How to properly install a bicycle steering column

Semi-integrated

The semi-integrated mechanism differs from the non-integrated one in that the bearing crowns in it, together with the cups, are completely inserted into the head tube. Only anthers go out. The semi-integrated mechanism consists of a set of parts that allow you to easily and accurately adjust the height of the handlebar.

The entire assembly has a finished view. both in section and in general view from the side. The resulting handlebar position allows the rider to make better use of the bike’s overall geometry, creating less windage when riding upwind and uphill. The fact is that the threadless design itself makes it possible to use a “recumbent” steering wheel. This effect is most fully felt by bikers with a road bike.

Integrated

This device is such that there are no cups in such a mechanism at all. The ball cage is immediately inserted into the head tube. There are no grooves along which the balls are rolled. bulk bearings (without crowns-separators) quickly grind off and will slip, rather than rolling along the inner surfaces. The integrated steering column needs the same frame adapted for the same mechanism, it is not interchangeable with other varieties.

Such a steering wheel on your own, outside the bike workshop, is more difficult to repair, and the pipe diameters have an impressive range of ratings.

Threaded

In this assembly, the head tube is secured with a lock nut. The thread is cut on the top cup. Advantages. light weight and low cost, has been used since the time when multi-speed bicycles did not exist. The disadvantage is that the threaded column is difficult to set up and has a reduced reliability. Low moisture resistance is to blame for the latter: as soon as the bicycle gets caught in the rain, water flows into the steering column.

In general, the design resembles a pedal or wheel hub. Over time, the threaded steering column can spontaneously unwind. check all connections from time to time.

Threadless

The structure of the threadless steering column implies a different mounting method. The top and bottom cups are clamped in the head tube itself. A ball bearing with a guide cage is placed in each of the cups. Assembly of the mechanism includes 2 stages:

  • insertion of special rings and a handlebar outrigger tube;
  • head tube fixing.

Here the cups and ball bearings are placed outside the head tube. The direct load from the forks will bypass the threadless design. The threadless column is generally of the non-integrated type.

Steering gear

The steering column contains all the parts you need to operate the steering wheel. It includes the following elements.

  • Steering tube. the cyclist holds onto it with his hands when riding. It contains accessories and gadgets.
  • The stem is a shortened tube to which the steering stick itself is fixed using a bolt bracket or a retainer.
  • Support tube. a part with internal fixings, rigidly fixed with a fork. This, in turn, holds the front wheel of the bike. The turns of the steering wheel coincide with an accuracy of fractions of a degree with the turns of the fork and the front wheel in the right direction when driving.
  • The head tube is a large diameter tube that is already part of the frame. For stable and smooth operation, the entire mechanism is “set” on cups with ball bearings.
  • Bearing kits. top and bottom. keep the handlebars from dangling. Conical support contacts the bottom set.

This scheme has been tested by many years of experience in the practice of manufacturers and users of bicycle products. The steering column has certain standards and diametrical dimensions that differ from one bicycle model to another.

Standards

All steering columns have standards set by leading suppliers. The goal is to promote your own ideas that have not yet conquered the market, or to protect yourself from counterfeiting by little-known Chinese firms.

  • Campagnolo is a semi-integrated cup and ball bearing cone design. The bicycle frame is sharpened in a special way.
  • Perdido is a semi-integrated version, 4 mm away from the more widespread ZeroStack version.
  • Columbus is a classic from Aheadset. Protected against counterfeiting and unformatted modification by a special value for the pipe diameter.
  • Onepointfive Standard is a non-integrated wide tube headset. Several manufacturers here have teamed up to produce parts for downhill and other extreme bikes.
  • A folding steering column is the prerogative of bicycle manufacturers who strive to make a transformer out of a bicycle, extremely easy to transport on trains and airplanes, as convenient as possible to store in small rooms. These are, for example, the designs for bicycles from Langtu. The angle of inclination of the folding structure. from 25 degrees.

The classification by parameters is much more comprehensive. The diameter of threaded columns is as follows:

  • 1 inch. the outer diameter of the cups is 30-30.8 mm, the inner diameter is 26.4-27 mm;
  • 1.125 inches. 34 and 30 mm, respectively;
  • 1.25 inches. 37 and 34 mm.

