How to remove the stars from the rear wheel of a bike

remove, stars, rear, wheel

Device

An inexperienced user may confuse these two parts, but their difference is that the cassette stars have a minimum diameter of 11T, while the ratchet has a minimum diameter of 14T. To replace the rear sprockets of the bike, you must remove the entire cassette completely.

The ratchet of the rear wheel of the bicycle has several driven stars, which are connected by a freewheel hub. The ratchet is considered not a very durable and reliable component; axle breakages often occur due to design imperfections. The ratchet can be removed for repairs in the same way as the cassette.

The efficiency and functionality of the bike depends on the rear wheel hub. The part has several components. If the stroke is heavy, then there is probably a problem and the cone is damaged. To eliminate malfunctions, unscrew the nuts with a wrench and remove the wheel. When regularly inspecting the technical condition of the transport, pay attention to the bushing taper, clean and lubricate parts and bearings. This detail is very important, it organizes the transmission of the transmission to the wheel from the pedals, as well as several other important tasks.

Bicycle rear sprocket

Bicycle rear hub: device, ratchet. How to remove a sprocket from the rear wheel of a speed bike?

It often happens that the hub needs lubrication or the rear wheel sprockets need to be replaced. The repair process is easier to carry out with remove the cassette. This way things will go faster and more accurately. Of the tools you need:

How to remove?

First of all, remove the wheel. Turn the bike upside down with the wheels and unscrew the nut on the axle with a wrench. In some cases, for example, a sports bike or mountain bike, you need an eccentric clamp. Simple models do not require a special approach and tool.

The rear sprockets are attached to the ratchet with a special nut (slotted). This very nut must be unscrewed with a puller and a wrench. The latter must be appropriate in size. Unscrew the nut clockwise and use the whip. Requires to insert the puller into the spline nut in the rear sprocket of the bike.

We carefully put the whip on a large diameter sprocket. Holding the cassette, we rotate the puller with the key. This requires some effort. After unscrewing the nut, remove the cassette. The rear sprockets of the bike can be positioned independently of each other on the ratchet. It is required to remove all parts, small sprockets, washers, carefully and carefully. This is to avoid confusion of elements. Then the cassette and plastic ring are removed. After completing the replacement of worn parts, all components, including the sprockets, are assembled in order.

Remove the sleeve

Removal of this part is done after detaching the cassette. It is best to start the process on the left side. Next, the boot, locknut and cone are removed. Then you can find washers, the number of which depends on the type of bike. It is very important to remember exactly the location and order of finding all the parts. Now the stage begins in which the cone is gently unwound. If the grease is in poor condition, it is necessary to remove the bearings and inspect them. The presence of rust, dirt and other troubles indicates the replacement of parts. With this option, good parts need to be put in place before lubrication. With a careful approach to work, the bike will function properly and accurately. Removing the bushing and other parts is not difficult, but it is important to remember the order in which they are located.

How to remove a ratchet from a bicycle wheel? To do this, it is better to use a special puller key.

Removing the ratchet

On some bikes, the sprockets can be ratcheted. In order to remove it, you must:

  • Remove the rear wheel and chain;
  • Insert the puller into the ratchet bushing;
  • Put an extension wrench on the puller and turn the ratchet counterclockwise.

Next, you need to disassemble the block of stars, carefully laying out all the parts in order.

Instruments

In order to remove the rear sprockets from the bike, you must:

  • Special extractor for the spline nut of the axle;
  • Whip. a metal key with a piece of bicycle chain fixed on it, consisting of 10-20 links;
  • Large adjustable wrench or socket wrench set;
  • Retaining ring puller.

Removing the cassette

To remove the sprocket cassette from the rear axle of the bicycle, you must:

  • Turn the bike over with its wheels up and place it on a flat solid surface, resting on the handlebar and saddle;
  • Unscrew the axle fastening nuts and remove the rear wheel and chain;
  • Install the puller on the slotted nut and put an adjustable wrench (or a suitable socket wrench) with an extension on it;
  • Put a whip on the largest star;
  • Holding the whip with one hand, unscrew the spline nut with the other counterclockwise;
  • Remove the cassette and disassemble it, carefully placing all the stars and intermediate washers in order.

If in the process of subsequent assembly of the cassette the correct sequence of insertion of the spacers is not observed, this can lead to problems when switching speeds while the bike is moving.

