Bicycle hubs: device
A bicycle hub is actually the main part of the wheel of this vehicle. Its axle is clamped directly on the frame or on the fork dropouts. And with the wheel rim, it is connected by the outgoing spokes. As for the torque, both the bicycle hub and the wheel itself rotate due to the bearing.
The selection of bicycle hubs on the market today is overwhelming. And each cyclist selects this spare part “for himself” according to the material of manufacture. Bushings are made from:
- heavy-duty aluminum alloy (the parts are lightweight, corrosion resistant);
- become (spare parts come out cheaper in price);
- titanium alloy (so far only in some models of selected manufacturers, for example, for the Shimano XTR series).
In addition, the bushings can be stamped, cast, or turned. The first and second will be stronger than the third, besides, they have a flawlessly even surface, which is also important.
In the mid-price segment, Shimano is a recognized manufacturer of quality bicycle hubs. Its products are based on thrust radial rolling bearings and, due to this circumstance, Shimano bushings are repairable and easily adjusted during the operational process. It is easy to recognize such bushings, even visually, using a non-standard spoke method. flangeless.
Many experienced cyclists believe that the Deore LX products offer the best price-performance ratio. But the most budgetary of the existing options is the Alivio bike socks (the front costs only 10, and the rear. 15).
Novatec (Taiwan) should be noted among the newcomers to the cycle market in this segment. Its products are of high quality and modest price. The company produces bicycle hubs of the original design, with good functionality.
Owners of expensive bikes are in high demand for bicycle hoes from Hope, Chris King, Tune, DT Swiss.
Bicycle hubs: device, manufacturers, care
Just as a bicycle cannot be imagined without a wheel, so a bicycle wheel is without a hub. Without it, no bicycle wheel will spin. Strictly speaking, the wheel and the hub to it on a bicycle are like a fulcrum and a lever. There can be no cycling without such a “union”.
The quality of the hub determines the “roll-off” of any large (obviously, the better the rolling / sliding in the hub, the easier it is for the wheel to spin), and hence its efficiency. Therefore, it is worth considering in more detail: what is this bicycle part? What are the criteria for her selection? And also figure out what materials are used to make bushings, what is their structure, types of fasteners, etc.
Front and rear bicycle hubs
The simplest front hub is located on the front wheel of the bicycle. And its only option is to spin the wheel. In the cylindrical body of this part there are holes (in the flanges at the ends) for the spokes, and there are also an axis and bearing assemblies.
But the rear hub is already on the rear wheel. It is more complex and performs more functions. In addition to providing rotation, this part also serves as a base for a cassette or ratchet.
Until recently, all rear hubs were threaded, but today this design is a thing of the past. In new sports bikes (and not only) with many speeds, there are already improved models, drum. These parts have a “ratchet” mechanism (the driving part of the rear hub) is an integral part, and the cassette remains only a set of stars.
With bushings of modern design, the following are nullified:
- the ability to rip off the thread at the time of installation;
- uneven wear of the ratchet and stars;
- large energy losses of the node.
Now the weight of the bicycle sleeves is less and the rigidity is greater (due to the increase in the distance between the bearings). The splines of the drum made the mount much more reliable (it is almost impossible to rip the cassette off of them), and the spline connection provided ease of sleeve mounting. Plus, now you can not change the entire cassette, which is quite expensive, but only individual stars.
However, progress in this area does not stand still. Some well-known manufacturers (KING, CRISS, etc.) generally produce bushings with a unique mechanism. Almost eternal, the design of which is a pair of toothed rings made of steel, and a spring. When rolling, such rings do not touch the wheel, but when pedaling the rings are pressed into the sleeve by a spring, establishing the desired connection. Simple, reliable and most durable solution.
Number of spokes
There is a direct relationship between the number of spokes in the hub, the reliability of the wheel and its weight. Today, manufacturing firms offer customers hubs with holes for the number of spokes from 12 to 48. But experienced cyclists use models with 32 spokes or 36.