Simple threadless ones have the following bore diameters:

  • 0.833 inches (O.D. EC-32 marker). 32.7 and 26.4 mm for outer and inner diameters of cups, respectively;
  • 1 inch (EC-30). 30.2 and 26.4 mm;
  • 1.125 inches (EC-34). 34 and 30 mm diameters;
  • 1.25 inches (EC-37). 37 and 33 mm;
  • 1.5 inches (EC-49). 49.7 and 39.8 mm;
  • 2.21 inches (EC-56). outer diameter 56 mm, inner not regulated.

Semi-integrated threadless columns have the following outside and inside diameters for bearing parts:

  • 1.125 inches (ZC-41). at 41.3 and 44 mm;
  • 1.5 inches (ZC-49). 49.7 and 39.8 mm;
  • 2.21 ” (ZC-56). 56mm O.D.

Fully integrated threadless. have the following ranges:

  • 1 inch (IS-38). 38 and 26 mm;
  • 1.125 inches. (IS-41/42/47) at 41.3, 41.8, 47 (any of the values ​​for the outside diameter) and 30 mm (for the inside);
  • 2.05 ” (IS-52). 52mm O.D.

Parameters are indicated on the original packaging with details.

Varieties of steering columns

There are 4 types of steering gears: threaded, threadless, integrated and semi-integrated. Each of these varieties is arranged as follows.

properly, install, bicycle, steering, column

Step 1

Using a hex wrench, unscrew the stem bolt and loosen the lock nut. Remove the stem from the helm. For convenience, the front wheel can be clamped between the legs, this will prevent the fork from turning and it will be easier for you to unscrew the bolt.

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Advantages of threadless steering columns in comparison

The most common type of steering column is the threaded column. This is the type of steering column used on budget bikes. Its cost is not very high, it weighs little and has a simple design. The head tube enters the threaded column with a thread on the top cup and is secured with a lock nut. Threaded steering column is not considered very reliable due to the connections and potentially dangerous.

The standard unthreaded steering column is a kind of unthreaded steering column that’s why it got its name. Modern, more advanced steering column models that are used by well-known bicycle manufacturers. Both cups of such a headset are pressed into the head tube. They contain bearings, which are essentially located outside. A threadless bicycle steering column is considered more reliable than a threaded one.

In a semi-integrated headset, bearings and cups are located in the middle of the head tube.

In steering columns with integrated systems, the bearings are located directly in the head tube. She has no steering cup at all.

This fixing method secures the steering column securely in place.

Standards with headset dimensions Headtubes differ in parameters. You need to select these parts as accurately as possible, because this is fraught with backlash during driving. In terms of size, the steering columns are divided into: standard integrated and semi-integrated. Each of these categories has its own parameters. The standard columns are 30 mm, the integrated speakers are available in 41.1 mm, 41.95 mm and 41.6 mm, the integrated steering columns are available in different sizes from 41.35 mm to 55.9 mm.

Assembly and repair

Due to its simplicity and low overall load on the steering gear, it does not often require repairs or maintenance. Nevertheless, some operations can and should be done by hand:

  • Regular maintenance. at least once a season you should disassemble the steering unit and check the condition of the bearings, clean it if it appears by abrasive from the rolling grooves, lubrication may be useful. Change parts in a timely manner if required.
  • Height Adjustment. If spacer rings are needed for threadless options, even handlebar extensions are used on threaded steering columns. about this in the article on how the steering wheel is adjusted and how to remove it.

There is nothing difficult in independent work with the steering column. The main thing is to clearly follow the assembly sequence, because the diagram is quite simple, and not to allow distortions during pressing. There is a special tool for this, but it is quite rare, and almost everyone uses simple hammers and mallets, although an unbalanced blow can not only damage the cup or bearing, but also crack the frame.

As a result, after each session of working with the steering mechanism, you should check the integrity of all parts and the absence of backlash on the wheel, because it is quite simple to disassemble and fix them.

Steering gear

The steering gear is a device that contains the whole complex of parts that allow you to control the direction of movement of the bicycle. It includes the following elements:

  • Handlebar. a crossbar or more complex structure on which the grip points are located. In a primitive version, it is a straight pipe on which accessories and grips are attached.
  • Stem. short tube with two bolts for handlebar and head tube.
  • Bicycle headtube. The tube that connects the stem (or the handlebar itself) to the crown of the bicycle fork. Goes into the steering column and glass.
  • The steering column of a bicycle is a set of two cups, upper and lower bearings, optionally several rings, which allows the steering tube to rotate freely in the head tube. An anchor appears in the upper part of the pipe for expansion under the stem mount.
  • Head tube. part of the frame, which is a short tube with chamfers cut inside according to a certain standard, into which the cups and column bearings are inserted.

