Set motor wheel and lithium battery for e-bike
An electric bike made on the basis of your existing bicycle will make you feel the joy and ease of use of this wonderful type of modern transport. You will be able to easily and naturally move over distances of 50-70 km without exhausting efforts and improve your physical fitness and health.
An electric bike differs from a traditional bike in that it has four main components:
– Motor-wheel mounted on the axle of the front or rear wheel. https://velomotor.by/motor-koleso;
– lithium battery, from which the motor-wheel of the electric bike receives energy. https://velomotor.by/akkumulyator;
– controller. a specialized mini computer that controls the operation of the motor-wheel.
– handle “GAS”, with which the speed of the bike is regulated.
These four components are sufficient for the operation of an electric bike.
Additionally, the electric bike can be equipped with:
– multifunctional control panel on LEDs or liquid crystal matrix;
– a cadence sensor, with which the controller turns on the electric motor when pedaling. This is the so-called PAS-Pedal Assist System;
– brake levers actuation sensors. Upon receipt of a signal from any brake lever, the controller cuts off power to the motor. This option is useful when driving aggressively with hard braking and wheel locks at high speed.
The purpose of all the components of the e-bike assembly kit can be viewed at the link: https://velomotor.by/naznachenie-komponentov-naborov#overlay-context=poryadok-sborki
Conversion of a traditional bike is quite accessible to everyone by following the installation instructions for the selected set of components for assembling an e-bike.
The battery is perhaps the most important component of your e-bike:
The convenience of using your electric bike, its reliability and weight depend on it in the most essential way. The battery is designed to provide power to the electric motor.
The most important performance parameters of a battery are its weight and capacity, i.e. the amount of energy stored in the battery that is consumed to power the electric motor. The battery capacity will determine the mileage of the electric bike on one battery charge. Capacity is measured in A / hour.
The approximate consumption of the battery capacity by an electric bike, when driving on asphalt, in scooter mode (without pedaling) is 0.22-0.33 A / hour per 1 km (this is true for 36V batteries, for 48V batteries the capacity consumption will be within 0. 15-0.22 A / hour per 1 km). So, to cover the distance of 35-45 km, you will need a battery with a capacity of 10A / hour with a voltage of 36V. If you need to travel long distances, you must either assist the electric motor by pedaling or use a larger battery. When the batteries are connected in parallel, their capacity is summed up. The larger the battery capacity of your bike, the longer it will last. This is understandable, because the higher the battery capacity, the easier it can withstand peak current loads that may occur when driving at high speed or off-road.
Batteries with the same voltage can be connected in parallel. This not only increases their service life, but also allows you to significantly increase engine power due to improved energy characteristics of the battery.
It should be noted that all of the above is completely true only for lithium group batteries. Our own five-year experience of operating e-bikes in a variety of conditions has shown the high reliability of the offered kits and batteries.
Lead-based batteries are too heavy and have much worse performance and durability.
The engine can be located in both the front and rear wheel of the bicycle. Engine location affects performance.
If you have a front wheel drive bike, you have better handling and better maneuverability. When driving on sand, this is well manifested. The rear-drive bike slips and tends to steer you to the side, and the front-drive bike, although it slips, successfully pulls. In addition, in very difficult road conditions (for example, in muddy roads or driving uphill with a strong incline), you can easily turn it into an all-wheel drive, using slightly pedals. It is worth noting that the assembly of a front-wheel drive e-bike is much easier, and the service life of the motors installed in the front wheel is longer than when installed in the rear wheel. This is due to less and more even load on the motor bearings.
It is also worth noting that the installation of an electric motor in the front wheel of the bicycle is the only option for single-speed widespread and cheapest bicycles such as “Aist” and “Stels”.
Homemade bike with front and rear wheel shock absorption, two motors and three batteries. Mileage on one charge 130 km.
If the battery becomes very hot during charging, or if an unpleasant odor appears during its operation, it should be disconnected from the mains immediately. This means that the battery is defective. This problem does not occur very often. Usually, e-bike owners notice that the battery is discharging too quickly.
Most often, the reason lies in the weak battery segment located in the battery pack. This leads to a deterioration in the performance of the battery. A weak cell will overheat during operation, which may result in a battery fire. It is possible to repair the battery of an e-bike only if the design of the battery allows you to replace an unusable cell.
Replacing the battery is also required if signs of wear appear:
- reduction of driving time on one charge;
- charging the battery too fast;
- the battery is not able to fully charge for a long time;
- reduced efficiency of the e-bike.
Is it possible to repair an electric bike yourself
Even the highest quality electromechanical device may malfunction during operation. To solve the problem, you need to know how the vehicle works in normal mode. This also applies to owners of e-bikes.
Having a basic knowledge of the behavior of the electronic components involved in power and control will help to find out the cause of the malfunction. If any element fails during the warranty period, do not troubleshoot or repair the device.
If there is a warranty, the only way to fix the malfunction should be to contact a service center owned by the company that manufactured the electric bike. In the absence of a guarantee, specialists working in the consulting center of the company where the electric vehicle was purchased can help solve the problem.
In simple cases, they can give advice on how you can independently eliminate the malfunction that has appeared. If the problem turns out to be difficult, then the company’s employees will tell you where the nearest post-warranty service is located. Many owners with basic knowledge of electronics perform DIY electric bike repairs.