How to remove the stars from the rear wheel of a bike

The drivetrain plays a very important role in the operation of the entire bike, so you must carefully monitor the wear of individual parts of it. This is especially true for the rear wheel sprockets, which fail over time. A worn out sprocket must be replaced as soon as possible, and it will not be difficult to do this.

Before starting the replacement process, get yourself the tools you need to help you. It:

  • Whip
  • Cassette remover
  • Rozhkova and adjustable wrenches

First, remove the rear wheel from the bike. This is very easy to do. Unscrew the nut with a wrench and release the chain. Owners of mountain models just need to press on the special mount and the wheel will be dismantled. Next, we install a removable device on the slotted nut of the cassette. Here we need a whip to prevent the cassette from turning. While we rotate the puller with an adjustable wrench, hold the largest star with a whip.

Using a nut, unscrew the cassette and remove it from the wheel. We carefully examine the stars and determine which one has become unusable. Start with the smallest and end with the largest. The bike drivetrain is designed in such a way that you can only replace the worn out sprockets and not the entire cassette. Therefore, having inspected the cassette, you remove the used parts from it and replace them with new ones. It is very easy to pull the star out of the cassette, this is facilitated by special rivets. The main thing is to carefully remember the order of the stars, so as not to get confused with their installation back. In the configuration of some bikes, you may find so-called spiders. It is a group of several stars that are inextricably linked. In this case, you will have to replace the entire spider. Many cyclists are faced with the following problem. After replacing several stars, there is great discomfort in the operation of the chain. This is due to the fact that the chain has already passed a certain mileage, has worn out and now it is difficult for it to interact with new parts. Therefore, experts recommend the simultaneous replacement of the chain and worn sprockets. This greatly minimizes the complexity of your bike’s drivetrain.

If you own a single speed bike, the process of replacing the chainring will be simplified to a minimum. You just need to open the retaining ring. If your own ring has become unusable, it must be replaced immediately, even if you are not going to replace the stars in the near future. Otherwise, the chain will lose its fixation, and this threatens with backlash. The process of replacing the ring is very simple, you do not need to perform the slightest forceful manipulations. Therefore, if you are talking about a single-speed bike, everything is very easy and understandable here. However, the owners of such models should carry out the process of dismantling the cassette only if one or more of the largest stars have worn out. If a small asterisk starts to fail, this is not a cause for concern. Whatever you ride, remember that both the simplest road bike and the super-fast bike need a proper transmission. A badly worn chain and stars will not allow you to drive even a couple of meters. Pay close attention to the mechanics and replace worn-out parts in a timely manner. A working bike is the main guarantee of your safety and a cool, trouble-free ride!

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Freewheel drum. a mechanism that allows you to move by inertia or save forces, is built into the bushing itself, so the cassette can be removed without interfering with the interior of the bushing.

To remove the cassette, you need to loosen the retaining ring using a special retaining ring puller, which has grooves, while you need to hold the cassette using a whip, similar to a long key, at the end of which there is a piece of chain that engages with the teeth of the sprockets. Although it is not necessary to remove the cassette during normal bicycle care, it makes cleaning the transmission very easy.

The cassette consists of stars. There are cassettes from individual stars, and sometimes from stars on a spider, as shown in the picture, they have protrusions that coincide with the grooves on the drum of the freewheel mechanism.

Some useful information before we start:

  • Cassette remover
  • Whip
  • Large adjustable wrench or clamp (instead of a key for a puller)
  • Lubricant or anti-seize paste (optional)

To do this job you will need a whip, cassette remover and a large adjustable wrench, or you can use a vise instead of a wrench.

Step 1. Remove the rear wheel from the frame and pull out the eccentric axle, be careful not to lose the centering springs on each side. Insert the stripper so that it fits fully into the tabs. If the grip is shallow and there is a hole in the puller, you can use a quick release clamp to hold the puller in place by pushing the axle back through the bushing and puller and securing it. Some pullers have a stem that takes the place of the eccentric.

Step 2. Install the whip, making sure it fully engages with the sprocket. The task of the whip is to keep the cassette and bushing from rotating as you loosen the retaining ring. If you stand facing the cassette, it will be convenient for you that the whip handle is on the right, as in the photo.

