Missing Spark On Honda Scooter

How to check the scooter generator for serviceability

A failed generator blocks the operation of the scooter as a whole, since the entire scooter system is somehow connected with it. In case of breakdowns in the electrical system, weak spark, poor battery charge, apart from the rest of the equipment, generator breakdown cannot be ruled out.

missing, spark, honda, scooter

There are not many breakdowns in this case, these are:

  • wire breakage (for example, due to wire breakage or fumes);
  • short circuit;
  • significant reduction of the generator rotor magnetization.

Let’s consider each of the points in more detail. For example, let’s take one of the Chinese scooters, since it is these machines that are most often subject to such breakdowns. What causes the rotor magnetization to drop? This phenomenon can be observed due to impact (for example, when falling) or being near elements of a high magnetic field. As a result, the output current of the generator drops significantly during operation, and normal operation of the scooter is impossible.

It is quite easy to check the generator output voltage. First, you need to disconnect the generator connectors and connect the control device. After that, we start the engine and check the generator output voltage. The minimum voltage should be within 5V at minimum engine speed.

Now we check the output voltage of the switch. This requires a multimeter (tester) with voltage amplitude reading. We connect all the switch wires to the generator stator wires. Next, we disconnect the wire of the switch unit from the terminal of the primary winding of the ignition coil. It remains to connect one terminal to the engine ground, the other terminal to connect to the main wire of the ignition coil, which goes from the switch.

Now we set the voltmeter to the “constant current” mode and crank the engine, checking the output voltage of the switch wire to the ignition coil. Reconnect the switch wire to the coil and determine the average output voltage. Should be about 200V, this is the average value with and without a voltage amplitude reading device.

Next, we check the condition of the battery. To do this, you need to warm up the engine, then turn off the ignition, connect the tester to the battery terminals. Now we start the engine and check the voltage change depending on the rotation speed of the engine shaft. The experiment must first be carried out with the headlights on, then with the off. It should be borne in mind that at low engine speeds, the battery voltage should be at the level of idle battery no load and recharge. With an increase in speed, even at maximum values, the multimeter readings should be in the range of 14-15 volts DC. If the indicators indicated earlier are significantly overestimated, we can talk about a faulty voltage regulator. You can think about its breakdown even if, with an increase in engine speed, the multimeter values ​​remain unchanged.

It is important to know: The normal voltage of the charging current at the battery terminals when the engine is running should be within 13. 16 volts.

Now let’s check the generator’s operation without load. To do this, disconnect the magdino wire connector and, starting the engine, spin it up to 5000 rpm. Then with a multimeter in AC mode, measure the voltage between the white-red wire and ground. Typically, voltage readings should fluctuate within 65 V at 5000 rpm. This indicates that the scooter generator is working.

And finally, let’s check the stator winding. To do this, first measure the resistance between the white-red wire and ground. The nominal resistance value in this case should be 0.6. 1.1 Ohm. Now, in the same way, measure the resistance between the white-red wire and the ground. Here the average resistance values ​​should be 0.5. 0.8 ohms. Deviations of the above indicators in one direction or another may indicate the need to replace the generator winding.

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Honda DIO AF-34. The scooter won’t start. We identify the cause.

Why does Honda not start with (without) battery, with el. starter

The main reason why the scooter won’t start is a malfunction of the ignition system. The main symptom of such a malfunction is a weak spark on the scooter or its absence at all. In the article you will learn about possible ignition breakdowns, diagnostics, and repair methods.

What does the ignition system consist of?

Such a system on a scooter includes the following devices:

  • battery
  • starter
  • current generator
  • switch
  • coil
  • lock
  • candle
  • wiring.

Although all these elements have different sizes, cost and complexity of the device, their importance in the proper operation of motor vehicles is almost equal. Malfunction of only one of the above listed elements, leads to malfunction of the entire scooter.

Each of these devices has its own possible malfunctions. We will discuss each device in order in which to repair.

Spark plug

The most common failure in the ignition system (including why there is no spark on the scooter) is a spark plug failure. The reasons are completely different: carbon deposits due to poor quality fuel (or because of oil); overheat; lean or rich air-fuel mixture and others.

You can assess its condition visually by unscrewing it from the cylinder. The working color of the candle is brick. But white, black indicates problems in her work. The best way to solve the problem is to replace it with a new one. If this is not possible, then clean it with a brush, rag or ignite it on a gas burner.

Spark testing is carried out in the following order:

  • The candle is unscrewed from the cylinder together with the tip.
  • The body of the candle is leaned against the metal “mass”.
  • The engine rotates with a foot or a starter, while sparks should slip between the spark plug electrodes.

Ignition coil

If the candle is replaced with a new one, but the scooter (moped) does not start anyway, we diagnose the coil. The coil is a device with two windings. primary and secondary. Visually, this is a barrel with two contacts and an outgoing high-voltage wire.

The role of the coil is to increase the incoming voltage hundreds of times. The primary winding has two contacts as outputs. The secondary winding is enclosed between the positive contact and the end of the high-voltage wire. Violation of the integrity of one of the windings leads to the failure of the main task and, as a result, the absence of a spark.