Troubleshooting electric vehicles
The system of electrical components in a bicycle works by using all the elements included in it. This ensures the correct operation of the vehicle. Each of the elements of the system, if correctly connected and functional, should function normally.
It happens that the device stops working due to poor connection of wires or damage to them. Therefore, any repair of an electric bike begins with identifying the cause of the malfunction, finding the place of the breakdown. Only then can you start repairing your electric bike.
The reliability of their contacts is checked, the absence of external damage. Poor contact is especially common at the junction of the wires with the battery. Often this is the reason for the breakdown of an electric bike.
Possible controller problems
If the controller, which provides the connection between the throttle stick and the motor-wheel, fails, the motor of the electric bike immediately stops working. Most often, problems in the operation of the controller arise when it is incorrectly connected, poor soldering of wires in the board, or malfunctions in the operation of elements that switch motor windings.
Other malfunctions also occur in the electric bike. sometimes the throttle handle breaks, the motor-wheel stops working. To determine their condition, you can use a specialized electronic tester, with which you can quickly determine the location of the malfunction.
The simplest diagnostics: what is knocking from under the hood of the car?
A car that is in good condition should run quietly. And if from under the hood you can hear the “murmur” of the engine, then it is desirable that it be smooth, without causing sounds: whistling, squealing, grinding and, especially, knocking. However, very often there are cars with just such sound effects. About what might follow,
Many drivers, having paid attention to the unusual sound, show a certain concern, but, having found out soon that this does not affect the speed, they continue to drive. We dare to assure. for the time being. Even a poorly secured air filter cover, eventually jumping off its pins, can do this! Therefore, it is better to nevertheless identify and eliminate the cause of the strange sounds, without postponing it on the back burner.
So, what can knock, creak, squeal in a car??
The whistle is most often aerodynamic in nature, that is, it appears when moving at a certain speed and increases when it increases. An antenna, a roof rack or the cargo carried on it can “whistle”. If these reasons are excluded, but the whistle is annoying, it will be more difficult to find its source. Check the tightness of the doors to the body, the joints and the reliability of fastening the decorative parts of the front end, see if there are any wires hanging in the “path” of air. Sometimes you find holes in the front end, the purpose of which remains a mystery: all the necessary devices (headlights, sidelights, “turn signals”, a sound signal, etc.) seem to be in place, but these holes are too small for ventilation. Cover them with electrical tape, insert screws and nuts or suitable plastic caps into them. it is quite possible that the annoying whistle will disappear.
It’s a different matter if the sound does not appear at speed, but is clearly audible even at low idle speeds. When looking for its source, be careful: you can completely unexpectedly injure your hand with a rotating fan impeller or a drive belt pulley. And then there’s the high-voltage wires. It is especially dangerous to stick your head into the engine compartment while the engine is not turned off. In short, try to be neat.
When the hood is open, the source of the whistle usually gives itself away. If not, we advise you to check the condition and tension of all V-belts: whether the pulleys are slipping in the grooves, whether they are oiled, or twisted. If a novice driver gets a heavily used car, he may witness how a rubber-fabric belt is able to gradually “eat through” metal pulleys almost to the point of holes. In a stream that has lost its wedge-shaped section, the belt will surely slip and whistle.
Another possible source of whistling is the rolling bearings of attachments: a generator, a water pump, and on foreign cars. also a power steering or an air conditioner pump. Bearings that have lost their lubrication will not “whistle” for long. they will soon begin to emit a sharp squeal, followed by their destruction. It is not difficult to identify faulty ones: it is enough to remove the belt that drives this unit and start the engine. The disappearance of the whistle will tell you that you have correctly identified the unlubricated bearings, for example, the pump. But this method of checking is excluded for cars in which the pump is driven by a toothed camshaft drive belt (Samara, Oka, Tavria, Opel Kadet, Volkswagen Golf II, etc.). Bearing wear can be checked here by removing the belt and turning the pump by the pulley by hand. It should turn easily and soundlessly.
The design of bearings in most cases is such that it is impossible to replenish the lubricant without disassembling the unit. However, it is better to replace the removed bearing with a new one. it will last longer than the old one with fresh grease.
And here is an atypical case. The whistle that manifested itself on the Zaporozhets engine in the fall, when it got cold, disappeared by itself when the thick engine oil was replaced with a Zhiguli all-season one. Apparently, the grease did not reach the ball bearing of the balancer mechanism.
Buzzing, itching sounds can be caused by the drive belts of the ancillary units that are too tightly tensioned. Experienced Samar owners know that the camshaft timing belt starts to roar when tightened. On a high note, the starter can also howl, the gear of which has not disengaged with the flywheel ring gear. This usually ends in an emergency breakdown. a “runaway” of the starter. We would like to draw the attention of beginners and inexperienced travelers with such a defect: next time you will not be able to start the car with a starter.
And one more thing for dummies. Until now, you can hear that the electric fan of the cooling system is turned on only when the engine overheats. We assure (I would like to believe, for the last time) that this is a delusion and it is not worth being afraid of the sound of a working propeller. unless, during the operation of the machine, it began to emit a deafening howl or squeal. In this case, the motor must be removed to be repaired or replaced.
