How to adjust a wheel on a bicycle with spokes. How to fix a figure eight wheel on a bicycle?
Among all the components of a bicycle, the most conservative is the spoke wheel. This type of wheel fits most bikes and is simple in design: a center hub, rim and spokes that connect the rim to the pivot. During the operation of the bicycle, the wheel is subject to static, dynamic and shock loads, as a result of which changes in its shape can often occur.
Deformation of the “eight” type. what is it
Bicycle wheel curvature is associated with a misconfiguration of the rim. In other words, the wheel is no longer round. A common variant is the so-called figure eight, when a deviation of part (or several parts) of the rim from the plane of rotation is observed. When rotated, these regions describe trajectories in the form of eights around the central axis of rotation. When riding a bicycle, this defect is expressed in beating or wobbling on the go.
You can ride with eights, but it is unlikely to be a pleasure. In addition, deformed wheels are less resistant to stress, which will lead to further distortion and complete unsuitability of the rim. Can I fix the figure eight on a bicycle wheel myself? Yes, and it’s not difficult at all. How to do this in the article.
Determination of curvature on wheels
So, there is a suspicion of the occurrence of wheel deformation, and it remains to determine exactly where it was formed. Turn the bike upside down and fix it clearly.
The first identification method is visual, which allows finding the location of large and medium defects. The wheels must be spun strongly, since at low speeds the eights, even the coarsest ones, show poorly. The rear wheel can generally be pedaled. Curved sections move away from the plane of rotation to the side. At maximum deflection, the wheels must be quickly grasped in this place. It is not easy to do this at high speeds, and the hand can slip off, so it is better to resort to the following method.
The second method. contact, consists in marking the damaged area. As an indicator, you can take a marker, or rather a regular crayon. Spin the wheel and slowly bring the chalk to the rim. The first thing he does is strike a figure eight along the edge of the bulge. After the “top” is determined, the wheel must be spinned even more and continue to bring the chalk closer. This defines the entire area of curvature. As soon as the chalk “runs” over the entire rim, the test can be considered complete. The focus of the figure eight will clearly stand out with a bold line against the background of a pale stripe along the entire circumference.
Elimination of defects in a bicycle wheel
When the curvature of the wheel is found, it’s time to start straightening it. Every owner of a two-wheeled vehicle can do it with their own hands, especially since such problems can arise with enviable regularity. There are two ways to eliminate the figure eight on your own:
- Strength straightening, or “knee” as cyclists say.
- Wheel spokes tightening and loosening method.
To remove the bend in this way, you will need to remove the wheel from the frame. In this case, you do not need to remove the tire with the camera. Turn the bulge towards us and grab the rim and tire on both sides. With medium deformations, the optimal grip of the wheel is position “10” and “2”, that is, 60 degrees to both sides of the eight. We put the knee to the most convex area and press hard from ourselves.
Which wheel alignment will best allow the rim to align? If there is enough strength in the leg, then you can press on weight. An alternative is to place the wheel vertically with the defective area up. The help of a partner is needed here. He must firmly press the wheel to the floor. After straightening, the wheel is put on the frame and checked again by rotating.
This method cannot be called effective for several reasons:
- It is impossible to bend small bends.
- The rim may bend to the other side.
- Low accuracy.
- Not every rim can be so easily subjected to simple force.
This method works relatively well somewhere on the road, when the figure eight was formed suddenly due to a swoop on a large obstacle and it must be urgently straightened in order to reach the destination.
Wheel spoke adjustment
Attention! The spoke tension should only be changed with a spoke wrench, and never with pliers or adjustable wrenches.!
It will take patience to align a figure eight on a bicycle wheel, especially for first-timers. Tires must be completely removed.
Check the tension of all spokes first. Often times, the rim is bent due to their overall weakening. It is easy to check this: when the spokes are clearly dangling and “obey” the fingers like strings on a guitar, then they need to be tightened by about 1 turn over the entire wheel. If such a problem is not observed, then nothing needs to be touched: this way you can only aggravate the eight.
We mark the defective area and proceed to the “central” spoke. the one located at the bulge. The spoke is turned in the opposite direction to the bulge. The spokes on the sides of it are loosened. With a figure eight for three needles, the straightening scheme is as follows:
- Tightening the central quarter turn key.
- Weakening of the outer needles by an eighth of a turn: the weakening force is half the tension in the center.
With an eight for 7 spokes, wheel repair is done as follows:
- The center is pulled half a turn.
- Weaken two spokes (second and third) on the sides by ¼ turn of the key.
- 1/8 tightens the fourth and fifth needles.
- The sixth and seventh (outermost) needles are loosened by 1/8 of a turn.
The alternation of pulling and stretching is carried out in such a way that the outer needles on the figure eight are loosened. To check the result, the wheel is hung on the bike and tested for residual curvature. If the figure eight is bent in the opposite direction, you should remove all tension and increase the tightening torque on the loose knitting needles and repeat the procedure again, but already with less tightening and loosening forces.
Despite the fact that you have to tinker a lot, you can achieve the ideal result. straightening the wheel to an even circle. And if for the first time the work may take too long, then with the subsequent occurrence of the eight, the repair will go much faster. Now, when a defect appears on the wheel, you can not put the bike aside, but quickly adjust the spokes yourself and resume trips.
How to tighten the spokes on a bicycle
The structural part of a bicycle wheel, which, according to its technical characteristics, is the rod connecting the hub and the rim, is called a spoke. It is the spoke that is designed to facilitate the design of the wheel, while not reducing its strength.
The spokes can be installed and tightened with your own hands. for this it is absolutely not necessary to possess any specific knowledge, which excludes contacting the bicycle service centers. For absolute beginners in this business, it is enough just to get acquainted with brief information about what types of spokes can be installed on a bicycle and how to change / tighten them correctly.
Types of spokes for bicycles
Bicycle spokes are divided into three large groups, which differ in their technical characteristics:
- by the thickness (caliber) of the knitting needles. this rod can have a thickness of 1.5 mm, 1.6 mm, 1.8 mm, 2 mm and 2.34 mm;
- by the type of head. bent spokes, used on assembled wheels, and straight spokes, installed on branded wheelsets;
- by design type. cylindrical with butted and flat (aerospitz).
