The bike does not switch to 1 speed

What parts help to adjust the speed switches

The multi-speed mountain bike or city bike is equipped with multiple gears and offers new possibilities. It is much easier to conquer peaks, ride on irregularities, even perform various tricks on it. To enjoy cycling, you need to set the speed switch correctly.

Those who first decided to independently understand the switch mechanism should first familiarize themselves with the details of the transmission and their functions.

Knowledge of the structure of modern bicycles helps to properly set up gear shifting.

We will not dwell on each part of the bike in detail. Let’s consider just some of the elements that make up the transmission.

  • the front derailleur assists the chain in guiding the system. Attaches to the frame in the area of ​​the pedals;
  • the system is part of the front derailleur. It also consists of stars, different in diameter and number of teeth, which are attached to the connecting rods with special bolts;

The front derailleur is in the pedal area

  • the rear derailleur helps the chain run over the cassette drive sprockets. Located in the area of ​​the rear wheel;
  • cassette / ratchet is part of the rear derailleur. Consists of several stars, different in diameter and number of teeth. On expensive bicycles, the cassette is attached to the drum. In the cheaper ones, there is a ratchet in place of the drum. The latter can also be seen on older model bicycles;
  • Rear derailleur located on the rear wheel

    chain. part of the transmission, which must be periodically lubricated with special oils and washed;

    The bike chain is an important part of the drivetrain

    shifters (or shifters). a device with which the cyclist controls gearshift. Pressing the lever changes the cable tension, as a result of which the speed changes. It is mounted on the steering wheel, near the handles. The shifter at the right handle is responsible for the rear derailleur, on the left. for the front. There are bicycles with one right shifter;

    Shifters are mounted on the steering wheel and are responsible for gear shifting

  • cables. the parts that connect the shifters to the speed switches. A high-quality transition from one speed to another depends on the correct tension of the cable;
  • shirt. a rigid tube through which a cable runs. Attaches to the frame.
  • The transmission cable connects the shifter to the derailleur

    The operation of the rear and front derailleur is as follows: if the cable is pulled, the derailleur frame moves the chain to higher sprockets. If, on the contrary, weaken the cable, then the frame will throw the chain onto smaller stars.

    The speeds are switched with the help of shifters (coins) located on the steering wheel. The rear derailleur is adjustable with the right shifter. Thus, the chain jumps between the rear sprockets. And the front derailleur is adjustable with a shifter on the left side. So the chain jumps among the chainrings.

    Setting up bike speed switches

    bike, does, switch, speed

    In this article, we’ll take a look at how to set up your bike’s derailleurs. The speed switches at first glance may seem like a complicated mechanism, although they have a rather primitive design.

    Gear shifting occurs due to the loosening and tension of the cable that moves the switch. That is, in fact, switches are the simplest mechanical design, and there is nothing difficult in adjusting them. The setting always starts with the rear derailleur, except when only one of the bike derailleurs needs to be adjusted.

    Front derailleur adjustment

    The front derailleur is less common than the rear derailleur. Bicycles with this device are cheaper. The front derailleur moves the chain to the stars of the system. Moving from side to side, he pushes the chain to the next star.

    Front derailleur device

    • Switch frame. A chain passes through it, this is the main element when switching speeds. She moves to the sides in front of the leading stars.
    • Parallelogram. the mechanism itself (speed switch). Includes spring.
    • Fastening to the frame.
    • Upper stop L.
    • Lower stop H.
    • Fastening the cable.

    The main problem with the front derailleur is that the chain hits the frame when driving. You can fix this problem yourself.

    Speed ​​selector adjustment

    Setting up the front derailleur is easy enough.

    However, there are some peculiarities:

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    • First you need to adjust the position of the front derailleur relative to the frame. You need to slightly loosen the so-called adjusting screw and set the frame horizontally. This frame must be parallel to the chain.
    • The next step is to set the required front derailleur height. It is recommended to set the gap between the edge of the frame and the teeth of no more than 2 mm. This indicator is largely responsible for the quality of gear shifting.
    • With the front derailleur bezel correctly positioned in both planes, secure the screw.
    • After that, you need to install the chain on the largest chainring at the back and the smallest at the front.
    • Use the screw to release the cable. Turn until it stops, and then unscrew the so-called adjusting drum one turn.
    • Now you need to set the frame in such a position relative to the chain so that the inner side of the frame is removed by 1-2 mm.
    • Pull the cable slightly and fix the screw.
    • Now the big star of the system needs to be installed the chain.
    • Use special screw H for adjustment.
    • Check the quality of the setting.
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    Cables and shirts

    Special attention should also be paid to cables with shirts. The shirt is the sheath of the cable. And special attention should be paid to them for the simple reason that if the cable or shirt is damaged, then at the most crucial moment it can break, and subsequently switching speeds will be impossible.

    Therefore, they must be chosen very carefully so that there is no damage or traces of rust, and for each cable there is a different type of shirt. There are only three of them. a SIS braid, a SIS-SP braid and a twisted braid. Based on the selected cable, the correct shirt should also be selected. Otherwise, it may happen that the cable will rub the entire sheath, and it will fail.