Closely located, but not rigidly fixed metal parts can actively make noise on the move: cable sheaths, brake pipes and fuel lines, and sometimes parts that have simply lost their fasteners. A poorly fixed crankcase “protection” on any of the domestic cars can also vibrate and even strum. Once on the “Moskvich” the air filter cover “sang” (the fastening nut was unscrewed). as if the chainsaw had been turned on under the hood. On “Tavrias” they often “hum” a stamped metal or plastic casing of a flat-toothed belt, as well as a metal lining of the front end.
Remember the rule: no matter how harmless or even ridiculous the reason for the knock may seem to you, if you have not identified it, do not continue moving. than once we were frightened by empty canisters, a jack, a pump, some of the tools jumping over an empty trunk, or a spare wheel carelessly thrown there. But sometimes the knock attributed to the canister turned into very serious troubles. What would you say, for example, about a loose fastening of a gas tank, even if it is barely a quarter full?
Having found the cause of the knock, be sure to eliminate it. Sometimes, however, it is not easy to diagnose it: it knocks on the move, but if you stop, it is “silent”. The suspension is especially insidious. not every driver has the strength to rock the car as it rocks itself on a rough road. Imagine that you have a poorly secured battery: it will just jump on the move, but no matter how much you swing a standing car by the wing, it will not even move. By the way, it knocks dully, you may not be able to catch it in the general driving noise, but you need to constantly monitor its fasteners: vibration and jolts do not extend the battery life.
Everyone knows that defective shock absorbers knock. But the author had a chance to drive more than two hundred kilometers, until he finally discovered the cause of the unpleasant ringing “hammer” from somewhere in front. The loose nut of the shock absorber rod (on the Tavria) was “to blame”. Swaying the body by the wing showed nothing (and not surprisingly), so the suspension arms, their silent blocks, even the ball joint had to be revised. The defect was discovered quite by accident. On another occasion, both front hub nuts were loosened. This knock cannot be detected even by vigorous swaying of the wheel in a vertical plane. you must try to tighten the nut or pull the axle shaft (which on front-wheel drive cars is usually called the CV joint).
Cracks in suspension parts, wear of rubber-metal hinges (silent blocks) are first manifested by creaking and grinding. Having noticed this, do not bring the matter to their complete destruction: the crack can be welded at least temporarily in any roadside workshop, and the broken part can be replaced as soon as possible.
A fairly common reason for knocking (or rather, roaring) from under the hood is the destruction of one of the power unit supports. In the January issue of this year we wrote about replacing the engine “cushion” on a Mercedes (“Hard to sleep”, p. 121), and in this issue. about the consequences of the destruction of the right engine mount on VAZ 2108, 2109 (“Samara” through the eyes of a mechanic “, p. 107). There are other examples. The owner of” Tavria “was puzzled by a strange knock (or rather, a blow) when starting off. This is how the right engine mount was disconnected from the body: deviating by inertia backward, the engine hit the air filter housing When the defect finally opened up, I also had to change the dented “pan.” as if she was getting the strongest “kick in the ass.” The defect was eliminated by placing a thick rubber ring instead of the standard “pillow”. from the refrigerator (compressor shock absorber). nothing, serves more than one hundred kilometers.
The most serious hazard is the knocking sound of the engine running. The manuals for the operation of domestic cars often describe in detail how to recognize the knock of worn out main or connecting rod bearings, pistons, valve mechanism, etc. I don’t think that the average motorist is obliged to clearly distinguish knocks. just remember that any of them is potentially dangerous.
It is known that the main sign of the imminent death of the engine is the burning of the emergency oil pressure lamp in any of the operating modes. The distinct knocking that appeared at the same time is no longer a warning, but a demand to stop immediately and no longer start the engine until disassembly and repair. Many people bought into the fact that, having cooled down a little, the engine began to knock less distinctly, even retained a semblance of pressure in the oil line (the “oiler” lamp sometimes went out). As a rule, this was followed by destruction or jamming of parts. If you immediately stop trying to start and operate the machine, you can save a little on repairs.
But there are times when the light does not light up, but an extraneous sound in the engine is still heard. Well, there are parts in the motor that are not tied directly to the lubrication system. There are, for example, cases of loosening of the flywheel attachment. Pistons and valve train are also unlikely to “light up” a light bulb when worn, but they can declare themselves quite loudly. But this should not be confused with the cold (“morning”) clatter of valves in engines equipped with hydraulic lifters. Here, after warming up, the clatter must disappear. So: in cases of knocking along with a drop in pressure in the lubrication system, the engine must be stopped unconditionally, and if the pressure is maintained, you can drive for some time to the nearest service, where to find out the reason.
Of non-trivial cases of knocking, such are known, for example. The owner of “Zhiguli” has stratified the pump and generator drive belt. The resulting “tail” loudly knocked on the crankcase protection. The driver guessed about the malfunction only from the small particles of rubber that covered the engine compartment, but he was about to disassemble the engine. And one Zaporozhets owner, having heard the sound of the engine on the way, found that a “cap” had fallen off the end of the stem of one of the exhaust valves, which caused the valve clearance to increase several times at once. But, despite the fact that the valve actually stopped opening, the engine for some reason did not lose power and continued, as if nothing had happened, to roll the loaded car at a speed of about 90 km / h. However, the driver was lucky: the ill-fated “cap” did not have time to plug the hole for the oil drain from the cylinder head to the crankcase. So, paying attention in time to the knock from under the hood, it was possible to prevent really serious breakdowns and expensive repairs.