Maintenance of the vast majority of bicycle hubs is the maintenance of bearings that are part of their design. Bearings should be regularly:
- And also sort out and dry if moisture gets in.
In general, there are certain subtleties in the matter of caring for bicycle socks:
- the frequency of bulkheads is directly related to the intensity and operating conditions of each particular bike;
- an increase in the frequency of adjustments depends on the occurrence of extraneous sounds during driving, backlash, etc.;
- the service life of the device is affected by the quality of the lubricant (it is recommended to use high-quality formulations. plastic, undiluted);
- on angular contact bearings for parsing, you need to use special tapered wrenches, as well as cassette pullers;
- if the cyclist does not have the right tool, it will be easier and cheaper to contact a bike workshop;
- replacement of the spokes in the front hub of the drum brake system or disc is carried out in a certain order (the spoke from the side is inserted into the flange. in addition, the rotor of the star is removed, as well as the brakes);
- the sleeve is carefully checked for its integrity (so that there are no cracks in the case and in the holes for the spokes);
- when the cyclist works with the hub (installs, changes, etc.), there should be no hint of moisture nearby.
On a bicycle, the wheels are held precisely due to the fact that the axial sleeve ends are inserted into the holes of the frame feathers and are fixed there. The most common are the following options for such an attachment:
- eccentric, in which it is easy to mount / dismantle wheels (practically without the use of tools);
- and the cheapest wrench, in which there are 2 nuts for each bushing (in this case, the wheels are attached and removed using a wrench of the correct size).
In mountain bikes, in addition to conventional bushings, disc bushings are used, designed for the possible installation of a disc brake rotor. At the same time, there are 2 standards for rotary fasteners:
- splined, equipped with a retaining ring;
- and ISO on six bolts.
Quality MTB bikes are often fitted by manufacturers with double contact bike sleeves or labyrinth seals to keep wheel resistance to a minimum. However, the protection against water and dirt may suffer.
Thanks to its drive system, the bicycle is the most efficient vehicle on earth. The chain drive system uses an electric motor that attaches under the crank and drives the bike through the pedaling system (transmission).
Knock Knock, Loose Hub | Tech Tuesday #117
Chain drive is also known as mid drive, crank drive, axle drive, or motorized lower suspension drive system.
The pedal connection provides better torque than the front and rear wheel hub motors. The efficiency when overcoming slopes in this type of engine is higher. The electric motor with this type of transmission is also more efficient when transporting heavy loads, since the electric motor is assisted in low gears of the bike.
An electric motor of this type is located very close to the ground, so the center of gravity is also very low. Some electric motors are sealed and protected, so jumping on the sidewalks, driving on rocks can not be afraid. But there are also motors that remain unprotected and require more careful driving.
Some systems connect the motor to the bike chain, while others also use an additional chain.
This type of electric drive system is the most noisy compared to others, since it uses a circuit in its operation.
The connection of the motor through the chain creates additional friction. Therefore, when pedaling on a bike with this type of engine, it is necessary to overcome the additional friction of the motor.
An unsealed chain drive system usually does not look as good as other drive systems. The appearance is not attractive enough. Most e-bikes converted from regular bicycles look like this. But a hidden and secure system usually has an integrated and neat look.
Electric Bicycle. What is it?
This is a regular bicycle, additionally equipped with an electric motor, which can be mounted as a wheel axle or attached independently by driving the bicycle with a chain. In terms of technical characteristics, such a bicycle is in no way inferior to mopeds with internal combustion engines running on gasoline, but the economic benefit during its operation exceeds gasoline mopeds at times. Every year, several million e-bikes are sold around the world, but the question of buying such a great one is not always relevant if you already have your own reliable bike, which can very easily be converted to electric traction in just half an hour.
What is the design of the wheel motor?