It is better to start diagnosing the coil with the spark plug cap. There is a noise suppression resistor inside the cap, which also fails. You can check it with a multimeter, in resistance measurement mode. You need to connect the probes to the twisted cap. one to the seat of the candle, the other to the end for the armored wire. The resistance is considered to be normal. within 5 kOhm. If not, replace the cap.

On modern ignition systems, the coil is made in one piece with a wire and a tip. In this case, you need to test everything together. We connect one probe of the multimeter to the cap, the other probe. alternately to the two contacts of the coil. Determine the resistance on the primary and secondary windings of the coil.

If the readings of the device do not correspond to the reference values, we change the coil or plug cap, if removed.

Electrical wiring

Another useful principle is if you don’t know why the spark on the scooter disappeared, then check the wiring. The reason that the spark disappeared is trivial. wire breakage, oxidation of contacts, connections, or rupture of terminals. This problem is typical for any scooter. even China, even Italy.

By removing the decorative plastic sheathing, you can fully inspect the condition of the wiring. Pay attention to the ground wire from the coil to the body. The wire contacts are often oxidized and this leads to a decrease in voltage in the ignition system. The same problem exists in the contacts of the wire connecting the engine and the frame of the moped.

Thoroughly inspect the sensor and switch terminals. The wires may not contact or have poor contact, as a result, current is lost. To eliminate, clean each terminal from oxidation and carbon deposits, crimp the contacts and make sure that all are firmly held in their sockets.

Another unlikely problem (but quite possible) is a break in the ground wire from the ignition switch. The wire is used to stop the engine and transfer the lock to the off state. In the event of a wire breakage and short circuit to the frame, even when the key is turned, the spark disappears.

Switch

A switch is a complex electronic device that combines several elements. The main elements are a capacitor and a thyristor. Thyristor. an electronic device for interrupting the current going to the ignition coil. Lowering the voltage allows the thyristor to open the current path for the capacitor.

The capacitor serves to accumulate electric charge and short-term charge return at the required time. Like the ignition coil, the switch cannot be disassembled, so it is impossible to check the performance of individual elements without special equipment. Therefore, all diagnostics are reduced to replacing the device. If replacing the switch helped, the problem was with it.

Generator

An expensive part in a scooter is a generator, even if it is China, or even Japan. It rarely fails, but it does happen. You can also diagnose the device using a multimeter by measuring the resistance on the generator winding.

Near the generator, locate the two wires coming out of the crankcase. One of the wires is red and black (comes from the pulse sensor), the second is blue and white (the main winding on the generator). Test both of these devices.

To diagnose the pulse sensor, connect the multimeter probe to the red-black wire, and the second probe to ground. The nominal resistance of the circuit is 500 ohms. The generator winding is checked according to the same principle, but the probe must be connected to another wire. blue and white. In this circuit, the resistance is 150-200 ohms. If the values ​​shown by the multimeter are not within the specified ranges, change the cause of the breakdown. Poor resistance means failure of the impulse sensor, or generator winding.

Reasons for the disappearance of the spark

How else can you check for a spark. learn from this

From the article, you learned why there is no spark on a 4t scooter and the reasons for such a malfunction. The cost of repair work can vary from the cost of parts, but it is always more profitable to do the work yourself. And now you know what to do if the spark suddenly disappears; what to look for. Be careful when troubleshooting, pay attention to the little things, refer to reference books for accurate data. Success awaits you only if all conditions are met!

Scooters today are relevant, demanded and practical vehicles. People of various age categories can successfully move on them. For most owners, a scooter is the only means of transportation. Other owners use this technique for entertainment. During the operation of Chinese and Japanese mopeds, various malfunctions may occur. One of the common problems faced by many is the missing spark on the scooter. Consider the possible causes and ways to eliminate this trouble.

General diagnostics

If the moped engine stalled, you should first find out why this happened. Indeed, among the main reasons why the engine stalls on the road or refuses to start, only two are the lack of fuel or the inability to ignite the mixture. Often, during the first diagnosis, it turns out that there is gasoline in the tank, and the fuel mixture is supplied to the cylinders due to vacuum. And therefore, the fault is that the spark on the scooter disappeared. To verify this, you just need to unscrew the plug from its regular hole in the block head. Then it is inserted into the cap, its end is applied to the motor body.

Then the engine is started and the electrodes are looked at. You should also check the element not only for the presence of a spark, but also for the condition of the electrodes. The candle can be dry or damp. If the electrode is wet, then the power supply system and carburetor are not to blame, but the lack of a spark. If the spark on the 4T scooter disappears, the reasons may be different. We will consider the most probable below.

Defective candle

This is the simplest reason why there is no spark on the electrodes. Such a nuisance often happens due to the quality of the fuel, as well as due to the presence of various harmful impurities in the composition of domestic gasolines. Because of this, many owners of Chinese vehicles lost the spark on the 4T scooter (4 strokes). How to check its availability?

To make sure that the candle is out of order, it is necessary to install a new or exactly serviceable part instead. But there are times when a new one is missing, and there is nowhere to purchase it. Then a nail or a piece of wire will help. It is necessary to select such devices, the diameter of which will be sufficient so that the wire or nail does not fall out of the cap. The element must be inserted into the spark plug cap, and then it is brought to the engine body. The approximate distance from the nail to the crankcase should be 7 millimeters.