Note: butting is a reduction in the thickness of the spoke in the middle (central) part of it, although towards the edges the spoke “acquires” its declared thickness. Thus, manufacturers reduce the weight of the spoke, while not at all reducing its quality and functionality.
How to correctly install and / or tighten the spokes on a bicycle
No matter how the statement of bicycle masters sounds, but the problem with installing / replacing and tightening the spokes on a bicycle wheel is the most common problem when customers contact service points. But for experienced cyclists, such statistics are not at all surprising. thin spokes have a great influence on the dynamics of the bike, and the quality of riding, and on the safety of the bike.
In order to tighten the spokes, use a special tool. a spoke wrench. The bicycle parts under consideration are installed and tightened by twisting the nipple, while the main point in the process is the uniform tension of all the spokes. this serves as a guarantee of even distribution of the load on the wheel rim.
In general, bicycle wheel lacing can be carried out in different ways, but the most popular and reliable are radial and cross. At home, experienced cyclists often make three-cross spokes, that is, the spokes in the wheel intersect three times with each other.
Fitting the spokes of a bicycle wheel
Adjusting the spokes on a bicycle involves several steps. All work can be done at home if the necessary tools are available.
The first step is determining the length of the bike parts
If you have to adjust the spokes on the front wheel of the bicycle, then you can not even deal with determining the length of the parts. it is believed that it is the front wheel that is structurally simple, the length of all spokes is absolutely the same.
As for the rear bicycle wheel, things are a little more complicated. The fact is that in this wheel the spokes are set of different lengths, since it is necessary to observe the difference in inclination.
Note: experts do not recommend that you independently determine the length of the needles. For this, there are special calculators on the sites that allow you to get the necessary calculations online.
The second step is editing
To carry it out, you need some tool. a spoke wrench and a screwdriver. And you need to do the work in strict accordance with the step-by-step instructions:
- Lubricate the connection points with the nipples on the wheel parts and the threaded part of the spokes.
- If there is a recessed entrance on the flange only on one side, then the spokes must be installed from the opposite side.
- Nine spokes are installed in the flange. this is done through one hole, that is, a free “niche” should remain between the spokes.
- If the work is carried out with the rear wheel, then the spokes are mounted to the right of the hub.
- We find the same located on the right side of the valve inlet on the rim, place a spoke in it and twist the nipple, making 2 turns.
- From the first installed spoke, we count 4 inputs clockwise and mount the second spoke and also twist the nipple with two turns. Note:the sleeve with the threaded part must be located to the one who carries out the work.
- In the process of installing the spokes, you need to check the correct operation. the spokes should connect the rim to the right with the hub flange, and there should be three free inputs between the installed spokes.
The subsequent spokes are installed according to the same principle, and then the wheel must be turned towards you with the opposite side and the spokes must be installed in the above order. Installation begins with the key spoke, which is located to the left of the valve inlet.
Note: when all the spokes are installed, you need to align the nipples to the same twist depth. That is why it is recommended to make 2 turns in each case, so as not to make a mistake, and it will be easier to adjust them at the end of the work.
Step Three. Tensioning the Spokes
This step is considered final and easy to complete. You just need to make sure that the nipples are screwed in the same number of turns. If the needles are short, then this can be determined by the number of visible “steps” of the thread in the nipples
After all the steps are completed, you need to install the wheel with the dialed spokes on a special machine or any other device (you can use a bicycle for this). It is in this position that all the irregularities will be visible. the skew of the wheel in any direction can be corrected by adjusting the twist of the nipples. In most cases, half a turn is sufficient to align the wheel. Please note that this check must be carried out twice. when the wheel is horizontal and when it is vertical.
Mountain Biking. How to fix a figure eight on a wheel and change spokes?
A figure 8 on a bicycle wheel is the most common deformation. Today, when creating bicycles, the latest technologies are used, but even on an ultramodern bike, the wheel remains very conservative, spoke. The design in this case does not represent anything complicated: the bushing, but the rim and the spokes that unite them. During operation, every cyclist is faced with wheel deformation. And the appearance of the “eight” on the wheel is far from uncommon. This is due to a violation of the integrity of the rim and looseness of the spokes.
And yet why does this deformation occur? During operation, the wheel is inevitably subjected to stress as soon as the cyclist takes his place on the saddle. We add road irregularities. pits, bumps, poor coverage or lack thereof, and the question of the reasons for the emergence of “eights” disappears by itself. In addition, inexperienced cyclists often distribute their weight incorrectly on the bike, and this also increases the load. Sharp braking, jumping and other extreme sports, as well as long-term operation also make it necessary to adjust the wheels.
As you can see, during operation, the bike experiences loads that are least dependent on your riding style. Over time, the geometry of the wheel rim changes. it deforms. The speed of its manifestation depends on the presence of defects in the rim (figure eight, displacement of the “umbrella” and “egg”). It should be noted that the service life of wheels often also depends on the materials from which they are made and their quality. Sometimes inexpensive models may require repair much earlier than those made from expensive components (for example, a high-strength rim).
How to tell if a wheel is bent? When there is a suspicion that the wheel has lost its original shape, turn the bike over and begin a thorough inspection.
First you need to inspect the wheel in the place of the expected curvature. To do this, spin it, while in the case of the rear one, you can do this using the pedals. It is visually obvious that the curved sections move to the side during rotation. Now it remains to grab it with your hand in that place and stop it, which is quite difficult.
Another, more powerful way is to use a crayon or marker. Turning the wheel, it must be brought to the rim. First of all, the stroke will remain on the bulge of the figure-of-eight. By spinning more strongly and bringing the chalk closer to the rim, you can also determine the boundaries of the curvature.
How to fix the figure eight And now the curvature is found. Each cyclist can correct it with his own efforts, and, given that deformation is not a rare phenomenon, valuable experience comes over time. There are two ways to get rid of the “disease”: power straightening; tightening and loosening the wheel spokes.