Some will say: “Again about” Zaporozhets “! And I have a “Ford”. For those readers who put the article aside, if it is not specifically about their models, I would like to say: there are similar units and parts on many cars, so if you wish, it is easy to draw the necessary analogy.
Spring is in the yard. We are all tired of waiting for her and are eager to ride, ride, ride. Bon Voyage! But do not forget that it should be without knocks, creaks, whistles.
Engine knock on cold
If you hear a thud when starting the engine, then the cause is the crankshaft. It is in the first minutes that the sound is heard as clearly as possible, since the oil has not yet warmed up, therefore, it has not lubricated this part. Over time, the sound disappears, but you can still hear it at idle. The knock, as mentioned, is dull, but its sonority can increase with increasing revolutions.
The main reason is severe wear on the shaft bearings, which results in a large clearance. The situation is further aggravated by the use of low-quality oil with various impurities. It is enough to diagnose whether the crankshaft is the cause, you can only in a specialized car service by disassembling the motor. Repair can be done by boring the crankshaft, but in especially neglected cases, drivers will have to fork out for a new part.
Also, another reason for the appearance of a knock on a cold one is a malfunction of the camshaft. With severe wear on the camshaft, of course, you will clearly hear sounds even after the car has warmed up. Also, the knocking frequency of this element is half the speed of the motor itself. This fact will additionally help diagnose. The reasons are similar to those described above: oil starvation, use of counterfeit products and increased bearing wear.
The knock from the camshaft is especially dangerous in cars that are equipped with hydraulic lifters. The problem is that they will compensate for the gap created between the tappet and the cams of the shaft, which will lead to incorrect valve positions. The result will be a drop in compression, a decrease in power and increased fuel consumption. To check the camshaft, you will have to disassemble the engine. If you do not have such skills, contact a car service.
Hub Motor Testing and Diagnostic
Several other reasons
Other components that have not been described previously can also cause knocking. This list includes:
- Fuel pump drive. You will hear a loud knock similar to the sound of valves.
- Connecting rods knocking due to worn out bearings. By turning off the cylinders one by one, the problem can be diagnosed.
- Incorrect cylinder block gasket dimensions. It protrudes into the combustion chamber, where it is touched by a cylinder. Characterized by a dull sound.
- Plunger pairs. Can emit sound in diesel units. Not critical.
The complexity of the motor design makes diagnostics and repair a complex process. The best option is a trip to a specialized technical center. As a rule, such workshops have all the necessary equipment that will allow you to identify the cause of the knock. If the car has an electronic control unit, you can additionally perform computer diagnostics.
Engine knocking on hot
While the engine is cold and the oil is not warmed up, the clearances in the parts do not manifest themselves in any way. The knocking becomes more pronounced as the oil liquefies. There may be several reasons:
- increased clearance between the crankshaft journal and the main bearings;
- in connecting rod bearings when a sufficiently large gap is formed between the crankshaft journal and the support;
- with cracks in the piston skirt or directly on the piston pin.
It is possible to diagnose which of the above options leads to a knock only with the analysis of the motor. This is where you need the help of a real specialist. Disassembling an engine is one thing, but subduing a breakdown and assembling it back is a completely different task. If you do not have special skills, do not take the risk and engage in self-repair.
A knock in the engine is an unpleasant phenomenon, while many associate it with great waste. If you take measures in time, you can get by with a minimum of money spent, since there are dozens of parts in the motor design, then almost every one of them can make noise. The main reasons for the appearance of knocking are:
- insufficient oil level in the crankcase;
- constantly high loads on the internal combustion engine, which leads to accelerated wear and the appearance of gaps;
- regular overheating;
- use of low quality oil.
All this can cause a breakdown of a specific unit, which will emit a characteristic knock, respectively, will lead to a number of other consequences.
Extraneous sounds when working at idle
Knocking at idle speed is less dangerous, so don’t panic right away. However, it is recommended that you run diagnostics quickly to fix the problem. When accelerating, the noise may disappear or remain barely audible. It’s worth checking out here:
- pump and generator pulley;
- engine protection and timing case;
- camshaft gears for backlash (if provided by the design);
- crankshaft pulley.
There are times (especially in cars with an automatic transmission) when a crack appears in the flywheel. It will not be possible to eliminate it. Here you will have to replace the entire flywheel.
Engine knocking: possible causes and repairs
The heart of any car, of course, can be called the engine. Its design is quite complex, and repair work usually costs a lot of money. It is for this reason that if any extraneous sounds appear, diagnostics should be carried out immediately in order to find out the source of the problem. Many drivers are faced with the phenomenon of engine knocking. We will tell you why it occurs, how to diagnose and whether it is possible to carry out repairs.
With motor loads
Another fairly common situation is the appearance of knocking only under load. The main reason for knocking in the engine in such a situation is the appearance of detonation. Gasoline or diesel can ignite before the required moment, which leads to incorrect operation of the entire internal combustion engine. When detonating, you will hear a frequent and sonorous knock, which will clearly manifest itself in the following situations:
- during vehicle acceleration;
- when the driver uses too high a gear that does not match the load on the engine;
- when driving with a large load or trailer.
Sufficiently experienced drivers can always detect the sound of detonation. Also, a number of machines are equipped with a special sensor that informs about this phenomenon. Usually on the dashboard, you will see a lit Check Engine icon. One of the main reasons for detonation is the use of low-quality, low-octane fuel. During detonation, deposits will form on the cylinder walls, which, even after using high-quality gasoline, will cause a number of problems. At the same time, the work of inexperienced auto mechanics can lead to an increased compression ratio, as well as incorrect functioning of some engine components.