The stator core of the wheel motor is made of special electrical steel with copper winding, which is laid in grooves along the entire perimeter. The number of windings is appropriately increased for three-phase operation. High-energy magnets based on rare-earth alloys, which have a high coercive force, are included in the rotor of the motor-wheel. Neodymium-iron-boron (Ne-Fe-B) magnets placed
in pairs with alternating poles: north and south.
The engine is driven by three Hall sensors. Sensor signals,
converted by the microprocessor of the controller
into the system of control voltages, which respectively control the power switches. The windings are positioned in such a way that when the keys are switched, a magnetic field of rotation is formed
The advantage of this electric motor is:
- high efficiency (more than 90%);
- increased service life due to the lack of sliding electrical contacts;
- low overheating of the electric motor in overload modes;
- high reliability;
- long service life.
Friction drive (friction principle)
This is probably one of the first types of electric motor that was used on an e-bike. The shaft extends from the motor into contact with the front or rear wheel. The bike moves forward when the shaft rotates. It’s that simple!
On the one hand, we have before us a very simple and rather cheap drive system, but on the other hand, it has many disadvantages.
The difference between the radius of the shaft and the wheel is quite large. To compensate for this difference, the engine must be spinning very quickly and the efficiency of the engine at these speeds is very low.
over, the contact between the e-bike wheel and the motor is not perfect. The efficiency of energy transfer from the motor shaft to the wheel is low and environmental conditions such as tire pressure and moisture in the wheel can reduce contact even further.
The next disadvantage of the contact between the wheel and the shaft of the electric motor is that with this use the rubber wears out much faster than usual through intense friction.
It is impossible to achieve high speed and good torque with this type of electric drive system. In addition, through a series of low efficiency of this system, energy consumption is much higher than usual, which leads to a rapid depletion of the batteries.
But if all you need is a way to travel short distances on a modest budget, this type of engine might be right for you.
Bicycle wheel motor
than a dozen years ago, the world switched to a reliable and rather cheap form of transport. personal electric transport. Almost everything was converted for electric traction. from a family car and an ordinary motorcycle to a simple bicycle, which, it would seem, can no longer be improved more.
Rear wheel drive motor
Rear wheel drive motor built into the rear wheel instead of a hub. It has good balance and traction in wet weather, and when riding on country roads.
On the other hand, an imbalance in the weight of the entire bike occurs if the batteries are placed in the rear of the trunk.
Some RWD wheel motor systems have a maximum sprocket limit. Also, the rear wheel motor cannot work together with the cassette gear system and is forced to use weaker multi-star wheel freewheel systems, the choice of which is much less.
Compared to other drive systems of electric motors that use bicycle transmission systems (for example, chain), the rear motor-wheel, like the motor-wheel of the front drive, does not have additional systems for propelling the bicycle.
Methods for installing the motor-wheel
There are several configurations for the electric motor and wheel hub motor and how they are mounted on a bicycle, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. We will tell you about each of them and try to highlight the key differences between them.
It is also useful to know that any engine configuration can be fitted to a bicycle, but there are exceptions. The front fork of a bicycle, for example, can become an obstacle when installing some types of electric motors like front-wheel drive motor-wheels.
The electric motor can be installed on the bike as follows:
- like a wheel motor in the front fork;
- like a wheel motor in a rear fork;
- through a chain drive;
- through a friction drive (friction principle);
- like a pusher trailer.
Installation and operating instructions
You can measure your cadence without electronic devices. Count the number of times one of your feet approaches the top of the pedal path in 30 seconds, then multiply by 2. This will give your pedaling speed in rpm.
Steep hill landing: You should shift your weight forward, keep your chin as close to the handlebars as possible, and try to stretch your head forward. Slide to the tip of the saddle! Use the handlebar arms to make lifting easier, this will allow better balance. If the rear wheel is slipping, then you have moved too forward. For relief, you can get off the saddle and pedal while standing, but remember to load the rear wheel.
Downhill landing: You should slide back and sit lower than usual. On very steep descents, it is worth moving back so that the pelvis is above the rear wheel. If you shift too much, you may lose control of the front wheel. Grip the steering wheel firmly, but do not forget that your hands should act as shock absorbers. The lower you sit, the lower the center of gravity and the easier it is to handle the bike downhill.