The necessary set of tools to eliminate deformation: 1) chalk to mark the area with a defect; 2) a spoke key; 3) wheel straightening machine (desirable but not required).
The figure eight, small in size, can be removed without dismantling the wheel. To diagnose the problem, turn the bike upside down to check that the wheel is in the correct position relative to the brake pads. This process can be divided into several operations. First you need to identify the deformation. As the wheel rotates, press a piece of chalk onto it. In places where the figure eight is formed, you will see a corresponding trace. This simple method will help you determine the exact location of the rim deformation.
Next is the tightening and loosening of the knitting needles, but only from a certain side, which will be described in detail below. If such manipulations are performed with inaccuracies, you can give the wheel even greater deformation. There are several ways in which it can be removed.
Power straightening Having considered this scenario possible, the wheel should be removed from the frame. However, the tire and the camera should not be removed. We turn the wheel with the bulge towards us and grab the rim and tire with our hands. At the same time, the average deformation requires a hand position equal to 10 and 2 o’clock on the dial. We use the knee, putting it on the convex area, and push hard from ourselves.
If there is enough strength, this is done by weight. Or you can position the wheel vertically, with the deformed section up. In this case, the help of a partner is required, who will press the wheel to the floor. After this extreme straightening, the wheel is returned to the frame and tested.
But this method is not always effective. It is not accurate, small deformations are not corrected. Among other things, inept actions can provoke new bends. And not every rim can be kicked in. high-strength modern wheels will remain “on their own”. Although if the wheel let you down somewhere along the way and the “eight” happened suddenly due to, for example, hitting a large stone, “force straightening” is the only possible way.
Adjusting the wheel spokes Correct spoke tension often affects the ride quality of your bike. The tension on the spokes adds strength and elasticity to the wheel. In this case, the tires are removed, the tension of each spoke is carefully checked. It happens that the rim is bent as a result of their general weakening. In a situation where the spokes dangle like guitar strings, tighten them 1 turn of the key. In the found area of curvature, a spoke is searched for, located in its center, that is, at the bulge itself. The turn of the spoke must be carried out in the direction opposite to the direction of the bulge. In this case, the spokes located on the sides of the central one are weakened.
If the figure eight is between the two nearest knitting needles, then using a special key, the first knitting needle is pulled up by a third of a turn, and the knitting needle next to it is twisted in the opposite direction, loosening the clamp by a third. If the figure eight has a size of three spokes, the following actions are taken: tightening the central spoke by a quarter of a turn with a key; slight loosening of the outer needles (half the tension in the center).
If the figure eight has a size of seven spokes, the procedure is as follows: the center spoke is tightened by half a turn; the second and third needles must be loosened by a quarter of a turn; the fourth and fifth are tightened by one eighth; the sixth and seventh (i.e. extreme) are weakened by one eighth.
That is, the alternation of stretching and stretching the spokes should be carried out so that the outermost spokes of the figure eight are weakened. After the procedure, the wheel is set in place and tested for possible distortions. If the figure eight is bent in the opposite direction, all tension is eliminated and tightening on the weakened spokes is increased. After which everything is repeated, but to a lesser extent. The result of a long operation is the alignment of the wheel to a perfectly flat circle. At first, the work will not go so quickly, but with the acquisition of experience, the speed of adjusting the spokes also increases.
Changing the spokes Not all craftsmen know how to assemble wheels efficiently, and therefore it is best to learn how to do it yourself. The assembly is carried out according to a certain algorithm.
Work on a set of spokes: it is necessary to lubricate the spoke threads and rim in places where there is contact with the nipples, otherwise the spoke will not be tensioned with sufficient rigidity; in a situation where the flanges of the hub have a countersink on the only side, the heads of the spokes are on the non-countersunk, it is needed to bend the spokes; nine spokes are inserted into the flange so that there is an unoccupied hole between them, and so that the heads are located on the outside. In a rear wheel situation, start from the right side of the hub; on the rim, among the holes shifted to the right, you should find the one closest to the hole for the camera nipple; the first spoke is attached to this hole, it is considered the key; from the key spoke, four holes should be counted, moving clockwise, put the next spoke and wrap the nipple; as a result, there should be three unoccupied holes between the knitting needles, the knitting needle closest to the valve hole is located to the right of it, and the cut part of the sleeve faces the master; then the remaining seven spokes are fixed, while every fourth hole of the rim is used; after turning the wheel over, nine more spokes are connected to the rim, inserted into the left flange from the outside; the tenth spoke should be located to the right of the key, adjacent to it, but not crossing; after mounting the tenth knitting needle, the next eight are recruited in the sequence specified above; and now the drive spokes are already in place and their heads are on the outside of the flange. In this case, the nipples are turned only for a certain number of turns; tensioning knitting needles are installed with heads on the inside of the flange. A spoke is threaded into the flange hole and the sleeve is rotated so that all the spokes in place receive a certain direction that is closest to the tangent to the flange. The first tensioning needle must cross the three driving ones standing in place, while each tensioning needle must pass outside from the first two crossed by it under the third, also crossed; the rest of the spokes get on the same principle.
Tension Before tensioning the spokes, screw all the nipples equally. Then you need to start the process by turning each nipple one turn. If there is a “shiver” in the needles, the tension increases. We install the wheel for testing and remove all defects of the “eight” type.
Eliminating the radial runout The oval egg-shaped wheel rim looks like this: one part of the rim is closer to the center than the rest. This wheel flaw appears after unsuccessful landings. It is much more difficult to fix such a breakdown than a regular figure eight: 1) remove the tire and inspect the rim; 2) turn the bike body over, spin the wheel, holding an object on top. Mark with chalk the part of the rim that will lift the item; 3) simultaneously trace three directions:. release tension from the central spoke;. pull the adjacent knitting needles by the same number of revolutions so that there are no eight;. the spokes at the opposite end of the wheel should be tightened to prevent the appearance of an “egg” in another place.