    How to adjust the rear derailleur on a bike

    To independently configure all the mechanisms and put them into action, you need to do the following:

    • you need to check if the switch itself is bent. This can be determined by looking at the tensioner. it should be parallel to the stars on the rear wheel. If it’s all about him, then you need to try to straighten it with pliers or other tools.
    • if everything is fine with the switch, then most likely the cock is to blame (this is the mount on which the switch is placed). Most often, it also bends, and it has to be straightened periodically, so that at the first breakdown it needs to be replaced.

    If all of the above is done or in order, then you can proceed directly to the switch setting itself.

    This should be done as follows:

    • put the switch on the highest speed (that is, on the smallest star)
    • we find two screws. H and L. Turn the screw H so that the roller on the switch moves one mark with a smaller star
    • put on the lowest speed (large sprocket), and rotate screw L until the roller is aligned with the large sprocket
    • again set to the highest speed, and pull the cable. In this case, you need to make sure that he got into the special prem. It should be pulled tighter!
    • check switching! If it switches very tightly, or does not switch at all, then you need to loosen the cable a little, or, on the contrary, pull it.
    • if everything works well, then we can assume that the job is done.

    The reasons

    The scheme of operation of switching speeds involves throwing a chain. After the shifter has been pulled, you need to rotate the pedal, only after that the chain will move to another star. Extraneous sounds and clicks when switching may indicate that a changeover setting is needed.

    Why the speed may not switch:

    • the chain or cassette is worn out;
    • the cock bent;
    • switch backlash;
    • damage to cables and shirts;
    • the switch has not been adjusted or the previous setting has lost;
    • the transfer cable is damaged (it may stretch, break or be close to breaking);
    • broken switch;
    • broken spring in the switch;
    • the teeth of the rollers are ground off;
    • the chain is dirty, which prevents it from swinging freely.

    Therefore, if there are problems with switching, it is necessary to carefully check each of the possible causes of failure. In most cases, the reason lies in the lack of regulation or all the fault of pollution. Parts can only wear out with long-term and intensive use.

    What to do if the bike does not switch gears: ways to solve the problem

    Always keep your bike in good condition. But in spite of everything, some parts tend to wear out, which entails certain problems. For example, the speed of the bike does not change. What is the reason and how to fix it? In some cases, the problem can be solved on site, in other situations it is necessary to replace the worn part.


    An even cock is the key to high-quality gear shifting in your bike. If it is bent, then there are two options: bend it or buy a new one. In any case, until this part becomes even, it makes no sense even to try to adjust the gears on the bike, since the undertaking will be unsuccessful due to damage to the system.

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    One of the most unnecessary accessories for cyclists is a rooster guard. Such a detail can be found without any problems in any city. But if the protection works and the part itself remains intact, and the frame cracks because of this, then the one who bought such a device will suffer high costs.

    Setting the switches

    Derailleurs on a bicycle are divided into front and rear. It is the rear ones that are most damaged when driving, so it is recommended to adjust them first. The process itself will be long, since there are more stars here than in the front derailleur.

    [attention type = yellow] Important! It is necessary to proceed to setting the speeds on the bike only after all other parts have been checked for serviceability. [/ Attention]

    • The screw “H” must be tightened so that it aligns with the small sprocket.
    • The screw “L” must be tightened so that it is on the line with a large sprocket.
    • You need to set the highest speed on the shifter.
    • The cable is stretched and fixed.
    • If, after the performed manipulations, high gears are turned on with interference, then the cable must be loosened. If the situation is the opposite (the gears are badly thrown off), then the cable must be pulled.

    The main configuration steps are now complete. The only thing left for the cyclist is to adjust the shifting accuracy. The procedure will get more complicated depending on the number of stars used. The chain is installed on the stars as follows: in front. on the smallest, on the back. on the largest. After that, the tension screw is tightened until the roller is as close as possible to the cassette. It should not rub against the cassette. A similar procedure is carried out with the chain, which is then installed on the largest chainring and the smallest rear chainring.

    • Check the correctness and tightness of the fastening.
    • Release tension at minimum speed.
    • The screw “L” must be tightened so that a gap of 1 mm is created between the body and the chain.
    • Fasten the cable with the bolt.
    • Repeat the same procedure with screw “H”, but then the tension is set to the maximum speed.

    You will need to adjust the speeds until the chain begins to smoothly and freely change from one speed to another. If, when changing the speed, problems begin (difficult move, the chain flies, and so on), then the cable is tensioned using the adjusting bolt to the desired position.

    After the manipulations with the settings are completed, the system is checked using a check-in, where the recommended gear ratios will be used. Adjustment is a standard procedure on any speed bike, as the tension in the cables will loosen over time. Therefore, setting speeds is often a planned activity that does not require replacement of parts.

    Cables and shirts

    One of the most common problems that amateur cyclists face is cable wear. To check the condition of the cables, you need to find areas without a shirt, and then click the shifter. This will allow you to see the inside of the cable, which should not have emerging threads. The presence of such defects indicates that it is time to change the cable.