Shifting: The left derailleur controls the front shifting, which moves the chain over the three sprockets on the cranks. There are basically three gears here. Small Gear (Position). for first speed, for slow driving and climbing. Middle Gear (Position). For medium speed and heavy pedaling. It is used in the plains. Large Gear (# 3). Serves for high speed driving on asphalt or downhill. This is the hardest gear to pedal. The rear derailleur is controlled by shifting gears on the rear wheel, where there are 7.8, or 9 sprockets. Larger gears are easier to pedal. Gradually shift to lower gears to increase speed.
Braking: remember which brake lever is responsible for the front brake. Usually this is the left handle (to make it funnier. you can swap them). The rear brake should be used earlier, and the front brake should be used a little later and softer (otherwise you can lock the front wheel and roll over over the handlebars). Remember, when the rims are wet, then the braking distance is much longer. Start braking earlier in wet weather.
Driving line: When driving, plan your trajectory and maintain a straight line. Planning ahead, looking for roots, hummocks, rocks, streams, holes, damp places, loose soil, etc. Watch out for branches and other obstructions. You must have complete control over the situation.
Bike Undercarriage: When traveling long distances, be sure to fill a flask and grab a snack. Do not forget to lubricate and change the chain in time. Inflate the wheels before driving. Use common sense, if the terrain seems dangerous, go on foot. Wear comfortable clothing, and make sure your laces don’t dangle or wrap around the gears. Check your bike before riding. Don’t let your “experienced” friends force you to do something they have never done or are afraid of. Think and follow your own instincts. Drive in optimal gear. Have your bike repaired in time.
Always shift into the correct gear before you start climbing. Shifting while lifting places enormous stress on the bike’s mechanisms. However, if it is absolutely impossible for you to avoid shifting during the climb, remember to only shift one sprocket at a time with no pedal pressure. This will make switching much smoother without damaging the switches.
Keep your body relaxed throughout the entire lift, with your shoulder line perpendicular to the direction of travel. When you tense your muscles, you are actually wasting most of your energy. You want to save as much energy as you can! Set the transmission to the lowest reasonable gear and speed forward.!
As mentioned above, you must pull the handlebars back and down during each pedal rotation (while sitting on the saddle). This helps to “press” the rear wheel into the ground, thus increasing additional traction and preventing the rear tire from sliding or slipping.
When changing from a seated position to a standing position, be sure to shift into a higher gear, which will allow you to apply more force. Riding in low gear while standing will cause you to waste too much energy.
Extra Effort in Position: On the steepest of climbs, many riders use the “pulling” technique to put more effort into each pedal rotation. Each time you step on the pedal, use your hands to bring your body closer to the steering wheel. This will assist your foot in pedaling, thus adding more power to the pedal.
Be Relaxed: To conserve energy, stay relaxed at all times. Don’t stress your face and upper body while lifting. Keep everything free to save energy. Concentrate on your breathing, and maintain a deep and steady breathing rhythm. This will prevent shortness of breath.
Race Notes: often than not, when the average rider gets up on an incline, it is a signal that he or she is struggling and is about to slow down. Let this be your advantage. Convey pressure by keeping your legs straight (I suspect this is a head-up idiom). This is mainly a mental game. If a tired rider thinks you are still walking fresh, he will likely slow down even more, giving you a chance to overtake.
Try to alternate your position. Start in a seated position, and as you rise, gently shift into higher gears and shift to a standing position. Each position uses a different set of muscles, so alternating between the two positions gives your muscles rest.
If you’ve been on the pedals, stand AS LOW AS POSSIBLE! You should apply your weight primarily to the rear wheel as this is where you get the traction from. Do not use an excessively low gear, otherwise you will inevitably skid on the first obstacle.