Step 3. Now is the time to loosen the retaining ring. With the wheel on the work table, position the handles of the tools on the straight mowing line as shown in the photo and turn the puller counterclockwise and the whip clockwise while keeping the sleeve and cassette in place. Apply pressure evenly so that the whip does not come off the teeth, but if it still comes off all the time, then it seems that the particular star is too worn out and the whip is simply slipping off it. Move to the big star and try again. If you are using a quick release axle to hold the ring puller in place, you need to remove it to unscrew the ring when you loosen it.

Some over-tightened retaining rings may require full body weight to loosen. If this is your case, place the wheel vertically on the ground in front of you with the cassette facing away from you. Standing over the wheel, position the tools as shown in the photo and lean on with your whole body weight to loosen the retaining ring by pushing on the key and whip.

Step 4. Unscrew the retaining ring and set aside. Remove the sprockets from the drum, note the order in which the spacer rings are installed, and place them on the table in a safe place. They will need to be installed back in exactly the same order as you removed them in order for the gear shifting to work as it should.

The cassette can cut into the aluminum ratchet drum because the sprockets crush the soft metal. This often happens when the steel stars are located separately, rather than attached to a spider, which better distributes the load. You can use a screwdriver (carefully, do not bend them) to gently pick up the stars and move them with a lever, or you can knock on them from the back with a screwdriver and a hammer.

Step 5. Now is the time to thoroughly clean the sprockets and bushing, but be careful not to stir the spacer rings while doing this. Inspect cassette for broken teeth and burrs that can be removed with a file.

Step 6. Pay attention to the grooves and tabs on the pulley and sprockets before installing them. The stars are put on the drum in only one position due to the presence of an unpaired protrusion on the drum, which is slightly smaller in width than the others. This ensures that the cassette shift points are dropped as designed. The notch and corresponding protrusion are shown and circled in red.

Step 7. While there is debate over whether or not to lubricate the drum with a thin layer of grease or anti-seize paste, we do not recommend this. Nothing will stop the cassette from cutting into the drum, and steel cassette drums have very little chance of corroding enough to rust against each other (the same applies to aluminum cassettes and drums). Thus, the lubricant has no choice but to collect dirt and dust and create a sticky mass out of it. The only place where a small amount of lubricant or anti-seize paste is helpful is on the threads of the retaining ring so that it can be loosened more easily in the future.

Step 8. Correctly position the sprockets and put them on the drum, pay attention to installing everything in exactly the same order as removed, including the spacer rings. Some cassettes use a larger spider to which most of the sprockets are attached, resulting in one large block, while others may have all the sprockets in the cluster separate from each other.

Step 9. On some cassette and hub combinations, especially for 10-speed cassettes, the last (smallest) sprocket does not fully engage with the reel splines until it is pushed in. Make sure the last sprocket is level before pushing it down with your hand to press into place, then twist the retaining ring clockwise to clamp all the sprockets together.

Step 10. Take a close look and make sure the cassette is level before tightening the retaining ring with a wrench. Look at the back of the cassette as you slowly rotate it. If you notice any wobbling or unevenness between the stars, you will need to disassemble the cassette and find the cause.

Step 11. Finally tighten the retaining ring by turning the wrench clockwise until it is tightened properly. A minimum torque of 360 lb-in. (20 m / kg) is recommended. A quick release clip can also be used here to hold the puller in place (not shown).

Required tools

To remove the old part in the same way as when dismantling the ratchet, only 3 tools are required:

  • a puller for a two-wheeled vehicle retaining ring. needed to unscrew the nut;
  • The key whip is a tool with a bicycle chain. It is necessary to fix the position of the cassette, because dismantling occurs with a freely rotating wheel;
  • adjustable or box wrench.

Sequencing

After you have prepared the necessary tool, proceed with the dismantling process. Detailed instructions on how to remove the cassette from the rear wheel of a bicycle are presented below.