Knocking in the suspension when driving over bumps: what can knock in the front suspension
The car’s suspension is heavily loaded while driving. At the same time, on the overwhelming majority of cars, knocks appear first in the front suspension, which is traditionally considered less reliable and hardy for a number of specific reasons. In turn, rear suspension knocking can also occur on low-mileage cars, but this is more the exception than the rule.
Usually, on such runs, the driver and passengers can first distinguish a dull knock, which is heard only when driving through pits, bumps and irregularities. However, in the future, the knock in the front suspension tends to progress quickly, as a result of which the suspension rattles even on small bumps. Next, we will look at why there is a knock in the suspension and what needs to be considered when diagnosing.
What knocks on the front suspension
So, knocking when driving over bumps is unpleasant, but quite an expected symptom of a malfunction. over, if there is a knock in the suspension, the reasons may be different. The fact is that the front wheels are steerable, that is, both suspension and steering elements can knock.
In turn, a large number of interconnected nodes are concentrated in the front part. Also, the front suspension experiences a greater load compared to the rear, since in the overwhelming majority of cars the engine and gearbox are installed in front.
It should also be noted that it is the front one that is often subject to more severe pollution. As a result, dirt, dust, fine grains of sand and road reagents actively destroy and wear out rubber seals.
over, if something knocks hard in the suspension, this usually indicates an increase in clearances and backlash. In such a situation, diagnostics and urgent repairs are needed, since the failure of even one element can cause a “chain reaction”, which is expressed in the rapid destruction of other elements of the car’s suspension.
- Suspension diagnostics should be started with the struts. Often they are the reason that the knock on small bumps in the front suspension periodically or constantly appears when driving.
In short, the strut support (shock absorber support) connects the rod to the vehicle body, while maintaining a certain degree of movement of the strut about the vertical axis. This avoids stem breakage, rapid wear of the rack itself, etc.
At the same time, the loads gradually disable the support, the rubber part, which connects the stem fastening sleeve with the outer cage, becomes less elastic and cracks. The result is a dull knock when driving over irregularities, since the rubber is not able to perform damping functions.
To believe the support, it is enough to rock the car and follow the rod fastening nut. If the nut “wobbles” both vertically and horizontally, this indicates wear on the inner cage of the support. You can also feel the clip with your hand. If bumps are felt, this also indicates wear on the shock mounts.
- The next element is a thrust bearing. This element fails both as a result of exposure to loads and due to the ingress of dirt. As a rule, the gaps increase, which leads to knocking on irregularities. In this case, the knock is clearly localized in the area of the support bearing.
Remarkably, the failure of the journal bearings also affects handling. The car reacts worse to steering movements. By the way, if only one bearing is faulty, controllability deteriorates only when the side where it is installed is loaded. In fact, with a faulty bearing, the front wheel “breaks” in the vertical plane, the camber angle changes.
- Next on the list is the need to check the ball joints. It is important to understand that the ball joints of the levers are subjected to very heavy loads. At the same time, their destruction can lead to serious damage, since the chassis simply “collapses” if the ball falls out of the lever.
over, the simplest MacPherson variants, where the knuckle is held exclusively by the lower ball, require increased attention. In certain cases, damage to the ball is very dangerous, since the wheel simply loses its connection with the car body.
If the suspension is multi-link, the loads are distributed more evenly, however, in this case, regular check of the ball joints is necessary. In practice, even a slight knock on the suspension, especially in the ball area, requires immediate diagnosis.
When the backlash in the ball is strong, the knock of the ball is clear and hard, the impact of metal on metal is heard. To check the ball, it is enough to hang out the wheel, after which a sharp swing of the wheel is carried out by the steering wheel in a vertical plane. In this case, you can feel that the force from the steering knuckle first “compensates” for the backlash in the ball joints, and already the loan is transferred to the levers.
- Checking shock absorbers and struts. As for the shock absorbers, you should first carefully inspect this element for damage or leaks in the area where the stem exits the body. You can also shake the car (vertical swing), after which it is assessed how the shock absorbers damp vibrations, how much the rod falls when pressed, etc.
If a telescopic stand is installed on the car, this element, in contrast to the shock absorber, also acts as a guiding element for the movement of the wheel. In this case, also when the rack is worn, a knock appears in the front suspension on small bumps, oil drips are visible in the area of the stem exit. Such a strut is not capable of damping vibrations, rolls in corners increase noticeably, the knock of a faulty strut is deaf and actively progresses with wear.
- The suspension also knocks if the stabilizer or stabilizer struts fail. The anti-roll bar is actually a torsion bar (twisting occurs when the spring is compressed). In fact, when the car body “falls” inward in a turn, the stabilizer at this moment begins to press the wheel in order to prevent it from hanging.
So, if you hear a knock of the suspension, this indicates a backlash of the stabilizer. The stabilizer moves vertically, impacts occur in the area of the mountings. In order for the stabilizer to twist, the connection to the body is not rigid. Pillows are used for fastening. In turn, with the suspension arms and steering knuckles, the connection is made through the hinges, better known as the stabilizer struts.