Climbing: Steep Climbs: Many riders stop or treat the steep hill as irresistible. With the right technique, you will be convinced that most of the hills can actually be done. You just have to try (many times until you master).
Due to the heavy load, the spokes weaken and begin to creak. All spokes must be tightened in a balanced manner.
Shuffling sounds often occur in the hub. Such a problem can arise if your cones are incorrectly tightened, the bushing has unwound and has lost some of the balls, or there is mechanical damage to the component parts of the part. What to do: Take apart the bushing and count the number of balls on both sides. If the number of balls is different, all of them must be replaced so that all balls have the same size and wear. Inspect the balls and their seating for chips or cracks. Then lubricate the bearing and tighten the cones correctly: for this, leave a barely noticeable play. If you overtighten or, conversely, tighten poorly, then the life of the sleeve will rapidly decrease.
The wheel bearing on loose bearings requires regular maintenance. To do this, unscrew the bolts holding the stem and anchor, then carefully remove the stem and fork. Remove balls from cage, clean and lubricate. Assemble the helmsman and tighten the armature carefully as it may break if pulled too tight.
Chain and rear derailleur
The chain must be lubricated every 100-200 kilometers. Excess oil on the outside of the links must be removed, otherwise dirt will quickly adhere to the chain. What if the unpleasant sound remains after smearing? Before lubrication, it is advisable to wash the chain not with water, but with organic solvents: gasoline, alcohol and others. They effectively remove dirt and degrease. Water does not penetrate hard-to-reach parts of the chain and can cause rust formation.
A crackling sound in the cassette area can be caused by an unset switch. The sound comes from the chain jumping from one star to another. Adjust the switch to match each gear exactly to the desired cassette star.
Squeaking brakes are an indicator of improper operation of the pads. This situation can arise for various reasons: dirt or grease has got on the pad and / or rotor (rim), incorrect position of the pads in relation to the brake disc (rim) or their wear, etc.
Clean with sandpaper and degrease the rotor and pads with alcohol or gasoline and do not touch them with your fingers, as human skin produces fat, which, in fact, we are fighting with. The brake pads have a porous structure, so they easily absorb grease. Oiled pads are best replaced. After cleaning the rotor, spin the wheel and press the brake lever sharply so that the shoe rub against the brake disc. Repeat the procedure as needed.
If the reason for the squeak is worn pads, then simply replace them.
On mechanical brakes, the squeak may be caused by the cable jacket if dirt or grease has dried out. To fix the problem, flush the jacket with WD-40 or another solvent and fill it with some silicone grease.
If you suddenly hear a creak in the front or rear shock absorber, then the first thing you should do is to disassemble the shock absorber itself and the hinges, clean them, dry them and lubricate everything thoroughly. Squeaking noise can be caused by old, dried grease, which impairs the ride comfort of the suspension. It is especially important to regularly sort out the shock absorber in order to notice the corrosion and destruction of the bearings in time, otherwise the suspension will start to jam, and then the axles may collapse, which leads to the need for overhaul or replacement of units.
The front shock absorber (fork) can knock when driving on difficult terrain if the damper is not working well enough or not functioning at all. Accordingly, in a spring-elastomer fork, the main cause of squeaks and crackles is the wear of the elastomer. The knock in the oil fork may be due to a lack of oil in the cartridge. If you don’t notice a problem with the damper, simply re-run the fork and lubricate all parts where necessary. A steel spring can also creak. Liberally lubricate with heavy grease for troubleshooting.
Why the bike squeaks when riding and how to fix it
Sooner or later, all parts and mechanisms of a bicycle wear out. If suddenly you have an extraneous sound while riding, it means that any part of the bike began to work incorrectly. For a comfortable and safe ride, you must definitely correct the situation! But how to understand exactly where and why the bike squeaks?
Pedals and bottom bracket
Sit on the bike, apply the brakes and alternately depress the left and right pedals, and then crank them. If a squeak appears on only one side when you turn, then the problem is most likely in the pedal bearing.