So, the structure is not as simple as it seems at first glance. In addition, there are a number of standards that are incompatible with each other. You should treat them as carefully as possible.

Semi-integrated

The semi-integrated column contains bearings (usually both industrial, in other versions there are combinations) and cups that completely go into the inside of the glass, only anthers can be seen from the outside. Despite the slightly greater complexity of the device and the cost, the combination is considered one of the best, since it does not protrude beyond the glass and allows you to set an arbitrary height of the steering wheel.

Installing the bottom cup

Let’s start with the bottom cup. Release the lower mandrel from the press. Lower the shaft through the head tube. Place the headset on the lower mandrel and fit into the press. Now fix the press in the frame, so that the upper mandrel is in the center of the head tube, and the lower cup from the column goes straight into the frame.

How to press the steering wheel into the frame:

Mounting the steering cups in the frame is one of the problems that a person faces when replacing the steering column on his own. This is fairly easy to do with the right tool, namely a press. This tool has mandrels for different cup standards and will ensure that the cups are correctly aligned as they are pushed into the frame. It takes about 10 minutes to get to work

Sections:

until the bottom cup sits in place

The trick is to rotate slowly and keep an eye on the bottom cup. it should press evenly. It will be difficult to rotate. this is normal. The cup should sit tightly and without gaps. be sure to make sure of this!

Break

Here we stopped and removed the tool to show how the cup should go into the head tube: straight and even. In this type of column, the bottom cup has an outboard bearing and the top cup (pictured here) fits inside the head tube. This type of cup is also called Zero Stack.

Dispense the paste

Prepare the top and bottom edge of the head tube in the frame. Use your finger or paintbrush to distribute the lubricant evenly over the surface.

How To Adjust The Headset On Your Bike | Installation, Servicing & Bearing Wear

Dimensions (edit)

There are different sizes of bicycle headsets, and more specifically, individual head tube options. Currently, you can find the following types of glasses:

  • Standard. size 30 mm.
  • Integrated. Available in several sizes: 1/8 “(41.1mm), 1/8” Italian Standard (41.95mm), 1/8 “FSA Standard (41.6mm).
  • Semi-integrated. range of sizes from 41.35 mm to 55.9 mm.

Each size has its own tolerances down to the millimeter. However, you should try to select glasses as accurately as possible in order to avoid fork backlash. Such an assumption will negatively affect the driving experience.

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Bicycle headset threadless

Details of this nature are considered to be the current standard. There is no thread inside such a column. Threadless systems do not take the load from the fork fixing.

Similar parts consist of the lower and upper cups. Both are pressed into the head tube. The inside contains the bicycle headset bearing. A rolling ring is installed on top of the latter. In threaded systems, the stem and spacer rings are first installed. Only then does the steering tube lock.

Threaded Bicycle Headset

Elements of this type are considered classic parts that are found in models of budget bicycles. Such systems are rather unpretentious in maintenance. The upper bowl of the threaded system has standardized chamfers. The steering tube is fixed here with a control nut.

The advantages of a threaded column include low weight and low cost. Among the shortcomings, it is worth highlighting the relative unreliability, as well as the complexity of the adjustment.

properly, install, bicycle, steering, column

Adjustment

Adjusting the steering column of a bicycle involves putting the handlebars in the correct position. To begin with, the rudder bar is placed perpendicular to the wheel. Then the washer is tightened until the backlash is completely eliminated. This action must be carried out so that the handlebar tilts freely to one side of the central position while keeping the bike suspended. Only then are the bolts tightly tightened directly on the steering wheel.

How to assemble a steering column?

Before proceeding with specific actions, it is necessary to carefully wipe with a piece of cloth the chamfers for installing the bearings, ridding them of oil and dust. It is also recommended to check the surfaces for chipping, chips, and other damage. If defects are found, you will have to remove and replace the bearing seating rings. If you ignore the problem, soon there will be damage to the bearing balls.

Now let’s go directly to work. First you need to fill the chamfers for the bearings with grease. It is recommended to use thick material for this. The assembly must be done starting with the lowest bearing. The latter is recessed into the seat. In this case, the separator should be in the upper position, and the balls should be laid down.

Next, a dust-free and lubricated steering column counter cup is installed on the bearing. An O-ring is also placed here, which will protect the interior from the penetration of contaminants.