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Next, the crankshaft is scrolled with a starter. If the wiring of the scooter is completely intact, a white spark will appear between the nail and the metal housing of the motor. This means that the ignition system is operating normally, and it is worth replacing the spark plug. You can try to remove carbon deposits from it. Thus, it will work again. But most newbies do it wrong. After such purges, if the spark returns, then for a very short time.

We clean the elements correctly

How to clean candles from carbon deposits correctly, every owner of motorcycle and auto equipment should know. Most beginners try to restore parts on their own and then wonder why they don’t work.

The best effect can be achieved by using a sandblaster. If not, you can try sanding. To do this, you should purchase an electric drill and sand in a bucket. Next, take a candle and clamp it in the drill chuck by the thread on the upper part. Large threads are wound with tape. Then the part is lowered into the bucket and the tool is started. After a while, the electrodes and insulator will clean up. If for this reason the spark is gone, the scooter spark plug will work properly again.

Appearance check

The defective part must be clean. Only slight carbon deposits are allowed. However, if the electrodes are melted or black, then there will be no spark. Plugs are spoiled by too rich fuel mixture. If the insulator is white, but it has small black spots and erosion marks on the electrode, this indicates overheating. This is also evidenced by molten electrodes, an insulator in bubbles. If the part has oil deposits, it can be considered faulty and it is better to replace it with a new one. Such a simple do-it-yourself scooter repair will help to operate this transport again.

Broken wire

This is the second simple reason. This refers to the cord that connects the scooter frame and engine. This wire and its connections are the second thing to check after the candles. It is imperative to make sure that the conductor is not damaged, and its contacts are not oxidized.

Breaks in the candle cap

This reason can also be attributed to simple ones. If the spark on the scooter disappears, then you should dismantle the cap and then check its resistance level. After disconnecting the cap from the wire, take measurements. The multimeter probe is inserted into the candle hole. The other connects to the pin that the wires fit into. If the cap is intact, the multimeter will show about 5 kΩ. On most modern scooters, the high voltage wires, spark plug cap and ignition coil are made one-piece.

Breaks in the wiring

This happens very often, especially on Chinese-made scooters. Here, wire breaks in the ignition system are possible.

Failure of components of the ignition system

This is not a common reason. But if the spark on the scooter disappears and there is no apparent reason, then it is necessary to test the switch, coil, generator winding. You can check all these devices with the same multimeter. To make sure that the winding and the pulse sensor are in good working order, it is necessary to connect one tester probe to the wire from the sensor, and the second to the engine crankcase.

A normally operating pulse generator has a resistance of about 500 ohms. The generator winding resistance is two to three times less. If the meter reads infinity, then one of the components is out of order. It should be replaced with a new one. If the value is less than 150-200 ohms, then the problem is in the supply coil, and therefore the spark disappeared on the scooter. What to do in this situation? Purchase a new generator. Such a device must be repaired, but in the absence of time it is better to simply replace it. Fortunately, the cost of the generator is low.

Switch

Even a beginner will find its location. This is a plastic box with a terminal block. Multi-colored wires fit to it. The switch is required to control the operation of the ignition system. Both the switch and the ignition coil are made non-separable. If the element is out of order, then the problems can only be solved by replacement. Some service stations have special devices that allow you to test the switch. However, in order not to search for appropriate services for a long time, the easiest way is to purchase a new switch. In the process of searching for the cause of the failure of the switch, you do not need to listen to “specialists” who claim that the failure happened due to driving without a battery. This is an unreliable opinion. The fact is that in modern scooters, the power supply system and the ignition system do not depend on each other in any way.

Checking the circuit to the ignition switch

For this, the tester probe is connected to the wire coming from the switch block to the ignition switch.

Candle gap

Spark plug gap is an important factor for proper engine operation. This parameter plays an important role in the process of spark formation, ignition of the fuel mixture, and efficient operation of the scooter throughout the entire speed range. The gap must be indicated in the documentation for a particular scooter. this parameter may vary from manufacturers. Generally speaking, for most modern four-stroke Chinese and Japanese mopeds, the spark plug gap is between 0.5 and 0.8 millimeters. It is necessary to monitor this parameter. For this reason, a spark may disappear. She leaves because of too much clearance.

Fuse box

Many scooter models are equipped with short circuit protection systems. If there is no spark, you need to find the fuse box and check all the elements in it. Fuses burn frequently and need to be replaced. Then the technique will be back in service.

How not to break the ignition

Someday you will have to cook something on a scooter.

Troubleshooting the ignition system

Malfunctions of the car ignition system are unpleasant in that any of them are always accompanied by serious interruptions in the operation of the engine or its complete stop. The main symptom of a malfunctioning ignition system is the complete absence or “weak” spark between the spark plug electrodes. What if there is no spark, and where to look for it? Read about this and not only in our material.

Most often, the spark disappears exactly at the moment when you need to go somewhere. In order not to push the car to the nearest car service, it is important to understand what the operation of the ignition system depends on, then the search for the missing spark will not cause any particular difficulties.

At the end of this article, see the video instruction on finding a spark in the ignition system of VAZ cars.