To eliminate such a figure of eight requires considerable experience, the process is characterized by its own difficulties. After correcting the “eggs”, you need to press on the knitting needles with all their weight, as in the above scheme. to shrink them. Editing the Umbrella Cyclists are familiar with the concept of an umbrella. The defect is as follows: the wheel rim is displaced to one side and is not ideally aligned with the center of the hub. How severe this bias is for the bike itself depends on the frame design and the brake configuration. This type of malfunction often occurs when the wheel is not assembled correctly. The “umbrella” is eliminated by analogy, like the usual figure eight. On the one hand, you need to tighten the knitting needles, and on the other, loosen them. Unlike the elimination of the usual figure eight, in the process of editing the umbrella, the effort for each next knitting needle should not be weaker, but maintain uniformity around the entire circumference.
Summing Up The Eights appear on the wheels of even the most experienced and savvy cyclists. In order to straighten the wheel, you need to remember a few simple rules. Always tighten the wheel spokes carefully. there is a risk of damage to the rim. If, during straightening, one or more of the spokes become overtightened, loosen them and the adjacent spokes. Only then repeat the adjustment again.
When riding a bicycle, the spokes often break, being in a state of weakening. If during the pulling procedure one or more spokes of the wheel are loosened, be sure to tighten them in order to repeat the adjustment after that.
How to properly tighten the spokes on a bicycle
The need to tighten the spokes on a bicycle does not arise often, but if you need to do this, use our tips to help you figure out how to tighten the spokes on a bicycle.
The following problems may be the causes of problems that require a spoke tension to fix:
- change in the shape of the rim (the appearance of an eight);
- loosening the wheel spokes.
How to tighten the spokes on a bicycle correctly?
Tightening the spokes at home is not an easy job and you will have to spend a sufficient amount of time on this operation, especially if you are starting the repair for the first time. To successfully complete this task, you should prepare special tools, without which you will not be able to tighten the spokes on the bicycle. To adjust the knitting needles you must purchase:
- special key for adjustment;
- a device that allows balancing;
- a set of keys for wheel dismantling;
Sequence of work
Initially, you should dismantle the wheel and install it in a special device that allows you to balance it. If you are unable to locate such a device, simply turn the bike over and place it on the handlebars and seat without removing the wheels. To check how the spoke tension is done, we make a swinging motion. Thus, it is necessary to check all elements, the deviation of the free stroke should not exceed 2 mm.
Each problematic part should be marked with, for example, a piece of electrical tape.
Using a special wrench, tighten the loosened elements to the required level, everyone needs equal tension. Tensioning these structural elements on a bicycle should be the same length, in order to understand whether you did it correctly, it is enough to count the number of threads remaining after tensioning the nipples.
If you do not initially set the nipple tension at the same level, you will not be able to get a reliable picture of the rim curvature.
After full stretching, most likely, a figure-eight curvature of the rim will appear, horizontal beating may appear. To eliminate these problems, we use a special centering device. If the device is absent, it is necessary to determine the boundaries of the curvature with the help of chalk, for which we fix the chalk so that when the wheel turns, a trace remains on its rim. Thus, we find the peak of the deviation, with which we will have to work in the future.
If you find a hump on the right side on the width of four spokes, tighten two of them by half a turn at the left flange. Give two more pieces at the right flange half a turn. Thus, we achieve the alignment of the rim to the left. If there are not four, but three knitting needles on the hump, pull the first one half a turn, and release two by a quarter.
By performing these steps sequentially, you can eliminate the horizontal curvature in the form of a figure eight.
To start debugging the rim and eliminate the vertical runout (ellipse), it is enough to reapply the chalk, but this time we move it from the edge of the wheel to the center, determining as a result the strongest deviation. The strongest deviation, determined as a result of the shallow test, is eliminated by tensioning the nipples where the bushing hole is. When we are in the place of the problem with three knitting needles, tighten the middle one half a turn, and lower the outer ones by a quarter. With an even number of parts in the center of the curvature, all are tightened by half a turn.
After correcting the misalignment of the rim, it is recommended to re-check the tension of all elements, and, if necessary, bring their tension to the desired level.
How much effort is needed to pull the knitting needles?
It is recommended that the final wheel tension equalization be performed only after rim curvature issues have been resolved. This position should not be allowed when some of the spokes are relaxed, and some are pulled like a string until they ring.
Tension and balancing are performed correctly if during shrinkage no extraneous sounds are heard in the form of a crackle or squeak.
How to properly tension the chain on a bike if necessary?
- A bike
The most important element in the design of both children and adults of professional bicycles is the chain, which determines the ride quality, ride smoothness and smooth gear shifting. Before tensioning the chain on the bike, you need to make sure that its length is chosen correctly: in the normal state, the chain can be in a slightly free state, sagging by 3 mm, but not more. In general, the question of how to properly tighten the chain on a bicycle is always relevant, since it is part of the mechanism that determines the movement and will often require maintenance due to the large number of rubbing parts. You can check the tension of the chain as follows: press it with your finger approximately in the middle (opposite the outer radius of the rear wheel) and measure the amount of slack. If it is more than 1.5 cm, the chain must be tightened.
So, to tighten the chain on a bike that has only one gear, you must first turn it upside down, placing it on the seat and steering column. Next, you need to loosen the rear wheel fasteners (in most cases, the wheel is fastened with eccentrics or nuts), but not completely remove it. Then you need to find a special adjustment groove, which is called a dropout (from the English ‘’ drop out ’’. to lower), and move the wheel to one side or the other. After the required chain length has been selected, the wheel should be fastened back, making sure that the plane of the wheel axis is parallel to the plane of the carriage shaft (this will prevent the development of the “figure eight”). It is important to know that it does not make sense to tighten the chain too tightly for two reasons: firstly, it is very difficult to pedal when the chain is too tight, and secondly, complete wear of the chain elements occurs much faster.
It is necessary to know how to tension a chain on a bicycle of a conventional design without gears, but at the same time you should be able to remove unnecessary links from the chain, since there is often a situation when the wheel has nowhere to move in the groove, and the chain still sags. In this case, you will need a special tool. a squeeze, with which the roller is removed on a weakened chain and two adjacent.