First, determine if there are any visible mechanical damage on the pedals. If not, then the creak comes from the mechanism.
To eliminate cracking in the pedal, remove it and disassemble it. When removing the pedals, remember that the thread types on the right and left pedals are different! The right pedal is unscrewed counterclockwise, and the left pedal is thus twisted. Carefully remove the balls, if you have loose bearing pedals, clean them, as well as the raceway and all nuts from dirt and old grease. Inspect all components of the mechanism for damage and rust.
If you find a problem, replace the part. It is recommended to replace the balls in any case, even if no chips or cracks are visible. If there are none, then lubricate the raceway with new grease, place the balls on it and assemble the pedal. It is necessary to tighten the nuts so that the pedal does not play (even better there will be a small and barely noticeable play), but it was not overtightened either. If the pedal still cracks, try to find the problem in the carriage.
The carriage is a very often wearing part, as it bears enormous loads when pedaling. If, when you press on the pedals, it squeaks on both sides, then you need to disassemble the carriage to identify the problem. To do this, remove the connecting rods and the carriage, coat the connecting rod axles, the threads of the carriage assembly and cups with grease. Then build the system. If you have a non-separable cartridge carriage installed, then it will have to be replaced.
Saddle and seat post
If the sound appears when you pedal while seated and disappears when riding while standing, then it becomes clear that the squeak is coming from the seat. First, determine whether the saddle squeaks or the seatpost squeaks.
To fix the problem, disconnect the seatpost from the frame and then remove the bolts that hold the seat in place. Clean any dust, sand and dirt from the post, post clip and seat. Then screw on the saddle and insert the seat post into the frame. A very well cleaned seat clamp should be tight. Otherwise, the pin may move relative to the frame, creating unpleasant sounds.
The seat may squeak due to deformation of the frame or frames that attach the saddle to the post. In this case, its replacement is required.
In most cases, a simple bulkhead of all parts of the mechanism and their lubrication helps in the fight against various rattles of a bicycle. If you are not quite sure that you will assemble the mechanism back, it is better to immediately contact a specialist so as not to create additional problems for yourself.!
Electric bike with the latest Russian-made controller and a power reserve of up to 80 km or more
Today there will be a review of an electric bike based on the donor Haro Double Peak 27.5 trail plus. During its electrification, an engine control controller was used, which is fully developed and produced in Russia, which personally makes me very happy.
By the way, the controller is so compact that you don’t even notice it right away on the bike.
Aluminum frame, SR Suntour XCT-30 HLO 27.5 suspension fork, XD-155 double aluminum rims. The bike is designed for active riding on various roads and rough terrain. Wheel diameter. 27.5 inches, bike weight before electrification. 15.6 kg.
The electrification of the bicycle was carried out by Electron Bikes, which is located in Samara, but modifies bicycles throughout Russia, accepting and returning them by transport companies.
A quick-release 720Wh (15Ah, 48V) lithium-ion battery is installed at the bottom of the frame triangle to lower the bike’s center of gravity as much as possible and increase its handling. Assembled according to the 13S5P scheme from 65 high-current YLE cells of 18650 size, 3000 mAh capacity each.
Locate and Eliminate bicycle noise: clicks, clunks, rubbing, creaking
The battery case is made of monolithic polycarbonate and composite materials. There is a charging connector in the sidewall, in front there is a handle for easy transportation.
The battery is securely fixed on an anodized aluminum platform, which is secured not only with bottle mounting holes, but also screwed to clamps made to the shape of the lower tube profile.
Removing the battery reveals the same Russian-made controller attached to the seat tube. This version is designed for a current of 35 A. There are also options for 20 A and 50 A. The controller has dimensions of 92 x 20 x 40 mm, which makes it the most compact and unparalleled in the world.
The electric bike accelerates to 50 km / h, has a range of up to 80 km or more in assistant mode, and in the case of riding without pedals, using only the throttle handle, guaranteed 40 km.
That’s all for today. Have a nice day and take care of yourself!