And below we propose to get acquainted with the algorithm for finding the missing spark in the car ignition system.

Why is there no spark on spark plugs?

There can be several reasons for the absence of a spark on the spark plugs. The most common culprits for malfunctions are:

  • Accumulator battery;
  • High voltage wires;
  • Ignition coil;
  • Distributor;
  • Malfunctions in the low voltage circuit.

Also, in the absence of a spark, special attention should be paid to checking the quality of contacts and electrical connections of the elements of the ignition system. You can check the status of the contacts by simply rubbing them with your hand.

Carefully inspect the wires and blocks of the ignition system. if you find dirt, oil or water on them, they must be wiped with a dry cloth. Then try to start the engine, it is possible that this time it will start.

Battery check

A clear sign of a problem with the battery is a dull and quiet horn. Also, in case of problems with the battery during the rotation of the starter, as a rule, the control lamps on the instrument panel go out. In this case, the reason for the absence of a spark may be poor contact at the terminals or a low battery.

  • If terminals are oxidized, they must be cleaned and tightened. In addition, graphite grease can be used to reliably protect the contacts from oxidation in the future.
  • If the battery is discharged, it must be charged with a charger.

For information on how to properly charge a car battery and maintain it, read our instructions for charging the battery.

Checking high voltage wires

Next, it is worth inspecting the high voltage wires: they must have a neat, not “tousled” appearance, without insulation violations, otherwise they will have to be replaced. If the wires are in order, then you can start looking for a spark.

We recommend starting the search for a spark with spark plug wires. To do this, remove the tip of the spark plug wire from the spark plug and bring it to “mass” (the nearest metal unpainted part of the body or engine) at a distance of 5-8 mm, after which it is necessary to turn on the starter for a few seconds.

The rotation of the starter should be accompanied by an uninterrupted bright spark of white with a slight blue tint. If there is no spark, check the ignition coil. A purple, red or yellow spark indicates a malfunction in the ignition system.

It is also worth noting that the spark plugs themselves rarely fail all at the same time. In the presence of “sparks” in the spark plug wires, you can check any spark plug by unscrewing it from the cylinder head and putting the spark plug wire on it. Touch the metal part of the candle to “mass” vehicle, and rotating the starter, check for the presence or absence of a spark on the spark plug electrodes.

It is necessary to change the spark plugs within the time frame established by the maintenance regulations for your car (usually every 15-25 thousand km).

You can find out more about the marking and glow number of spark plugs from our material at this link.

Checking the ignition coil

To check the ignition coil, you need to pull the center wire from the coil from the distributor-breaker cover.

When rotating the starter, make sure there is a spark from the wire, by analogy with spark plug wires.

  • The appearance of a spark indicates that the ignition coil is working. In this case, the fault should be looked for in the distributor breaker.
  • If there is no spark from the wire, then the cause of the malfunction is hidden either in the ignition coil or in the low voltage circuit.

If there is a fault in the ignition coil, it should be replaced with a new one.

Checking the ignition distributor

If you suspect a malfunction of the breaker-distributor, you must carefully examine its cover from the inside.

  • If the cap is ok, then just flush it with gasoline.,
  • If cracks are found, the cover will need to be replaced.

The center carbon contact of the breaker is checked for “hanging” by moving it easily with your finger.

The rotor insulation of the interrupter-distributor is checked for breakdown as follows:

  • Place the central high-voltage wire with a gap of 5-8 mm from the rotor electrode,
  • After that, close-open the breaker contacts by hand (the ignition must be on).

The appearance of sparks in the gap indicates a malfunction of the rotor, which will need to be replaced.

Checking the low voltage circuit

A 12V test lamp up to 3W can be used to test the low voltage circuit. The lamp is connected on one side to the low voltage terminal of the breaker, and on the other to the vehicle ground.

After that, you need to manually close the contacts of the breaker-distributor and turn on the ignition. With a good low voltage circuit, the test lamp should glow when the contacts open, and when they close, go out.

If the lamp does not light up when the contacts are opened, it means that the malfunction is hidden either in the low voltage wires or in the primary winding of the ignition coil.

The constant glow of the lamp, in any position of the contacts, indicates one of three reasons for the malfunction:

  • Strong oxidation of the breaker contacts;
  • Broken wiring leading from the breaker terminal to the lever;
  • Broken wiring connecting the moving disc of the breaker to the housing.

If the cause of the malfunction turned out to be in the oxidized contacts, then they must be cleaned, after which the gap should be adjusted.

Why there is no spark on a 4t scooter: causes and remedies

The main reason why the scooter won’t start is a malfunction of the ignition system. The main symptom of such a malfunction is a weak spark on the scooter or its absence at all. In the article you will learn about possible ignition breakdowns, diagnostics, and repair methods.

What does the ignition system consist of?

Such a system on a scooter includes the following devices:

  • battery
  • starter
  • current generator
  • switch
  • coil
  • lock
  • candle
  • wiring.

Although all these elements have different sizes, cost and complexity of the device, their importance in the proper operation of motor vehicles is almost equal. Malfunction of only one of the above listed elements, leads to malfunction of the entire scooter.