Then you need to turn the bike frame. After that, the upper bearing is installed according to the same principle as the lower one. The seat is locked with a boot. Finally, the outer seal and the stop washer are placed. Additional rings are put on the steering column, the number of which depends on the parameters of the frame and the size of the fork tube. The steering wheel is mounted on top of the rings. Then the washer is tightened and secured with a bolt.

Bicycle steering column: device and adjustment

What is a bicycle headset? This element is designed to provide control of the vehicle, and more specifically. to change the position of the front wheel. How is a bicycle headset assembled? What are the dimensions of the presented part? What needs to be done to properly adjust the element? We will talk about this and not only further in the article.

Semi-integrated column

Semi-integrated columns usually contain combinations of standard and industrial bearings. The cups of such designs completely go into the inner cavity of the head tube. From the outside, only anthers remain visible.

A semi-integrated bicycle column has a rather complex structure and a high cost. Despite this, the systems of this plan are considered the most convenient, since they make it possible to set the required steering wheel height without any special difficulties.

Device

The steering column of a bicycle is a system containing a complex of parts, the functionality of which provides the rider with the ability to change the direction of movement of a two-wheeled vehicle. The steering gear includes the following parts:

  • Crossbar. an element on which braking systems, speed switches, and other accessories are installed.
  • Stem. small pipe with crossbar mountings.
  • Head tube. the part that connects the stem to the fork crown.
  • The head tube is a short tube frame element with internal bevels that are cut to specific standards. All kinds of cups and bearings fit here.

Installing the steering column of a bicycle

The bicycle is one of the first technical inventions of mankind for independent movement. The device of the bicycle is quite simple, but in order for the device to serve for a long time, not to pose a threat to life, it must be carefully monitored, and important parts must be replaced and repaired in a timely manner.

Advantages of threadless steering columns in comparison

The most common type of steering column is the threaded column. This is the type of steering column used on budget bikes. Its cost is not very high, it weighs little and has a simple design. The head tube enters the threaded column with a thread on the top cup and is secured with a lock nut. Threaded steering column is not considered very reliable due to the connections and potentially dangerous.

The standard unthreaded steering column is a kind of unthreaded steering column that’s why it got its name. Modern, more advanced steering column models that are used by well-known bicycle manufacturers. Both cups of such a headset are pressed into the head tube. They contain bearings, which are essentially located outside. A threadless bicycle steering column is considered more reliable than a threaded one.

In a semi-integrated headset, bearings and cups are located in the middle of the head tube.

In steering columns with integrated systems, the bearings are located directly in the head tube. She has no steering cup at all.

This fixing method secures the steering column securely in place.

Standards with headset dimensions Headtubes differ in parameters. You need to select these parts as accurately as possible, because this is fraught with backlash during driving. In terms of size, the steering columns are divided into: standard integrated and semi-integrated. Each of these categories has its own parameters. The standard columns are 30 mm, the integrated speakers are available in 41.1 mm, 41.95 mm and 41.6 mm, the integrated steering columns are available in different sizes from 41.35 mm to 55.9 mm.

Plug standards

Bicycle forks are of the following fit standards. Bicycle suspension fork is a complex part.

The main function of the bicycle fork is the function of holding the front wheel, thanks to the steering column and the fork, the steering wheel is rotated, which allows you to correct the direction of movement of the moving bicycle.

Bike Fork Main Parts: Legs, Pants, Dropouts, Gorilla

  • Spring forks. Affordable, fitted on budget bikes. They use a spring, the damping of such forks is of poor quality.
  • Elastomer forks in the base have a steel spring with an elastomer thanks to the elastomer insert, the shock absorption process is improved, but their quality is not high.
  • bicycle forks based on a spring. oil system. They use a cartridge filled with oil. This type of forks significantly improves the shock absorption of the bike. The price for such models fluctuates in the middle and high range.
  • Oil-air plugs are also popular with professionals. Their work is based on the interaction of the air chamber and the oil cartridge, which significantly improves the shock absorption effect.
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The more complex a bicycle fork is, the more maintenance it requires. complex models such as elastomer and spring-oil fork require special technological professional care. If the need for repair arises, it is best to contact a bicycle workshop.

How to assemble a bicycle steering column?