  • Remove the rear wheel of the vehicle. To do this, unscrew the nut holding the rear tire axle and pull out the brake mount. Then shoot the camera itself.
  • Examine the cassette carefully for signs of damage or wear, decide that replacement is really necessary. Along with this, assess the condition of the bearings by shaking the axle in different directions. If there is a lateral clearance on the axle, they will soon need to be replaced. It is better to entrust this procedure to specialists, self-repair can be carried out only after a detailed study of the instructions.
  • To dismantle a damaged cassette, place the wheel on a flat surface with the part up. Use a whip and a special puller: rotate the whip fixed to the largest sprocket, pointing the tool to the right. And the puller must be inserted into an available pass near the axis. The thread on the ring with a dozen teeth is standard and unscrews counterclockwise. You will need a lot of strength to move the circle from its place, do not be intimidated by the grinding that occurs due to the locking teeth.
  • After elimination of the stop ring, the cassette moves to the side and protrudes. It is highly likely that it will split into parts: separate stars, gaskets and other solid elements.
  • Now replace the cassette, remember, the new bike rear wheel cassette should have the same gear ratio. All elements of the system are designed for certain indicators and any replacement of a part violates the overall balance of the device. Usually, the gear ratio is indicated on the cassette sprocket, you can also calculate it yourself by counting the number of teeth on the largest and smallest gear. these numbers are the desired indicator. Do not forget about the special spacers placed between the main parts.
  • After fixing the sprockets in their original place, screw the ring and cassette. Do not use all your strength, the threads on the parts are shallow and rough operations can ruin it. The cassette is connected by a locking circle with special teeth that do not allow it to be unscrewed.
  • After returning the ring to its proper position, tighten the nut securely and return the wheel to the rear fork of the bike. This step is similar to the first paragraph in the instructions, only the opposite is true.
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It is known that the bike will not budge with faulty sprockets, periodically check their condition and change them in time. Often, along with the cassette, the chain also wears out. Therefore, assess its condition and, if necessary, tighten or shorten, and also lubricate without fail, since you could inadvertently erase all the substance from the metal surface.

How to remove sprockets from the rear wheel of a bicycle?

It is absolutely not difficult to disassemble the device for replacement, but you should be careful and have a couple of free hours in stock.

In some situations, the disassembler initially spends 15 minutes, and another person without the necessary skills can handle it in 1-2 hours.

That is why it is difficult to answer the question of how much time can be spent on a laborious process. In most, all stars have the same parsing method, since they have almost the same structure.

Helpful hints for parsing:

  • How the parts are removed, in this order they should be installed. This advice will help from confusion and waste of extra time that can be spent remembering where a certain detail came from;
  • After parsing, every detail needs to be inspected, perhaps it does not require replacement, but a banal cleaning is simply necessary.

Change the sprockets on the rear wheel of the bike

The drivetrain plays a very important role in the operation of the entire bike, so you must carefully monitor the wear of individual parts of it. This is especially true for the rear wheel sprockets, which fail over time. A worn out sprocket must be replaced as soon as possible, and it will not be difficult to do this.

Before starting the replacement process, get yourself the tools you need to help you. It:

  • Whip
  • Cassette remover
  • Rozhkova and adjustable wrenches

First, remove the rear wheel from the bike. This is very easy to do. Unscrew the nut with a wrench and release the chain. Owners of mountain models just need to press on the special mount and the wheel will be dismantled. Next, we install a removable device on the slotted nut of the cassette. Here we need a whip to prevent the cassette from turning. While we rotate the puller with an adjustable wrench, hold the largest star with a whip.

Using a nut, unscrew the cassette and remove it from the wheel. We carefully examine the stars and determine which one has become unusable. Start with the smallest and end with the largest. The bike drivetrain is designed in such a way that you can only replace the worn out sprockets and not the entire cassette. Therefore, having inspected the cassette, you remove the used parts from it and replace them with new ones. It is very easy to pull the star out of the cassette, this is facilitated by special rivets. The main thing is to carefully remember the order of the stars, so as not to get confused with their installation back. In the configuration of some bikes, you may find so-called spiders. It is a group of several stars that are inextricably linked. In this case, you will have to replace the entire spider. Many cyclists are faced with the following problem. After replacing several stars, there is great discomfort in the operation of the chain. This is due to the fact that the chain has already passed a certain mileage, has worn out and now it is difficult for it to interact with new parts. Therefore, experts recommend the simultaneous replacement of the chain and worn sprockets. This greatly minimizes the complexity of your bike’s drivetrain.