Each of these devices has its own possible malfunctions. We will discuss each device in order in which to repair.

Spark plug

The most common failure in the ignition system (including why there is no spark on the scooter) is a spark plug failure. The reasons are completely different: carbon deposits due to poor quality fuel (or because of oil); overheat; lean or rich air-fuel mixture and others.

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You can assess its condition visually by unscrewing it from the cylinder. The working color of the candle is brick. But white, black indicates problems in her work. The best way to solve the problem is to replace it with a new one. If this is not possible, then clean it with a brush, rag or ignite it on a gas burner.

Spark testing is carried out in the following order:

  • The candle is unscrewed from the cylinder together with the tip.
  • The body of the candle is leaned against the metal “mass”.
  • The engine rotates with a foot or a starter, while sparks should slip between the spark plug electrodes.

Ignition coil

If the candle is replaced with a new one, but the scooter (moped) does not start anyway, we diagnose the coil. The coil is a device with two windings. primary and secondary. Visually, this is a barrel with two contacts and an outgoing high-voltage wire.

The role of the coil is to increase the incoming voltage hundreds of times. The primary winding has two contacts as outputs. The secondary winding is enclosed between the positive contact and the end of the high-voltage wire. Violation of the integrity of one of the windings leads to the failure of the main task and, as a result, the absence of a spark.

It is better to start diagnosing the coil with the spark plug cap. There is a noise suppression resistor inside the cap, which also fails. You can check it with a multimeter, in resistance measurement mode. You need to connect the probes to the twisted cap. one to the seat of the candle, the other to the end for the armored wire. The resistance is considered to be normal. within 5 kOhm. If not, replace the cap.

On modern ignition systems, the coil is made in one piece with a wire and a tip. In this case, you need to test everything together. We connect one probe of the multimeter to the cap, the other probe. alternately to the two contacts of the coil. Determine the resistance on the primary and secondary windings of the coil.

If the readings of the device do not correspond to the reference values, we change the coil or plug cap, if removed.

Electrical wiring

Another useful principle is if you don’t know why the spark on the scooter disappeared, then check the wiring. The reason that the spark disappeared is trivial. wire breakage, oxidation of contacts, connections, or rupture of terminals. This problem is typical for any scooter. even China, even Italy.

By removing the decorative plastic sheathing, you can fully inspect the condition of the wiring. Pay attention to the ground wire from the coil to the body. The wire contacts are often oxidized and this leads to a decrease in voltage in the ignition system. The same problem exists in the contacts of the wire connecting the engine and the frame of the moped.

Thoroughly inspect the sensor and switch terminals. The wires may not contact or have poor contact, as a result, current is lost. To eliminate, clean each terminal from oxidation and carbon deposits, crimp the contacts and make sure that all are firmly held in their sockets.

Another unlikely problem (but quite possible) is a break in the ground wire from the ignition switch. The wire is used to stop the engine and transfer the lock to the off state. In the event of a wire breakage and short circuit to the frame, even when the key is turned, the spark disappears.

Switch

A switch is a complex electronic device that combines several elements. The main elements are a capacitor and a thyristor. Thyristor. an electronic device for interrupting the current going to the ignition coil. Lowering the voltage allows the thyristor to open the current path for the capacitor.

The capacitor serves to accumulate electric charge and short-term charge return at the required time. Like the ignition coil, the switch cannot be disassembled, so it is impossible to check the performance of individual elements without special equipment. Therefore, all diagnostics are reduced to replacing the device. If replacing the switch helped, the problem was with it.

Generator

An expensive part in a scooter is a generator, even if it is China, or even Japan. It rarely fails, but it does happen. You can also diagnose the device using a multimeter by measuring the resistance on the generator winding.

Near the generator, locate the two wires coming out of the crankcase. One of the wires is red and black (comes from the pulse sensor), the second is blue and white (the main winding on the generator). Test both of these devices.

To diagnose the pulse sensor, connect the multimeter probe to the red-black wire, and the second probe to ground. The nominal resistance of the circuit is 500 ohms. The generator winding is checked according to the same principle, but the probe must be connected to another wire. blue and white. In this circuit, the resistance is 150-200 ohms. If the values ​​shown by the multimeter are not within the specified ranges, change the cause of the breakdown. Poor resistance means failure of the impulse sensor, or generator winding.

Reasons for the disappearance of the spark

How else to check for a spark. learn from this

From the article, you learned why there is no spark on a 4t scooter and the reasons for such a malfunction. The cost of repair work can vary from the cost of parts, but it is always more profitable to do the work yourself. And now you know what to do if the spark suddenly disappears; what to look for. Be careful when troubleshooting, pay attention to the little things, refer to reference books for accurate data. Success awaits you only if all conditions are met!

Photo report: How to check the scooter generator?

Just like that, without minimal knowledge in electronics, at least at the level of the school curriculum (like mine) and the simplest multimeter tester. you won’t be able to check the generator, don’t even dream. Before taking on such work, you should at least be able to use the tester and understand that the current can be alternating or constant, know what an electrical impulse is and what is resistance. Do you know all this? Did you hold a tester in your hands? If yes, then let’s not hesitate.