At the same time, it is not difficult to check the stub racks. It is enough to shake them with your hand, determining the backlash. In this case, the stabilizer already needs to be rocked with a mount, while examining the pillows in parallel (if the rubber is cracked, you need to replace it).
What else can knock on the front suspension of a car
Above, we discussed the main reasons why the front suspension knocks. However, the list of potential problems does not end there. For example, even when the shock absorbers, supports, stabilizer struts and other elements are in perfect order, the warrior still notices a knock on the right wheel or a knock on the left wheel, the knock may be localized in the underbody area, etc.
- In such a situation, it is necessary to check the steering. The fact is that the steering is not so strongly influenced by the vertical wheel travel, however, lateral force is present. As a result, knocks can occur when driving through a track, especially when steering.
Knocks in this case are usually loud and hard. If the problem is not solved, in the future, even on small irregularities, the steering will knock, the blows are transmitted to the steering wheel. Usually, knocking and backlash of the steering wheel is caused by the wear of the hinges of the steering tips and steering rods, since vibrations from the steering knuckle are transmitted to them.
- We also add that sometimes it is not the suspension that can knock, but other elements. At the same time, the driver believes that the problems are with the car’s suspension, although in fact the engine mount or the brake system may be the culprit. For example, on bumps, the engine can wobble and knock on the supports. Also, brake calipers or pads often knock.
Of course, if standard diagnostic procedures have not yielded results, you need to seek help from experienced specialists. It is also not recommended to immediately change expensive suspension elements when knocks appear. It often happens that it is enough to change the silent block or the stabilizer bushing, after which the suspension works properly without unnecessary noise.
As you can see, if a knock is heard in the front suspension, it is far from always possible to quickly determine the cause. However, the problem cannot be ignored, since the controllability and stability of the car directly depends on the state of the suspension. In other words, steering, suspension and chassis in general have a direct impact on safety.
How to adjust the thermal gap?
Consider how to eliminate valve knocking on a VAZ car. This requires a standard set of sockets and open-end wrenches, as well as a 0.15 millimeter dipstick. The work on setting the gaps is performed in the following sequence:
- Include neutral and place a stop under the rear wheel.
- They are waiting for the motor to cool down to a temperature of 20 degrees.
- Using a 10 key, unscrew all the valve cover mounting bolts.
- The crankshaft pulley is installed according to the marks. The camshaft mark will be opposite the arrow on the valve cover.
- Set the gap on the sixth and eighth valves with a feeler gauge. The count is made from the radiator.
- The crankshaft is rotated half a turn.
- Tune the fourth and seventh valve.
- The crankshaft is again cranked half a turn. Adjust the clearance of the first and third valves. After that, the second and fifth valves are adjusted.
At the end of the procedure, you need to double-check all the gaps. Also note that the clearance will decrease as the locknuts are tightened. Do not allow the valve to be pinched. The stylus should move with light friction, without effort.
Knocking valves on a cold
In such a situation, the reason lies in the wear of the pusher. It can get dirty, it could leak. As a result, an incomplete supply of oil to the valves is carried out. If the oil pressure is in order, you need to check the clearances. This can be done using special probes. The reader can see such a tool in the photo in the article.
One of the probes is installed between the cam and the pusher (or between the rocker arm and the rod, depending on the location of the camshaft) and the gap is measured. This parameter is individual for each car.
Brief description and principle of operation
The valves in the internal combustion engine are used to supply a mixture of fuel and air, as well as to release exhaust gases. The valve consists of a stem and a plate. The elements are located in the cylinder head. There can be two (sometimes four) valves in total. Inlet and outlet. For better filling of the cylinders, the diameter of the first is always larger. The valve opens thanks to the camshaft cams.
The latter rotates from the crankshaft by means of a chain or belt. Also, hydraulic compensators are used on modern internal combustion engines, which realize the optimal thermal clearance of the valves in all positions. This ensures a smoother operation and less noise.
Why does the knock appear
The main reason is the increased clearance between the lever and the camshaft cam. In such a situation, the cam will knock on the rocker. At idle, a characteristic metallic clatter will be heard. The larger this gap, the stronger the sound and the more significantly the timing elements wear out.
Insufficient clearance also damages the engine. In this case, the valves are “jammed” and may not close completely. Over time, such an engine can overheat, which reduces compression and power. Another reason for engine valve knocking is detonation. This is a kind of microexplosion in which a wave of fire hits the walls of the cylinders. As a result, valve knocking may occur. Among the signs of detonation, it is also worth noting a decrease in the power of the internal combustion engine, overheating, black smoke from the exhaust pipe, increased vibrations of the power unit.
If it knocks on a hot
If there is a knock of valves on a hot one, what could be the reason? This is most often due to low oil pressure at high revs. This can happen with both the inlet and the outlet.
Valve knock: principle of operation, characteristics, causes of knocking, diagnostics and remedies
The gas distribution mechanism is an integral part of any internal combustion engine. The timing system includes several elements, including valves. These parts contribute to the intake of the combustible mixture and the subsequent release of gases from the combustion chamber. On a working motor, the valves should not make any sounds. But what if there is a knock of valves? The reasons for this phenomenon and methods of troubleshooting are further in our article.
The engine pounded on the road
If the engine suddenly starts making a clatter on the way, the first thing to do is check the oil level. If it is insufficient, even with a working pump, normal lubrication of all elements will not be provided. The level should always be no lower than the middle.