It is somewhat easier to tighten the chain on a bicycle with gears, since it is partially regulated by a parallelogram switch (the gear shifting itself is based on the principle of adjusting the length and stiffness of the chain), however, even the mechanics cannot compensate for a chain that is too long, as a result of which problems with the movement of the bicycle at medium speeds may occur. To start adjusting the chain length on a bicycle with gears, you must also set it up with the wheels, then switch to the largest sprocket both front and rear, thus determining the top gears.
After that, the rear derailleur should be taken as far forward as possible by the chain, and the chain on the shifting system (where the pedals are) should also be taken slightly forward in order to determine the optimal chain length. Then the chain is released and carefully put on the special teeth. The idea is that after the chain has been fully driven, the mechanical switch will use the rollers to pick up the normal position. It, of course, if desired, can be firmly fixed in one state or another, but in this case, switching will be impossible. After such a rough adjustment, you should proceed to a finer one, setting the chain at the pedals to the largest sprocket, and at the rear wheel to the smallest. For the chain, it is worth finding such a position in which the axes of the switch rollers, if not connected in one vertical line, are at least close to this.
How to properly re-spoke a wheel on a bicycle. Bicycle wheel spacing. Step by step guide
Perhaps all fans of cycling will sooner or later face the need to reposition the wheels. This is due to the fact that the wheel can lose its original shape and, as a consequence, make further use of the bike impossible.
Causes of wheel deformation
There may be several reasons due to which the wheel bends considerably:
- This is, of course, the weight of the cyclist, which puts stress on the wheels day in and day out. Since a person’s weight can be different, then the load, respectively, is also different.
- Harsh braking of the bike can put additional stress on the wheel spokes.
- Sharp turns in the path of a cyclist can also cause deformation.
- Uneven terrain on which the bike rides often leads to problems with the wheels.
- A hard hit or fall is likely to lead to the so-called eight.
- And in the end, just loose spokes will lead to nothing more than wheel deformations.
These problems are not so terrible and can be solved by re-spacing the wheels. It is best if the user knows the assembly of the bike and can handle it on their own, because no one knows where the problem may overtake. And, of course, in any service center, experienced specialists will provide a service for any type of repositioning.
The main types of wheel spacing
There are two main types of knitting:
There are several more names that are refinements of the pattern resulting from the spokes of the wheel:
Features of radial lacing
Experienced specialists use this type of lacing mainly for the front wheels. This is explained by the fact that they are less subject to stress from the pedals and brakes. But, despite this, the wheel receives a colossal load, which is directed vertically. That is why, with radial lacing, a large number of knitting needles are used. Mechanics recommend the optimal number of spokes 32.
It is worth noting that with this method of lacing, it does not play a big role where the spoke head is facing. At the request of the cyclist, it can be directed inward of the hub flanges, and outward.
Features of tangential lacing
This spoke perfectly withstands all the stresses that arise during driving. At the same time, there is one caveat: the wider the angle formed between the flanges and the spoke, the stronger the wheel. This is because this arrangement distributes the load evenly without causing any particular damage to the bike.
Tangential spoke lacing is ideal for rear wheels, including discs. They are always loaded with pedals and brakes. The most popular and durable design is the three crosses. This drawing has proven its strength and reliability over time and tests.
How to properly re-spoke a bicycle wheel. DIY bicycle wheel re-spacing step by step instructions
The whole process of re-spacing can, in principle, be divided into three stages:
- Determining the Right Needle Length.
- Tension adjustment.
The correct calculation of the length of the spoke is calculated with a special very complex formula. But now there are special programs on the Internet that will quickly calculate the length that is suitable for a given bicycle. The Lexapskov calculator is very popular. Users claim that this program is very easy to use and at the same time quite accurate in calculations.
Installation is a rather long and laborious process:
- It is recommended to lubricate the thread of each spoke with oil or grease. This is for easy rotation of the nipples.
- The next step is to distribute the needles into four equal groups.
- One group of spokes must be tucked into the flange away from you, and the other towards you. At the same time, experts advise starting with the one that is directed from itself.
- The rim must be kept in your lap for easy lacing.
- After refueling the first group, you need to put on the nipple, while fixing the first spoke well on the rim.
- And, counting from the first spoke, three holes, and insert into the fourth.
- If everything is done correctly, then there will be one empty hole between the spokes on the flange, and three holes on the rim.
- Further, the rim is turned over and work continues.
- Take the spoke and run it so that it is parallel to the hub axis to the opposite flange.
- Be sure to make sure that the spoke rests strictly between the holes, after which it is inserted into the left one.
- Thus, all the spokes defined in the second group are located.
- Next, turn the wheel again with the right flange towards you and begin to introduce the next spoke.
- The spoke is threaded through a hole in the flange, no matter which one, but from the inside.
- In this case, the spoke must intersect with the three spokes previously installed on the same flange.
- Next, you will have to bend the spoke a little so that it can pass behind the cross spoke.
- It is very important that between the needles after three crosses there is one hole, which is already occupied.
- All other spokes are installed the same way.
- At this stage, it is easy to find an error: if the spoke does not reach the desired hole and the nipple cannot screw in.
Spoke tension stage
- To do this, it is recommended to tighten all nipples at an equal number of revolutions.
- In this case, the needles are absolutely free, but the degree of their tension is.
- Before stretching, you can bend the knitting needles slightly with your hands to the flange itself so that they are smoother.
- You need to pull the knitting needles evenly and slowly.
- If defects in shape appear, you need to slowly remove them separately.
- In order to remove the egg, you first need to understand exactly where the top point on the rim is. If the vertex coincides with one of the knitting needles, then this knitting needle should be pulled up one full turn, and the neighboring ones. by half a turn each. And if the top is between the spokes, then you should tighten them by half a turn and that’s it.
- When the so-called umbrella appears, it is recommended that all the needles be tightened by half a turn from the problem side.
- Carefully select the parts and tools needed to re-match the wheel.