Checking the generator’s performance. you should start with measuring the voltage, which, in fact, the generator should generate and transmit through wires to consumers. We look where the wiring harness from the generator leaves the engine. we move along it until we reach the connector with which the generator is connected to the on-board network of the scooter.

On the vast majority of scooters, the generator connector looks something like the picture. In the common connector, there is one plug and two wires that are connected to the on-board network of the scooter through round terminals.

The plug combines the connectors of the two main windings of the generator: The working winding (yellow wire), which ensures the operation of the headlight, turn signals, backlight and other consumers. And the control winding (white wire), the control winding provides voltage control in the main winding of the generator. That is, when the voltage in the working winding of the generator rises above the specified limits, the voltage regulator relay supplies current to the control winding of the generator, due to which the voltage in the working winding of the generator drops to a predetermined limit. When the voltage drops, the opposite process occurs.

In this generator, the main windings are wound with thick copper wire on six coils.

The third winding of the generator, which is usually called high-voltage or guiding and magnetic induction sensor of the generator, is connected to the on-board network of the scooter through round terminals.

High-voltage winding of the generator. provides the generation of a high alternating voltage (the voltage in this winding can reach 160 V and more), which directly enters the switch, where it is rectified, then accumulates in the capacitor and at a certain moment is fed to the ignition coil in the form of a pulse.

In this generator, the high-voltage winding is wound with a thin copper wire on two coils. High voltage winding coils are carefully insulated on the outside.

There are generators in which the high-voltage winding is wound on only one coil.

A small clarification: ignition systems in which a DC CDI type switch is installed, the high-voltage winding does not participate in the formation of a spark charge on the spark plug, so there is no point in checking it. Scooter manufacturers install a generator with a high-voltage winding, but do not use it (meaning ignition systems with a DC CDI switch). It’s just wrapped around a generator and that’s it. I will say more: due to the fact that the winding is not loaded with anything during the operation of the generator, over time it simply burns out.

An example of a generator, on two coils of which a high-voltage winding is wound as not involved in the work. I checked this winding. the tester showed an open circuit, which confirms the above.

The resistance of the inductive winding of the generator is always greater than that of the other windings. The wire coming from the lead winding of the generator is almost always red and black.

The magnetic induction sensor, when a special ledge on the generator rotor passes by it, generates an alternating pulse, which opens the teristor through which the switch capacitor is discharged to the ignition coil.

Sensor in person

Generator rotor ledge

The wire coming from the magnetic induction sensor is almost always blue-white.

A small educational program: Traders and collective farm tusks, a magnetic induction generator sensor, CDI ignition systems. called a hall sensor. My relatives. Maybe enough already. Where does this illiteracy come from? The magnetic induction sensor of the generator, the CDI ignition system, namely, this system is discussed in this article. it has nothing to do with the hall sensor! And do not listen to these hucksters and “gurus” who say the opposite.

The actual check itself

We switch the tester to the alternating current measurement mode (ACV) for a range of 200 V and not less. Remember that the voltage of the lead winding can reach 160 V and more, so the voltage measurement range of the lead winding must be at least 200 V.

We disconnect the plug and the round terminals of the main harness. we connect one tester probe to ground, the other we connect to the terminal (black and red wire) of the generator lead winding. We turn on the ignition and turn the engine with a starter. A fully functional lead winding should give approximately the same values.

The pulse generated by the sensor is very weak, therefore, we switch the tester to the alternating voltage (ACV) measurement mode for the 2 V range. Measurement of the pulse from the sensor in a higher range may not give a result, since the tester may simply not catch it. Use for this purpose only a tester with a range in the AC voltage measurement mode of not more than 2 V.

We do everything exactly the same as in the first example. The pulse from the sensor should give approximately the following values.

By analogy with the first two examples, we measure the voltage in the working winding and the control one. We put the tester in the mode of measuring alternating voltage (ACV) for a range of 200 V and measure.

Well, that’s measured. Do all windings generate current? Or not all. If any winding does not deliver current, then like it or not, you will have to remove the generator and check it in more detail. But if the windings generate a current of about the same magnitude as in the pictures, then this means that your generator is in perfect order. Something like this…

We put the generator so that the conclusions of the generator windings are available to you. We determine the ends of the terminals of all the generator windings. Finding the ends of the windings is very simple: we look at the color of the wire that is soldered to the terminal block and determine what kind of winding it is.

I have marked the ends of the windings with arrows. The arrows are selected in color in accordance with the color of the wires soldered to the terminal block. The green arrow marks the terminal block on which the ends of all windings are soldered. this is the ground terminal block.

We switch the tester to the dialing mode, take any wire from the common harness, connect any tester probe to this wire, with the second probe touch the terminal block to which this wire is soldered. The tester should beep and show zero resistance.

If the tester is “silent” and shows digits instead of zeros, this means that somewhere there is a wire break or poor contact between the terminal terminal and the wire. Inspect the wire carefully for an open circuit and, if necessary, replace it with a new one. The remaining wires, including the sensor wire, are checked in exactly the same way.

After checking the wires, we proceed to check the generator windings for breakage and interturn short circuit. We switch the tester to the dialing mode, touch any tester probe to the generator body, with the second probe touch the end of the wire of any winding or terminal block.