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    Another important detail is the aluminum cap. This is an obligatory part of the cable that protects it from loosening. If it is damaged, then it must be replaced.

    What to do if your bike’s derailleur is broken

    Transmission components must be kept in good condition at all times, lubricating the chain promptly, adjusting switches and troubleshooting.

    As the kilometers increase on the bike, individual parts wear out, and if maintenance is not performed on time, the part may become unusable altogether. In this article, we will look at the most common problem associated with speed derailleurs.

    It must be understood that the speed changes only when the chain moves forward. If you jerked the shifter, then you need to rotate the pedal so that the chain spreads from one star to another. If, when switching, clicking or any other extraneous sounds are emitted, you need to adjust the switching.

    The main reasons for inaccurate switching:

    • The transfer cable is torn, stretched, or is on the verge of breaking.
    • The switch itself is broken or the spring in it is worn out.
    • The teeth of the rollers are worn down.
    • Switch needs to be adjusted.
    • The chain or cassette is worn out.
    • A lot of dirt got into the chain.

    Rear derailleur

    Make sure the cock is level first. If it is still bent, you can contact the service to straighten it, or try it yourself. Alternatively, you can simply replace it. For 2016, for roosters are only about 300-900 rubles. Do not even try to tune the derailleur with a bent cock, as the gear setting on the bike in this case will not work for you.!

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    Some firms produce the so-called cock guard, which is attached to the frame. Do not buy it under any circumstances! A rooster is a consumable component that can and should be replaced if it breaks. When hitting this very protection, the cock will remain intact, but the frame may crack. The frame is harder and more expensive to change.

    When you are convinced that the rooster and the cable are in good condition, you can proceed to the actual setting.

    Place the chain on the largest chainring in the front and the smallest in the back.

    Remove the bolt that holds the rear crossover cable.

    By rotating the bolt with the inscription “H” you need to make sure that the switch rollers lie in the same plane with the desired sprocket.

    Then lightly stretch the cable and tighten the bolt holding it. Over-tensioning the cable will make the crossover difficult to work.

    Shift the speed to the lowest (i.e. the largest star in the back and smallest in the front).

    Rotate screw “L” until the derailleur rollers line up against the large sprocket.

    Check if gear changes are good.

    If shifting is not correct, use the thumbscrew on the shifter, which changes the cable tension.

    Now that you have set up the rear derailleur, you are ready to adjust the front.

    Transmission repair steps

    Repair includes adjusting the front and rear derailleurs, as well as checking the condition of the cables, chain, cassette and rollers.

    • Unscrew the bolt holding the cable.
    • Disassemble the shifter and remove the cable from it and from the shirts. Shirts are also recommended to be replaced!
    • Clean shirts and put a drop of oil in them for better cable glide.
    • Thread the new cable through the shifter and then into all shirts.
    • Start configuring the switch.
    • Bite off the excess part of the cable and secure the end with a special tip.

    If you see that the teeth of the transfer rollers or cassettes have worn out, they must be replaced with new ones. Worn cassette or rollers rotate the chain, and the quality of gear shifting on the bike suffers greatly.

    Over time, the chain deteriorates. It is recommended to keep several chains in stock and change them every 100 kilometers, because the wear of the chain will deteriorate the cassette. Multiple chains will wear out more slowly and your cassette will last longer. You can determine the state of the chain using a special tool. It is impossible to repair the chain, you just need to replace it if necessary.

    If the chain is in good condition, simply remove it, clean and lubricate. Remove excess with a napkin or dry cloth.

    Front crossover

    It is important to set it up especially accurately, since if the adjustment is not good enough when switching speeds, the chain can fly off or even break. The sequence of your actions will be as follows:

    Use the rear shifter to shift to the middle sprocket so that the chain is not too skewed.

    Next, put the chain in first gear and unscrew the bolt securing the cable.

    Use the screw “L” to move the transfer frame so that the distance from the chain to the switch on the left and right coincides.

    Without too much tension, place the cable and secure with the bolt.

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    Switch to the biggest star in the front.

    Tighten the screw “H” so that the chain is again exactly in the middle of the frame.

    Check adjustment results and achieve maximum shifting accuracy with the thumb on the shifter.

    If the shifter triggers are too tight, loosen the cable tension.

    Switching recommendations

    Drive only at speeds that will not cause the chain to tilt too much. For example, you cannot set the speed to 1/8, 1/10, 3/1 (the first number is forward gear, the second is reverse), and so on. For the smallest front chainring, you can turn on 1–4 speeds at the rear, for the middle. 3–7, for the largest. 7. If you nevertheless put an incompatible gear, there will be a risk of chain jamming and spinning, as well as an increase in its wear rate.

    On a speed bike, fast gear changes are very important, especially if you are competing. Transmission repairs should be carried out before the race, and then after, as aggressive driving can cause the shift adjustment to be out of order. If you do full maintenance of your bike at least once a season, it will serve you for a very long time.!