- Carry out all calculations for the length of the spokes and recheck them for accuracy.
- Strictly follow the instructions for overspitting.
- If you find an error, it’s best to start over.
- You need to tighten the knitting needles alternately.
- Pulling deviations should be removed in turn in all planes.
- Do not overtighten the knitting needles. The fact is that this can damage both the nipple and the rim.
- If you find overtightened knitting needles, it is worth weakening not only them, but also the neighboring.
- In this case, the needles should not be too loose. These spokes will break easily while riding.
- After tightening the spokes, always check the setting.
- A couple of months after re-spacing the wheel, you need to check the tension.
How to properly re-spoke a bicycle wheel
Wheel lacing is a problem that any cyclist will sooner or later face, regardless of the experience and level of cycling skill. Collecting a wheel only at first glance may seem like a daunting task. You should have patience and time. everything about everything will take at least an hour, or even two or three. By the way, self-assembly of wheels is also good because for yourself you will never cheat and, in order to save time and effort, skip some operations.
What is the spacing
There are two most popular types of wheel lacing. radial and cross. Radial lacing is only used for assembling the front wheels, which will be equipped with rim brakes. The radial pattern has a significant drawback. a wheel with such a spoke is subjected to the highest load in the vertical direction. And, perhaps, the only advantage of this option is a pleasant-looking appearance.
Far more versatile and functional is the cross lacing. Cross lacing may look less impressive, but it allows you to achieve the most adequate response to the braking and rotating forces from the hub. With this option, even the most serious load from braking and pedaling is transferred to the stretching of the spokes.
Mixed lacing is rarely used. This option is somewhere between the radial and cross methods.
Having decided on the type of spokes, you can safely begin the process of assembling the wheel. It is divided into several stages.
Stage one. Determining the Right Needle Length
It is very important to choose the correct length for your bicycle spokes. In this regard, much less problems arise with the front wheel. here the spokes on both sides have the same length. With the back, everything is much more complicated. Multiple speeds set on the rear wheel make centering difficult. The needles will have different lengths and angles. To determine the appropriate length, special calculators have been created that allow you to calculate the required parameters online.
Stage two: Installation
For successful wheel packing you will need:
If this is the first time you have to re-spoke a wheel, pay special attention to the fact that the holes on the rim are slightly offset (tilted) to the sides. The spokes from the right flange of the hub must be inserted into the holes that are offset to the right, and from the left flange to the left. Half of the spokes on each flange are leading. The other half is tail.
- Leading spokes are those that point in the direction of rotation of the rim. As a rule, they are indicated by shades of blue.
- The tail spokes are counter-rotating. Most often they are indicated by shades of red.
The first is the tail spoke, which must pass inside the flange. It should be inserted from the outside of the right flange and directed into the rim hole offset to the right, which is located next to the spool hole. The nipple must be closed a few turns so that the spoke cannot fall out. The next spoke should be directed into the hole of the same flange, the next spoke through three holes after the first installed.
The next step is to turn the bicycle wheel so that it is in front of the left flange of the hub. The second set of needles inserted will also be the tail needles. You need to turn the rim so that the spool is at the top. We draw attention to the very first installed spoke. if it is in the first hole after the spool, then the first spoke of the left flange should be located to the left, if the first spoke in the second hole after the spool, then the first spoke of the left flange should be located on the left.
When all the tail needles are in place, you can move on to the leading ones. We turn the bicycle wheel towards us with the right flange. The leading spokes are installed from the inside of the flange. They can be inserted into any hole. After that, turn the hub clockwise so that the leading spoke intersects with the three tail spoke. It is important that it crosses the first two from the outside, and the third from the inside. You may need to bend it slightly to install. There is nothing wrong with that. The rest of the leading spokes are installed in the same way.
Stage three. Tension adjustment
The first step is to make an initial adjustment, which involves tightening all the nipples evenly. Be sure to make sure that all nipples are screwed in the same number of turns. the spokes must have the same tension. Usually, the lead spokes are curved near the flange. Before starting the tensioning procedure, they must be bent by hand by pressing on each spoke near the flange.
The final tension should be applied after the initial adjustment has been completed. Correct tension will ensure that the wheel does not run out when driving, which is very important for comfortable movement.
Summing up, we can safely say that wheel spokes are far from the most difficult procedure. If you are confident that you can handle the knitting, have sufficient patience, skills, knowledge and skills, then this procedure will not be a problem.
DIY bike wheel spacing
If you want the bike to move with primary agility even after an impressive run, re-spacing the wheel of a bicycle is one of the ways to increase ride comfort and help your beloved vehicle gain a second youth. Although the process takes at least 2-3 hours, the result will surpass even the most ambitious expectations, so get to work as soon as possible.
Rearranging bike wheels is a good way to improve ride comfort
Types of knitting
Experts note only two methods of spokes on a bicycle wheel with their own hands:
- Radial option. allows you to assemble a wheel located in the front of the base, if you plan to mount rim brakes on it. The main disadvantage of this spacing method is that a weighty load is transferred to the wheel vertically. The advantage of the radial method is the pleasant appearance of the wheel, it looks neat and does not require additional tuning.
- Cross knitting is a universal method that involves a combination of knitting needles with a cross. Perhaps the appearance suffers, but due to the “overlap”, the rim can brake quickly. Even if a sudden stop is required, the load falls on the stretching of the spokes, which does not harm the structure at all.
- Mixed lacing is a rare type that combines the two previous methods.
Cross lacing of a bicycle wheel
How to properly spoke a bicycle wheel
Selecting the Right Needle Length
Selecting the right spoke length for your bike determines the functionality of the front wheel. Even more surprises are hidden in the rear rim. different speeds are fixed on it, which makes centering the spokes difficult. All components must have different lengths, depending on the angle of inclination, which must also be correctly calculated.
To calculate the length of the needles, experts recommend using calculators that will calculate all the characteristics online.