To ensure that the steering column is assembled correctly, and the parts are not deformed, you only need to use professional tools. To install a threadless bicycle headset:

  • First you need to prepare the tools that you may need in the process of work;
  • The cups are installed in pre-lubricated places. One on top and the other on the bottom. The cups are pressed into the glass. If the necessary tool is not at hand, a hammer is suitable for this purpose. Only you need to work with it carefully so as not to damage the parts;
  • Put a crown on the fork and press the crown in a circle;
  • install the bearing on the crown;
  • put the glass on the fork and install the upper bearing;
  • install a compression ring;
  • install the stem of the steering wheel;
  • install steering wheel

Steering gear

One of the most important parts of a bicycle is the steering gear. The steering gear ensures the bike’s reliability and maneuverability. It consists of a head tube, a steering column, a stem and the steering wheel itself. The serviceability of this unit is of great importance to the cyclist. So, even minor malfunctions can lead to accidents. In this article, we will talk about the steering column. The steering column consists of two support cups, two bearings, regardless of the type, compression rings. The steering column of the bike allows the head tube to make turns and makes the bike maneuverable.

Threaded

A little about what types of columns are there.

First of all, you should consider the “classics”. the threaded column, which is now found on budget bicycles. Very unpretentious, lightweight and inexpensive, it has been used for several decades. The disadvantages include less reliability and complexity of configuration.

In this design, a thread is cut on the upper cup of the column, and the head tube is fixed in it with a lock nut.

Steering gear

The steering gear is a device that contains the whole complex of parts that allow you to control the direction of movement of the bicycle. It includes the following elements:

  • Handlebar. a crossbar or more complex structure on which the grip points are located. In a primitive version, it is a straight pipe on which accessories and grips are attached.
  • Stem. short tube with two bolts for handlebar and head tube.
  • Bicycle headtube. The tube that connects the stem (or the handlebar itself) to the crown of the bicycle fork. Goes into the steering column and glass.
  • The steering column of a bicycle is a set of two cups, upper and lower bearings, optionally several rings, which allows the steering tube to rotate freely in the head tube. An anchor appears in the upper part of the pipe for expansion under the stem mount.
  • Head tube. part of the frame, which is a short tube with chamfers cut inside according to a certain standard, into which the cups and column bearings are inserted.
properly, install, bicycle, steering, column

How To Change Your Road Bike Headset and Forks

So, the structure is not as simple as it seems at first glance. In addition, there are a number of standards that are incompatible with each other. You should treat them as carefully as possible.

Glasses

Each of the listed columns has its own head tube, and none of the types are interchangeable. So, what types of glasses can be found:

  • integrated. glass surface concave inward, truncated chamfers. There are four sizes: 1 “(26.35 mm), 1 and 1/8” (41.1 mm), 1 and 1/8 “Italian (41.95 mm), 1 and 1.8” FSA Standard (41.6 mm);
  • semi-integrated. absolutely straight pipe without bulges and concavities, straight chamfer at 90 degrees with a depth of at least 15 mm. The range of sizes is slightly less, and there is no confusion with manufacturers by fractions of an inch: 1 “(41.35 mm), 1 and 1/8” (43.95 mm), 1.5 inches (55.9 mm);
  • standard. similar to semi-integrated dimensions and shape, but usually even narrower and smaller. The standards are the same, but the dimensions are different: 1 “(30.05 mm), 1 and 1/8” (33.9 mm), 1.5 inches (49.57 mm).

All sizes have tolerances from half a millimeter to a millimeter, but these should be avoided to avoid fork play, which has a very negative effect on ride quality. It is clear that we are talking about these standards if the column is threadless.

Assembly and repair

Due to its simplicity and low overall load on the steering gear, it does not often require repairs or maintenance. Nevertheless, some operations can and should be done by hand:

  • Regular maintenance. at least once a season you should disassemble the steering unit and check the condition of the bearings, clean it if it appears by abrasive from the rolling grooves, lubrication may be useful. Change parts in a timely manner if required.
  • Height Adjustment. If spacer rings are needed for threadless options, even handlebar extensions are used on threaded steering columns. about this in the article on how the steering wheel is adjusted and how to remove it.

There is nothing difficult in independent work with the steering column. The main thing is to clearly follow the assembly sequence, because the diagram is quite simple, and not to allow distortions during pressing. There is a special tool for this, but it is quite rare, and almost everyone uses simple hammers and mallets, although an unbalanced blow can not only damage the cup or bearing, but also crack the frame.

As a result, after each session of working with the steering mechanism, you should check the integrity of all parts and the absence of backlash on the wheel, because it is quite simple to disassemble and fix them.

Bicycle steering column device, its types, installation and lubrication

To begin with, bicycles should be concretized, because sometimes there are misunderstandings on the Internet and in bike shops due to differences in terms. So, what is the bike controlled by??

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