The high-voltage winding in the continuity mode should show approximately this resistance value. If the high-voltage winding did not show resistance or showed little resistance, then this means that somewhere there is an internal break or interturn short circuit. You understand that such a malfunction cannot be “treated”.

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When checking the rest of the windings, the tester should emit a sound signal, the resistance of the working windings is very small, so most likely you will see only zeros on the tester’s display. If the tester did not emit a signal, it means that there is an internal breakage somewhere. Such a malfunction is not subject to “treatment”.

We put the tester in the dialing mode, touch any probe to the sensor body, with the second probe touch the sensor wire or the terminal on the body to which the wire is soldered. The resistance of the sensor winding should be approximately within these limits. If there is little or no resistance, replace the sensor with a new one.

Scooter electrical diagram. Electrics and electrical equipment of the scooter

Dedicated to all owners of Chinese scooters.

First, I would like to present the wiring diagram of a Chinese scooter.

Since all Chinese scooters are very similar as Siamese twins, their electrical circuit is practically the same.

The schematic was found on the Internet and is, in my opinion, one of the most successful, since it shows the color of the connecting conductors. This greatly simplifies the diagram and makes it more comfortable to read.

(Click on the picture to enlarge. The picture will open in a new window).

It is worth noting that the scooter’s electrical circuit, as well as any electronic circuit, has a common wire. A scooter has a minus (-) common wire. In the diagram, the common wire is shown in green. If you look more closely, you will notice that it is connected to all the electrical equipment of the scooter: headlight (16), turn relay (24), dashboard backlight (15), indicator lamps (20, 36, 22, 17), tachometer (18 ), fuel level sensor (14), sound signal (31), tail light / brake light (13), start relay (10) and other devices.

First, let’s go over the main elements of the Chinese scooter circuit.

Egnition lock.

Ignition switch (12) or “Main switch”. The ignition switch is nothing more than a conventional multi-position switch. Despite the fact that the ignition switch has 3 positions, the electrical circuit uses only 2.

At the first position of the key, the red and black wires are closed. In this case, the voltage from the battery enters the electric circuit of the scooter, the scooter is ready to start. The fuel level indicator, tachometer, sound signal, relay-turns, ignition circuit are also ready for operation. They are supplied with battery voltage.

In the event of a malfunction of the ignition switch, it can be safely replaced with some kind of switch like a toggle switch. The toggle switch must be powerful enough, because the entire electrical circuit of the scooter is essentially switched through the ignition lock. Of course, you can do without a toggle switch if you limit yourself to shorting the red and black wires, as the heroes of Hollywood action movies once did.

In the other two positions, the black and white wire from the CDI ignition module (1) closes to the body (common wire). In this case, the engine is blocked. In some scooter models, an engine stop button (27) is provided to lock the engine, which, like the ignition switch, connects the white-black and green (common, frame) wire.

Generator.

The generator (4) generates alternating electric current to power all current consumers and charge the battery (6).

5 wires leave the generator. One of them is connected to a common wire (frame). The alternating voltage is removed from the white wire and fed to the relay-regulator for subsequent rectification and stabilization. The voltage is removed from the yellow wire, which is used to power the low / high beam lamp, which is installed in the front fairing of the scooter.

Also in the design of the generator there is a so-called hall sensor. It is not electrically connected to the generator and there are 2 wires running from it: white-green and red-black. Hall sensor connected to CDI ignition module (1).

Relay-regulator.

Relay-regulator (5). The people may call it “stabilizer”, “transistor”, “regulator”, “voltage regulator” or simply “relay”. All these definitions refer to one piece of hardware. This is what a relay regulator looks like.

The relay-regulator for Chinese scooters is installed in the front part under the plastic fairing. The relay-regulator itself is attached to the metal base of the scooter in order to reduce the heating of the relay radiator during operation. This is what a relay regulator looks like on a scooter.

In the operation of a scooter, the relay-regulator plays a very important role. The task of the relay regulator is to turn the alternating voltage from the generator into a constant one and limit it to 13.5. 14.8 volts. This is the voltage required to charge the battery.

The diagram and the photo show that 4 wires leave the relay-regulator. Green is the common wire. We have already spoken about him. Red is the positive constant voltage output of 13.5.14.8 volts.

By white AC voltage from the generator is supplied to the wire to the regulator relay. Also connected to the regulator is the yellow wire coming from the generator. It supplies the regulator with alternating voltage from the generator. Due to the electronic circuit of the regulator, the voltage on this wire is converted into a pulsating one, and is supplied to powerful current consumers. a low and high beam lamp, as well as a dashboard backlight lamp (there may be several of them).

The supply voltage of the lamps is not stabilized, but is limited by the relay-regulator at a certain level (about 12V), since at high speeds the alternating voltage supplied from the generator exceeds the allowable one. I think those who have burned out dimensions when the relay-regulator malfunctions know about this.

Despite all its importance, the device of the relay-regulator is rather primitive. If you pick out the compound with which the printed circuit board is flooded, you can find that the main relay is an electronic circuit made of a BT151-650R thyristor, a diode bridge on 1N4007 diodes, a powerful 1N5408 diode, as well as several strapping elements: electrolytic capacitors, low-power SMD transistors, resistors and zener diode.