Do-it-yourself bicycle wheel re-spacing at the preparatory stage consists of preparing the required materials and tools:
- rim in excellent condition;
- knitting needles;
- a key designed to work with knitting needles;
When you first encounter spoke lacing, focus on the location of the holes. they are to the side. The spokes from the sleeve flange located on the right are inserted into the recesses fixed on the right side, and from the left flange. in the opposite direction. Half of the spokes can be considered basic, and the rest belongs to the tail. How to tell them apart during installation?
- Leading components point in the direction of rotation of the wheel and are most often colored blue.
- Tails are directed against the rotation of the rim and are painted red.
To calculate the length of the knitting needles, you can use calculators that will calculate all the characteristics online
Experts say how to properly re-spoke a wheel on a bicycle:
- Lock the tail spoke so that it goes into the flange. It is mounted on the outside of the flange to the right and transferred to a hole located even more to the right, after the spool hole.
- Cover the nipple, otherwise the spoke may fall out.
- The second driven component is located in the recess of the same flange.
- The third part goes through three recesses after the first assembled.
- Re-spacing the front wheel of a bicycle in the next step involves turning the rim so that it is located in the foreground of the left hub flange.
- Another set of components inserted will be the tail needles. Spin the wheel to position the spool at the top.
- Do not lose sight of the first inserted spoke. when in the first recess in the spool, the spoke that fits the flange on the left is on the left.
- With the tail components locked, tackle the leading ones. Rotate your bike so that the wheel is facing you with the right flange.
- Leading ones are allowed to be inserted into different recesses, there are no clear requirements and rules here.
- Rotate the bushing in a clockwise direction until the leading piece meets the three tail pieces.
- Ideally, the first two should intersect with the bushing from the outside, and the third. inside. For this rule to be feasible, sometimes you have to bend the spoke slightly.
How to properly spoke a bicycle wheel is clearly shown in the video:
How to adjust the tension
To prevent the spokes from dangling, you need to tighten the nipples. It is unacceptable to twist some nipples for a couple of rotations, and others for 5-6. the spokes will not be tensioned equally. To obtain the best tension, bend the components by pressing on each spoke near the flange. Another tension is carried out after the initial tension. If the rim is adjusted correctly, the wheel will not bounce when riding the bike.
You already know how to change the spokes on the rear wheel of a bicycle, but the stretching process involves an important trick. The spokes on the right have a tighter tension than the left — just turn the nipples on the right 3 to 5 extra turns. Then screw each nipple one more rotation. Feel if there is any slack. if it is, add in turnover. When three-fourths of the wheel has been passed, it may be that the nipples are difficult to turn. Do not allow constrictions. loosen all mechanisms by one rotation.
Note that the umbrella from the rear wheel of the two-wheeled vehicle must be in the plane intersecting the center of the distance between the hub tips at the rear. If you treat this requirement carelessly, most likely, the bike will pull to turn sideways, it will not work out comfortably on such a bike.
The process of stretching the spokes has one trick. the spokes on the right are pulled tighter than the left
Having mastered how to properly spoke a bicycle wheel, you can repair the rim anytime, anywhere. Many bicycle owners hope that professional bicycle mechanics will help them out, but not all specialists do this work efficiently in order to save time, they miss some important operations. As a result, it becomes impossible to ride a bike without adjusting the wheel after a while.
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The bicycle is a complex machine where the wheels are the key components. Correct rotation of the front wheel also depends on the hub connecting the rotational component to the frame. That is why it is important to figure out what stages involve the disassembly and repair of the front bicycle hub with your own hands.
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Bicycle wheel repositioning
Most cyclists eventually face the problem of wheel spacing. If the necessary procedure is not carried out in time, the wheel will forever lose its round shape and it will be impossible to return it back. In this article, we will consider the algorithm for this action with detailed instructions.
An independent option for stretching the needles. Complete DIY assembly.
So, the question arises. how to correctly spoke the wheel. First, we will select the necessary tools. An experienced lover, in this case, always stock up on the following list:
- a certain type of machine with which the wheel is centered;
- umbrella meter;
- high-quality caliper;
- a hammer;
- blunt punch;
- set of screwdrivers;
- folding measuring device;
- Spoke wrench oriented to 3.2mm size if the bike has standard square nipples.
After the toolkit for assembling a bicycle wheel has been selected, we proceed to a long-term algorithm for performing actions for the correct repositioning.
- The preliminary step is to measure the actual diameter of the existing rim. To do this, first measure the inner diameter of the wheel. To the obtained indicator, it is necessary to add the size of the thickness of the rim itself. This figure is necessary for a clear and competent calculation of the required spoke size.
- The next step is to measure the diameter (or circumference) of the location of the spoke hole point on the hub. A distinctive feature of such a hole may be the difference in the holes on each individual flange. But the main problem is that usually the rear and front hubs must be separated.
- We create a so-called bushing passport. Each hub has its own document so as not to confuse the spokes in the future. We write down the data on the diameters of the measured spoke holes. Then you need to find out the length of the entire bushing axle. Most often it is 142 millimeters. Dividing the indicator in half in the middle of the sleeve, we make a mark. The sleeve is positioned on a sheet of paper and marks are made from the center to all flanges in turn. We use a vernier caliper. Usually these are indicators of 33 or 29 millimeters. Please note that due to the fastening of the brakes, the bushings are asymmetrical.
- The problem of how to accurately re-spoke a wheel is based on calculating the length of the element. For calculations, it is best to use the services of online services, which will free of charge cannulate the required length of the needles.
- Now, in principle, self-assembly of the wheel begins. The first spoke is threaded into the flange hole from the inside (where the rotor is located). The hole can be anything from the reference point you choose. We fix it in the rim hole. Not to be confused with a circle prepared for a nipple.
- We select seven pieces of new elements. They are inserted into the holes through one flange, again along the inside of the sleeve. Highlight! Cannot use different size spokes on the same side of the rim.
- After threading the spokes into the flange, the end of the product is mounted in the rim hole. In this case, the distance between adjacent wheel tensioners should be three empty holes. The fixation is done with special nipples. In fact, every fourth hole is filled with a spoke.