It is necessary to find out if the knocking of the valves increases under load and as the speed increases. If so, the crankshaft bearings are most likely worn in the engine. Another knock may occur immediately after refueling. This indicates poor quality fuel. Usually such knocks are of a fading character, they are not fatal to the engine. But in the future it is better to change the gas station. How to fix valve knocking? Depending on the design of the timing mechanism, there may be two or four valves for each cylinder in the engine. Some carry out the launch of a combustible mixture, others remove gases. Since the elements operate at high temperatures, they can expand. Consequently, the gap will change. If the valves are incorrectly adjusted, this leads to rapid wear of the timing elements and to a loss in the performance of the internal combustion engine as a whole. With an increased clearance, the valves will not open completely. If not enough, they will burn along with the saddles.
If there are no hydraulic lifters in the internal combustion engine, experts recommend adjusting the valve clearances every 25 thousand kilometers. Also, for correct operation, such elements should be cleaned. During operation, the valves become overgrown with carbon deposits. It prevents them from working in normal positions. If the clearance is optimal and the valves are clean, the car will run stably and not waste fuel.
Why do hydraulic lifters fail??
This can happen for several reasons:
- Natural wear and tear. Usually, such elements become unusable on a run of 200 thousand kilometers.
- Use of low quality oil or oil of improper viscosity. Such a product must meet all standards. Otherwise, a knock of valves may appear, since the hydraulic compensator will not cope with its task.
- Plunger head or oil passages clogged. This happens when the oil filter is not replaced in time. As a result, the pressure decreases, the lubricant does not enter the system, sometimes the plunger gets stuck in the body and the hydraulic compensator stops working completely. This problem can be solved by flushing the hydraulic lifter.
When batteries need to be replaced
Most of the problems associated with premature failure of rechargeable batteries lies in non-observance of the rules for their operation. In addition to a significant reduction in the life of batteries due to the use of an inappropriate type of charger, improper use and storage, due to some negligence of the user, there are frequent cases of short circuit and fire of battery power supplies.
We have already mentioned the rules for the operation of chemical power sources and possible ways to increase their service life in previous articles, therefore we will not talk about the same thing once again, but we will draw the readers’ attention to the issue of minimizing the risk of a short circuit in the battery.
Most types of batteries used in electric transport are classified as flammable, so they need to be handled with great care and “respect”. To reduce the risk of battery fire:
Do not use open flames near batteries
To connect the terminals, start with “plus”, and only then go to minus
Connect the battery only to a working wiring
Before disconnecting the wiring from the battery terminals, turn off the electronics connected to them.
Use a BMS (Battery Management System) if the power source is a “smart” (lithium) battery
If the battery becomes very hot while charging, or if an unusual odor is generated, there is a problem with the battery or charger. If these symptoms are observed in the battery or charger, immediately disconnect them from the power source.
One of the problems faced by e-bike owners is the rapid discharge of batteries with a relatively low mileage. The reason for this phenomenon may lie in the presence of a weak battery segment in the battery pack, which leads to a deterioration in the performance of the entire battery. For best long-term performance, the battery must be balanced. The operation of an unbalanced battery carries the risk of overheating of a weak cell during charging, its fire and the release of toxic gases.
A battery with a damaged casing must always be replaced immediately. The leakage of electrolyte carries a risk not only in terms of the possibility of fire, but also damage to human health, since the liquid contained in the batteries is quite corrosive.
The older the batteries get, the shorter the time they can hold a charge, and the shorter the travel distance becomes after recharging. This moment is explained by the destruction of the internal battery plates by the sulfation process (rust). To help the battery to maintain its youth for a long time, you need to adhere to the rules of its operation. So, for example, SLA AGM batteries during a long period of non-use for their intended purpose must be stored fully charged, meanwhile, periodically, at least once a month, feeding from the mains. You need to recharge the batteries every time as soon as the charge level drops and only one indicator starts to glow.
Signs that may indicate wear and tear and the need to replace batteries include:
As in the case of the operation of any electromechanical device, sooner or later there may come a moment when some kind of breakdown occurs in the electric bike. It goes without saying that in order to identify and recognize a problem, you need to know how a given vehicle operates in normal operation. over, it is important not only how the electric bike rides, but also how the elements of electronics, control and power behave during regular use. It is this kind of knowledge that can be the key to troubleshooting e-bike problems.
The engine (wheel motor), control unit (controller), throttle stick, batteries, optional electrical system. all these devices must work as one command to ensure correct operation. Each element must be connected correctly and must also function correctly. It happens that the components stop working normally due to a loose connection of wires or even due to an unsuccessfully selected arrangement of electrical elements. Therefore, the main goal, if something in an electric bike stops working normally, is to identify the cause of the malfunction, find the location of the breakdown, and only then take on the repair.
Be realistic about your capabilities. If you are not sure that you will be able to cope with the task of repairing, or you have absolutely no knowledge of electrical engineering, it is better to trust a professional. After all, your own self-confidence and ignorance can turn for you into the fact that some of the components of an electric bike will be irrevocably damaged by your hands.
If something on the e-bike stops working, the first thing to look out for is the wires. They must ensure reliable contact of components with batteries, not have external damage. Therefore, you do not need to panic immediately if the electric bike stopped working, perhaps the wired contacts have just gone somewhere.