If you own a single speed bike, the process of replacing the chainring will be simplified to a minimum. You just need to open the retaining ring. If your own ring has become unusable, it must be replaced immediately, even if you are not going to replace the stars in the near future. Otherwise, the chain will lose its fixation, and this threatens with backlash. The process of replacing the ring is very simple, you do not need to perform the slightest forceful manipulations. Therefore, if you are talking about a single-speed bike, everything is very easy and understandable here. However, the owners of such models should carry out the process of dismantling the cassette only if one or more of the largest stars have worn out. If a small asterisk starts to fail, this is not a cause for concern. Whatever you ride, remember that both the simplest road bike and the super-fast bike need a proper transmission. A badly worn chain and stars will not allow you to drive even a couple of meters. Pay close attention to the mechanics and replace worn-out parts in a timely manner. A working bike is the main guarantee of your safety and a cool, trouble-free ride!

Bicycle sprocket care

Needless to say, all mechanisms require maintenance, otherwise they will quickly fail. If you clean the transmission of dirt as it gets dirty, it will significantly extend the life of the part.

You can clean the bike structure according to the following principle:

  • Release the brake and remove the rear wheel;
  • Inspect the inner cassette for dirt. If the dirt is strong, then without removing it will not be possible to clean, in the case when the dirt is minimal, then you can clean it directly on the bike;
  • Use coarse-bristled brushes for cleaning, but they should be small enough to get into hard-to-reach areas. An old toothbrush that is not planned to be used for its intended purpose is suitable for such cleaning;
  • Initially, a rag should be dipped in kerosene and only then start removing dirt from the sprocket;
  • After cleaning, apply grease to the brush and wipe over the teeth. Then install back.

In order not to change the asterisks, you should constantly carry out proper care and diagnostics. Spending once a month a few minutes of your time to lubricate the sprockets, you can protect yourself not only from large costs, but also wasting extra time.

Therefore, it is much easier to take care of in a timely manner than to repair your bike, especially if you use it often enough.

If a breakdown still happened, you should not be upset, but make every effort to fix it yourself.

How to remove the bike cassette

First of all, you need to prepare the necessary tool:

  • cassette retaining ring remover;
  • whip. a special key to which a bicycle chain is attached (fragment);
  • adjustable wrench.
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You can, of course, do without the specified specific tool. over, there are 2 such methods and both will work 100%:

Be sure to prepare an area with a flat surface, which should be within arm’s reach of the bike. this is how you can save and not lose all the parts of the bike cassette.

Step-by-step instructions for removing the cassette:

  • The bicycle wheel is removed, a special puller is installed. You need to pay attention to the correct installation of this tool: its slots must completely enter the grooves of the retaining ring.
  • A whip is taken in your hands, put on the sprocket in such a way that the fragment of the bicycle chain on the key is on the teeth of the sprocket. Please note that the whip handle should be to the right of the cassette, a fragment of the tool chain. at the top.
  • An adjustable wrench is placed on the cassette remover and rotated counterclockwise. Simultaneously with this movement, it is necessary to firmly hold the whip key in the fixed position. thus, the movement / scrolling of the sprocket is blocked. Note:in some cases, the chain may jump off during this process, which means a strong wear of the cassette sprockets or a broken key whip. Experts recommend putting a whip on a large sprocket. you can get the desired fixation effect.
  • The retaining ring is completely unscrewed, the cassette is removed.

Be sure to make sure that the removed cassette, as well as the sprockets and all fasteners, are in the removable form exactly in the order in which they were in the original version.

remove, stars, rear, wheel

After removing the cassette, you can start cleaning and lubricating it. these procedures are among the mandatory for regular maintenance of a two-wheeled vehicle.

Bicycle sprocket design

The mechanism externally has several stars of different sizes, which are fixed with a bushing. After that, everything is connected with a lock nut.

  • The usual version is that the stars are connected to each other by a plastic spacer;
  • Spider cassette. cassettes made in the form of stars, fixed on an aluminum frame;
  • On several spiders. devices that have a high cost and are usually installed on professional and expensive models. The appearance has 2 spiders, which are connected by sets of stars;
  • X-Dome is a monolithic system that connects the drum to the lid on the opposite side;
  • OpenGlide. Most Relevant for Road Bikes.

how to replace the rear sprocket on a speed bike

There are not many key parts to a speed bike. The main ones include the stars, which serve to switch speeds with the provision of gear ratios in the transmission. With the constant operation of the bicycle mechanism, worn sprockets are formed. This is facilitated by the usual physical process. friction. What is the threat? The chain starts to jam and simply slips deformed parts.