Due to its primitive circuitry, the relay-regulator often fails. Read how to check the voltage regulator here.

Ignition circuit elements.

One of the most important electrical circuits on a scooter is the ignition circuit. It includes the CDI ignition module (1), ignition coil (2), spark plug (3).

CDI ignition module.

The CDI ignition module (1) is made in the form of a small box filled with compound. This makes it difficult to disassemble the CDI in the event of a malfunction. Although the modular design of this unit makes it easy to replace.

5 wires are connected to the CDI module. The CDI module itself is located at the bottom of the scooter body near the battery compartment and is fixed to the frame with a rubber retainer. Access to the CDI unit is hampered by the fact that it is located at the bottom and covered with decorative plastic, which has to be completely removed.

Ignition coil.

Ignition coil (2). The ignition coil itself is located on the right side of the scooter and is fixed to the frame. It is a kind of plastic barrel with two connectors for connection and a high-voltage wire outlet that goes to the spark plug.

Structurally, the ignition coil is located next to the starting relay. To protect against dust, dirt and accidental short circuits, the coil is covered with a rubber cover.

Spark plug.

The high voltage wire connects the ignition coil to the A7TC spark plug (3).

On the scooter, the spark plug was cleverly hidden, and the first time you can look for it for a long time. But if “to go” along the high-voltage wire from the ignition coil, then the wire will lead us straight to the spark plug cap.

The cap is removed from the candle with a slight force on yourself. It is fixed on the contact of the candle with an elastic metal latch.

It should be noted that the high-voltage wire is connected to the cap without soldering. The insulated stranded wire is simply screwed onto the contact screw built into the cap. Therefore, you should not tug strongly on the wire, otherwise you can pull the wire out of the cap. This can be easily eliminated, but the wire will have to be shortened by 0.5. 1 cm.

The spark plug itself is not easy to reach. To dismantle it, you need a socket wrench. With its help, the candle is simply turned out of the seat.

Starter.

Starter (8). The starter is used to start the engine. It is located in the middle of the scooter next to the engine. It’s not easy to get to it.

The starter start is controlled by the start relay (10).

The start relay is located on the right side of the scooter frame. A thick red wire from the positive terminal of the battery comes to the start relay. This is how the starting relay is powered.

Fuel gauge and indicator.

The fuel level sensor (14) is integrated in the fuel tank.

Three wires extend from the sensor. Green is common (minus power supply), and the other two sensors are connected to the fuel level indicator (11), which is installed on the scooter dashboard.

The fuel sensor (14) and the indicator (11) are one device and are supplied with a constant stabilized voltage. Since these two devices are spaced apart, they are connected with a three-pin connector. Positive supply voltage is supplied to the fuel indicator and the sensor via the black wire from the ignition switch.

If you open the three-pin connector coming from the fuel sensor, the fuel indicator will stop showing the fuel level in the tank. Therefore, if the fuel indicator does not work for you, then check the connector between the sensor and the fuel indicator, and also make sure that they are powered.

It is also worth remembering that the supply voltage to the sensor and indicator is supplied when the ignition switch is closed (12). According to the diagram, this is the right position.

Turns relay.

Turning relay or interrupter relay (24). Serves to control the front and rear turn signal lamps.

As a rule, the turn relay is installed next to the instruments (speedometer, tachometer, fuel level indicator) on the dashboard. In order to see it, you need to remove the decorative plastic. It looks like a small plastic barrel with three leads. When the turn signals are on, it emits characteristic clicks with a frequency of about 1 Hz.

A turn signal switch (23) is installed after the turn signal relay. This is a conventional rocker switch that switches the positive voltage from the rotary relay (gray wire) to the lamps. If you look at the diagram, then with the right position of the switch (23), we apply voltage through the blue wire to the right front (21) and right rear (32) indicator lamps. If the switch is in the left position, then the gray wire closes to orange, and we supply power to the left front (19) and left rear (33) indicator lamps. In addition, signal lamps (20 and 22) are connected in parallel to the corresponding indicator lamps (19, 20, 32, 33), which are located on the scooter dashboard and serve as a purely information signal for the scooter driver.

Sound signal.

The sound signal (31) of the scooter is located under the plastic fairing of the scooter next to the relay-regulator.

The audio signal supply voltage is constant. It comes from the relay-regulator or the battery (if the engine is off) through the ignition switch and the horn button (25).

Low / high beam lamp (16). Yes, the one that illuminates our path in the dark.

The lamp itself is double with two filaments and three contacts for connecting to an electrical circuit. One of the contacts is, of course, common. Lamp power 25W, supply voltage 12V. It burns godlessly with a faulty relay-regulator due to the fact that it does not limit the voltage amplitude at the level of 12 volts, which leads to the fact that a voltage of 16. 27 volts is applied to the lamp, or even more. It all depends on the speed.

Therefore, if the lamp shines very brightly at idle, and not at full heat, then it is better to turn it off and check the relay-regulator. If you leave everything as it is, the low / high beam lamp will burn out, which is sad. Its cost is decent.

In the photo next to the turn signal lamp (red). Lamp power 5W for supply voltage 12V.