A thing like a reduced range on a single charge could be a sign that the battery needs replacing. Incorrect operating noise, as a rule, will lead you to the engine. If the motor does not work when it should, first of all pay attention to the battery charge indicator. Usually, a very simple way out of this problem can be found. The motor-wheel may stop working due to the discharge of batteries, disconnection or breakage of wires or the occurrence of some small interruptions in the operation of the electronic control unit.
If the e-bike is equipped with a modern control panel capable of displaying electronic fault codes, it will be very easy to identify the problem. If there is no such diagnostic electrical equipment on the bike, in case of incorrect operation of the electrical system, you will have to independently deal with the location of the malfunction or contact a specialist. To determine whether it is necessary to repair a specific, rather “suspicious” part, or, on the contrary, to confirm its serviceability, you can use a simple diagnostic method by installing this component on another electric bike. If testing shows that this part is the reason for the failure of the electric bike, repair it or replace it with a new one. If nothing changes in the operation of this unit when installed on another vehicle, you need to look for the cause in another place.
Problems with the controller, motor-wheel, throttle
An electronic device. a controller. is a kind of link between the throttle stick of an electric bike and a motor-wheel, therefore, if something in it fails, the engine stops working.
Burnout of some of the controller electronics components can usually be identified visually and by the characteristic unpleasant burning smell. When power transistors burn out, this smell will be present unambiguously. Since during combustion the controller can rarely be repaired, try to accurately follow the rules for its connection and operation. this will save you from damage. Remember, as a rule, short circuits in the controller occur due to the fault of the user.
All controllers are equipped with protection against damage, overload and overheating in the form of circuit breakers, fuses, current limiters and thermal switches. Their job is to protect active electrical components from damage. Therefore, if an overheating of the electric bike system occurs, the cyclist may even have to wait 20 twenty minutes until the controller allows him to continue driving with the electric motor turned on.
Problems in the operation of the controller can be caused by improper connection of this electronic unit or motor-wheel, or a lack of contact at the place of their connection. Therefore, it is especially important to precisely adhere to the connection diagram supplied on the case of the aluminum box with a bundle of wires. The most common causes of a bike controller breakdown are unsoldering wires in the board, malfunctions of elements that are involved in switching the windings of an electric motor, as well as problems with capacitors.
The nominal service life of brushless electric motors is quite long, but it happens that these motors also fail. Hall sensors can sometimes break in wheel motors. However, given that these elements are quite easy to change even by independent efforts and cost a penny, they can assure you that such a small repair of a bicycle motor-wheel will not cause much discomfort to anyone. The rotor position sensors can fail due to voltage surges, mechanical damage, severe overheating of the motor-wheel, water leakage into the body part of the throttle or engine. The main symptom of Hall sensors failure is the twitching of the motor-wheel in place when turning the accelerator handle.
It is quite simple to fix the breakdown of sensors. for this it is enough to use a voltmeter. True, it will be more difficult to determine which of the sensors has failed, therefore, if such a need arises (the wheel twitches during operation), replace them all. Tiny parts such as Hall sensors are fixed in the grooves of the stator with a special varnish. It is not difficult to remove them from their seats and replace with new ones. you just need to follow the simple instructions for the correct disassembly and repair of the motor-wheel.
The electric motor can also stop working as a result of a break in the winding, damage to the wiring leading to the axis, erasing of the gears in the event that a geared type motor is used. As well as installing new Hall sensors, replacing bearings and insulating the wiring will not be difficult for anyone.
The most common reasons why the wheel motor stops responding when the throttle is turned:
1) There is no power on the battery (this moment is displayed on the battery level indicator of the control panel or throttle)
2) The integrity of the wires is broken, there are no contacts, the electrical components are incorrectly connected.
3) Hall sensors of the wheel motor burned out, a transistor or other controller element malfunctioned.
Unfortunately, the throttle grips are the most common component of electric bike assemblies. A lever or a rotating grip can break in the throttle grip due to improper handling by vehicle owners or other mechanical damage. Another option for failure is a malfunction associated with Hall sensors, which track its angle of rotation and transmit a control signal to the controller.
E-bike malfunction symptoms
The On button does not work. / Off. electronics.
Controller faulty or incorrectly connected.
Replace the element with the power button.
Replace the fuse with a new one with the same specification.
Check the correct position of the brakes.
Check controller connection, repair if necessary.
Inspect the motor connection, repair it
Inflate the tires to the maximum pressure indicated on the sidewall.
The output transistor in the controller is out of order.
Repair of the motor-wheel / controller wired system
Overheating from low tire pressure.
Faulty controller or temperature sensor.
Inflate the tires to the maximum pressure indicated on the sidewall.
Replace or repair the controller.
Inflate the tires to the maximum pressure indicated on the sidewall.
Faults in the electronics (controller)
Some of the Hall sensors of the wheel motor burned out
Other engine malfunctions have occurred
Low battery voltage (battery discharged)
Some of the battery cells give a drawdown
Check battery voltage with a voltmeter, replace defective battery.
Elimination of defects of the throttle handle. Pre-check the throttle handle with a voltmeter. the voltage on the signal drive should vary from 1 to 4.2V with a smooth change in its position.
Repair the power activation button / lock.
If the operation of the electric bike reveals other malfunctions that differ from those indicated above, contact the technical center specializing in the repair of transport electrical equipment.
Ancheer Electric Bicycle Hub Motor PROBLEM. FIX AKA Eshion Cyclamatic