- Replacing the spokes on a bicycle involves placing them in a working position. To do this, fixing the rim by hand, we make rotational movements in the opposite direction from the direction of correct movement. Be sure to observe an obtuse angle when the spokes enter the rim.
- Rotary lacing is coming to an end. The process implies that the remaining eight copies are threaded into the free holes of the same flange, but from the opposite edge.
- Determine the direction in which the sleeve rotates. We move loosely threaded knitting needles along this vector. The main wiring is carried out behind the two nearest fixed spokes and in front of the third instance. This spoke fits into the center of the three empty holes. As always, the fixation takes place with a nipple. Install all the remaining knitting needles using the same algorithm.
- Now more about nipples. Each of them has slots on the front side. Using a screwdriver or a separate type of socket wrench, we begin the process of screwing the nipple onto the spoke. It takes about three circular movements for high-quality fixation without the use of force.
- Select the next flange position. The first indicative specimen is threaded through the hole on the inside of the second flange. Previously, the wheel itself must be installed so that the camera nipple remains at the top. We determine the closest hole in relation to the nipple, focusing on the movement of the bike. It is located on the left side of the rim. It is necessary to find a suitable hole on the flange, also oriented to the motion vector. The spoke is fixed in this position. There are now no cross spokes near the air injection nipple. Therefore, nothing puts a high-quality pump connection.
- The next piece is mounted next to the hole in the flange. It is located to the left of the spoke selected by the reference point. Thrust through the hole from the outside so that the tip is facing out.
- The remaining seven needles must be threaded through every 2nd hole in the flange. We do not carry out installation in the rim yet. We focus on the possibility of the knitting needle falling into the triangle formed by other copies. This cannot be allowed. The third spoke to the right of the selected reference is rolled over this reference point and installed in a socket close to the bus nipple. We make fixing. The remaining spokes are mounted in a sequential manner in every 4th slot along the rim. They must not overlap. Fixation as always with nipples.
Spoke key action
- The eight remaining spokes are threaded in the same pattern along the inside of the flange. We fill in all the free holes on this side. Find unoccupied rim slots and mount.
- Almost all the needles are in place. What is left needs to be fixed in the rim. Be sure to follow the three-intersection principle. That is, two times behind and din times in front. Pay attention to the correct angles at which the spokes intersect.
- It looks like a full-fledged wheel umbrella. Now you need to bring the operation to its logical conclusion. To do this, absolutely all the nipples must be screwed in until the spoke thread is completely immersed. No further needed.
Bicycle wheel tuning process.
Now it’s time to answer the question. how to correctly tighten the spokes on a bicycle. Here, too, you need to accurately perform certain stages, strictly adhering to the described instructions.
- To avoid the risk of deformation of the torsion of the spokes, the wheels should be fixed one by one in a special machine designed for centering. The centering line lends itself to the danger of misalignment, therefore the firmness of the wheel fixation in the machine is very important.
- The adjustment process begins by tightening the set of short spokes, starting from the tire nipple. The tightening process takes place in the amount of a full turn. If you are guided in relation to the movement of the bike, then the front wheel is tightened on the left side, and the rear wheel on the right. Then we transfer the actions to the opposite side.
- A bicycle is subject to the laws of physics when it moves. Align the spoke head to avoid rubbing against the socket. Friction can occur when the spoke itself vibrates. The alignment procedure consists in alternating careful hammer blows using a blunt punch on the head in the area of the flange.
- According to the scheme described above, we tighten a couple of turns on the side of the short spokes, then according to the location of the long.
- The wheel can be removed from the machine. The end of the sleeve will now serve as the base for installing the umbrella. The installation process starts with short pieces and covers both sides of the rim. Using the adjusting wheel, we adjust the axial length of the device. Gaps need to be removed at key points:
- right side of the rim;
- left side of the rim;
- sleeve, namely end.
After that, go to the side of the long needles.
- If the indicators of the device indicate a violation of the equal distance between the sleeve and the rim, we begin the correction process. In this regard, the nipples on the curved side must be tightened by half a turn. The adjustment vector is oriented in the direction of the long spokes. The positivity of the result is again checked using an umbrella.
- How is the tension adjusted? It is necessary to bring the test leads of the machine to one point, so that one of them starts to cling to the rim. When straightening the ellipse, each nipple is twisted 25% of one turn. Pull up an equal number of knitting needles on the left and right sides.
- Mark the radial runout zone with white tape. The spokes are tightened in the clockwise direction, with an orientation to the outer rim section. We make a quarter turn. If the beating area covers only five spokes, be sure to tighten the sixth. Otherwise, you get a “eight” wheel.
- The fact that the appearance of an eight is possible is indicated by the fact of beating on the side of the rim and probe. Straightening is obtained by loosening the nipples from the beating section. We also stretch the nipples on the other side. The rim should stop rubbing against the dipstick.
- Excessive stretching will damage both the rim and the hub. We carry out a method of checking the tension. Compression of two crossed spokes is done with medium force. The math center should not be shifted more than a centimeter.
- After carrying out all the broaches, it is necessary to check the concentricity of the wheel. If necessary, we perform straightening. The main thing is not to tighten the knitting needles.
- The last action will be to crimp the wheel, preventing the appearance of an eight or an ellipse. Placing the wheel on a stable stand, we load it with our own weight. Then. we repeat the check of concentricity and beating.
How to re-spoke a wheel according to the rules
If at the initial stage, there is a mechanic or an experienced cyclist nearby. that’s just great. Practical skills are acquired over time. The second point will be a competent selection of the necessary tools. This is a straightening machine, spoke wrenches and an umbrella.
Features of wheel spacing
In principle, the entire procedure described is divided into three steps.
- Estimating the Right Needle Size.
- Installation process.
- Adjustment actions.
The main difficulty lies in determining the length of the spoke. It is important to apply a special and complex formula here. In order not to completely bother with this problem, you can use a special program that is easy to find on the Internet. Existing calculators will allow an ordinary user to make accurate and necessary calculations.
We’ve covered the process of properly spacing a wheel. We hope that this instruction will help you figure out the problem yourself.