How to remove the cassette from the stars of the rear wheel mountain bike. Videomanual

The problem that has arisen requires an immediate solution. If the question is ignored, then any movement on the road will turn into a solid negative. The model of a modern bike allows you to change a worn out part. Our article will tell you how to replace the rear sprocket on a speed or mountain bike.

Take the survey

There are also other reasons for removing the bike’s transmission cassette. They will be mentioned below. But first you need to figure out the sequence of actions before disassembling.

Depletion of teeth Violation of the factory geometry Appearance of a wave between the teeth

With 7 stars

To dismantle, you must make sure in advance that there is a retaining ring and familiarize yourself with the technology of clamping all the sprockets together. In budget transmission models, the sprockets are not bolted, but rigidly connected with rivets. Unmaintained specimens can be thrown away immediately if something happens to their teeth.

Disassembly process of the transmission cassette

Some theory beforehand. On the rear wheel there can be two variants of parts related to gear shifting.

  • Transmission cassette. This product features modernity and innovative spline mountings that attach to the hub axle.
  • Ratchet. A somewhat outdated model typical of inexpensive speed bikes. There are no more than seven gears in a set. As for the mount, it has a thread with external installation parameters.

Let’s focus on the ratchet right away. Changing the rear sprocket on a ratchet bike is not possible. Only change the entire component completely.

Therefore, the topic of the article will be a problem describing a situation when a bicycle cassette star needs to be replaced. As for the set of stars in the transmission, up to 11 pieces are possible, depending on the bike model.

So how do you change the rear sprocket on a speed bike? Consider the algorithm of actions.

  • Take the bicycle wrench for the rear wheel and dismantle it. We sequentially unclench the levers and loosen the fixing of the nut.
  • Now it is the turn for the axle nuts. Using another key, turn off the mount.
  • The next step involves unscrewing the bearing cone and pulling it out.
  • We take out the axis with all the elements.
  • We take a special tool. a cassette remover. We insert it into the slots.
  • The whip is placed on the largest sprocket. We make rotational movements clockwise.
  • At the same time, using an adjustable wrench, the puller rotates in the opposite direction.

The preliminary stage is over. Such simple actions are possible in ordinary household conditions. We emphasize that if more than one star is worn out, but several, then it is better to replace the entire cassette at once. This option is also desirable when the largest star is damaged.

And one more recommendation. We put all small parts, washers and nuts in a certain place, so that later we do not search all over the room

Removing back wheel Specialized Disc Brake

Features of removal from a high-speed bike

If you need to remove the cassette from a high-speed bike, you need to carefully familiarize yourself with a number of features and nuances characteristic of this procedure. So, for example, you can face certain difficulties when disassembling sprockets on a six- and seven-speed bike. There is a solution to the problem for each case.

Star stripping process

How to change the rear sprocket on a bike after the first stage has already been passed.

  • Removing the mount.
  • Detach the cassette from the rear wheel.
  • We make a thorough inspection.
  • Determining Wear Sprockets.
  • We remove the worn out product.
  • Pay attention to the arrangement of the stars and the sequence of fasteners and washers between them.

Cassettes compare favorably with ratchets in that each worn part can be freely removed separately.

A separate recommendation would be to replace the chain, which is also worn out, along with the sprocket.

How to remove rear sprockets from a bike

The bike drivetrain requires periodic maintenance. The most common problems are chain wear and failure of one or more sprockets on the cassette. Wear is also true for a single-speed one, the only difference is that the chain and the star itself are designed for longer operation.

The worn out part of the transmission negatively affects its entire operation, therefore the used sprocket will need to be replaced. Especially this problem pops up on asterisks, which are used too often, which, in principle, is logical. Before changing, it is necessary to remove the worn out sprocket from the rear wheel, which we will talk about further.

How to remove the sprocket from the rear wheel of a speed bike

A speed bike drivetrain consists of three main elements: a derailleur on the rear wheel, a derailleur (shifter) on the handlebar, and a set of sprockets. The latter bear a heavy load, so they are subject to rapid wear. Before removing the sprocket from the rear wheel of a speed bike, you need to learn how to do it correctly. Errors made during disassembly will lead to damage to the part, or failure of the ratchet bearings (it all depends on the type of design).