Backpack Cover

Cycling uniforms Cycling pants Cycling shorts Cycling t-shirt Cycling jacket Cycling socks Cycling boots Shoe covers Cycling helmets

Presentation for an extracurricular event “How the bicycle appeared

Description of the presentation for individual slides:

The world around us When the bicycle was invented

He has two wheels and a saddle on the frame. There are two pedals at the bottom, they twist them with their feet.

One young athlete once boasted that he could ride a scooter, bone shaker, spider and bicycle. How many mechanisms did the young athlete master??

It turns out that these are different names for a familiar bicycle, just at different times the bicycle was arranged differently and had different names.

The project of the first bicycle was proposed back in 1495 by the great Italian scientist Leonardo da Vinci. He drew a two-wheeled mechanism with all the details. But people saw this drawing only at the end of the 19th century. Therefore, so many inventors around the world tried to create this two-wheeled car in the 17th and 18th centuries.

I Bet You’ve Never Seen A Bike Like This Before! WOODEN WHEEL BMX

In 1817, a two-wheeled bicycle appeared in Germany. It was a heavy, rigid structure with equal-sized wooden wheels reinforced with iron hoops. The movement was carried out by pushing the feet off the ground. Apparently, that is why the new car was called a bicycle. after all, in translation “bicycle” means “fast foot”. It was inconvenient to move on it, the rider was shaking. They called this car then “bone shaker”.

It was replaced by a “spider”. It was a bicycle in which, instead of wooden wheels, metal hoops with a large number of spokes appeared. The metal hoops were covered with rubber tires. The diameter of the wheels was increased to increase the travel speed. The Spiders already had control levers and pedals attached to the front wheel. The front wheel was enlarged and the man sat over it. This situation was dangerous.

20 years later, the “spider” was replaced by a car that looks like a modern bicycle.

Nowadays, residents of many countries use the services of a bicycle, preferring it over a car.

Where do you ride your bikes? Can you enter the roadway? Is it possible to travel by bike everywhere? How old can you go on the road?

Look at the signs. Who knows what they mean?

The bicycle shown on a blue background is a permit sign. It denotes a cycle path, that is, the place where you can ride.

Any sign in the red circle is prohibitive. You cannot ride a bike in this place.

What different bicycles are now produced! Depending on the purpose and design features, bicycles are divided into road, sports, teenage, children’s and special bicycles.

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Presentation and outline of the lesson of the outside world, grade 1 on the topic “When the bicycle was invented

Selected for viewing document Synopsis of the lesson of the surrounding world in class 1a.docx

Summary of the lesson of the outside world in grade 1a “When the bicycle was invented?” Teacher Katargina N.V.

The purpose of the lesson: creating conditions for the formation of knowledge, skills, skills of students “When did you invent the bicycle?” and for the formation of UUD of students (cognitive, regulatory, communicative)

Knowledge: get acquainted with the history of creation and types of bicycles; learn that children under 14 cannot ride bicycles on streets and roads; will remember the road signs “Cycle path”, “Bicycles are prohibited”.

Skills: learn to name and show bike parts.

Skills : will clarify the rules for safe cycling

Regulatory: be able to define and formulate a goal in the lesson with the help of a teacher; to pronounce the sequence of actions in the lesson; plan your actions in accordance with the task at hand; make the necessary adjustments to the action after its completion based on its assessment and taking into account the nature of the mistakes made, evaluate the correctness of the action at the level of an adequate retrospective assessment.

Cognitive: be able to navigate in your knowledge system:

to distinguish the new from the already known with the help of the teacher;

gain new knowledge: find answers to questions using the textbook, your life experience and information received in the lesson;

choose the most effective ways to solve problems (analysis of life situations related to the purpose of the lesson);

use symbolic means, including models and diagrams for solving lesson problems.

Communicative: learn to work in pairs, groups, listen to the interlocutor; predict the emergence of conflicts in the presence of different points of view;

learn to build statements that are understandable for a partner, formulate your own position.

Personal: master the initial skills of adaptation in a dynamically changing world; master the roles of a student; the formation of interest in learning

The lesson begins (preparation of the workplace)

Actualization of basic knowledge, goal-setting

(slide 1) The Wise Turtle has prepared a riddle for you. Guess her.

There are two pedals at the bottom, they twist them with their feet

So the topic of our lesson is “When the bicycle was invented?”

How many of you guys have a bike? This means the topic will be relevant and useful

(slide 2) The ant sees the bike for the first time. “Perhaps it was invented recently?” he thought.

(Slide 3) One young athlete once boasted that he can ride a scooter, bone shaker, spider and bicycle. How many mechanisms do you think the young athlete has mastered??

(slide 4) It turns out that these are different names for a familiar bicycle, just at different times the bicycle was arranged differently and had different names.

-Do you know who was the first to invent the bicycle??

(slide 5) the project of the first bicycle was proposed back in 1495 by the great Italian scientist Leonardo da Vinci. He drew a two-wheeled mechanism with all the details.

-consider the drawing. Does it look like a modern bicycle?

(slide 6) 200 years ago Efim Mikheevich Artamonov from Urals often had to walk from Nizhniy Tagil to Staroutkinskaya pier, covering only 80 km at one end. Perhaps, during these transitions, the idea of ​​building a scooter appeared. Artamonov’s scooter was made of iron. It had two wheels located one after the other. The front wheel was almost three times the size of the rear. The scooter was driven by feet by alternately pressing the pedals, which sat on the front wheel axle

But in Yekaterinburg, the famous countryman was not forgotten and a monument in his Honor was created

(slide 7) They worked on the device for fast movement not only in Russia, but also in other countries. In 1817, a two-wheeled bicycle appeared in Germany, it was invented by the German officer Karl Friedrich Drez.

It was a heavy, rigid structure with wooden wheels of equal size. The movement was carried out by pushing the legs off the ground.

Apparently, that is why the new car was named “bicycle”. after all, in translation this word means “fast leg”.

It was inconvenient to move on it, the rider was shaking.

Then they called this car “bone shaker”

(slide 8) It was replaced by a bicycle, in which metal hoops with a large number of spokes appeared instead of wooden wheels.

The Spiders already had control levers and pedals attached to the front wheel. The front wheel was enlarged and the man sat over it. This situation was dangerous

(slide 10) And then the real boom of bicycles began.

trust him to control the bike. STEERING WHEEL

the most important part, to which its other components are attached. FRAME

they serve to transfer muscular force to the wheels. PEDALS

they serve to soften the ride of the bike. TIRE

the outer part of the wheel to which the tires are attached. RIM

connect the center of the wheel to the rim. SPOKE

the item on which they sit at the moment of movement. SADDLE

-Is it possible for you to enter the roadway?

-How old can you be on the road

For cyclists, as well as for car drivers, there are rules for safe riding.

Your friend is riding a bike. He decided to show his skills and took his hands off the steering wheel, took his feet off the pedals. How this ride will end?

The bike shown on a blue background is a permit sign. It denotes a cycle path, that is, the place where you can ride.

Any sign in the red circle is prohibitive. You cannot ride a bike in this place.

What different bicycles are now being produced. It depends on the purpose and design features.

ROAD. they are designed for daily business trips and are designed for many years of service, not designed for sports loads.

SPORTS. suitable for riding almost anywhere, these bikes are a combination of different components of mountain and touring bikes.

TEEN. small replica of an adult road bike.

CHILD. is more of a toy than a serious vehicle.

Reinforcement of the passed material

Choose a bike (yellow, green, red)

Selected document when the bicycle was invented.pptx