Required set of tools:
Preparing to set up the transmission
It is wrong to start adjusting the gearshift system right away. The bike has been on the road for some time, therefore, there is a certain amount of adhered dust on the chain. Be sure to remove all the dirt from it, lubricate the rollers, sprocket points and the switches themselves. Sometimes problems with a tight transition from one speed to another lie in the dirty chain. If, after cleaning and lightly lubricating, the problem is resolved, then you do not need to adjust the switches.
Next, pay attention to the drive cables: they must be flat, without bends. Otherwise, they will have to be changed. Inaccurate shifting and jumps may be due to faulty cable.
Another preparatory procedure is to inspect the cock near the rear derailleur. The rooster must be in an upright position and strictly in the same plane with the rollers. You can align it, but it’s better to change it to a new one.
As for the bike’s front cassette derailleur, here you need to make sure that the inner frame is parallel to the chain travel. The distance between the largest sprocket and the outer frame of the switching device must be within 2-3 mm.
Everything is all right, and the speeds keep turning on badly? Then it’s time to adjust the transmission. We loosen the tension of the cable to the maximum, tighten the drums on the switch until they stop. After adjustment, the system will work more accurately, and there will also be a necessary margin in case of lengthening the drive cable.
How to fix defects
The speed switch will work perfectly and the bike itself will be with a new (or not very old) cable, with absolutely intact shirts (and not dry!) And not deformed (or in a small volume) stars and chain.
If the cable is just stretched, then you just need to pull it up. But if the cable breaks, then you cannot do without replacing this element. The process of replacing the cable is not difficult, the main thing is to strictly adhere to the recommendations of the specialists:
- unscrew the cable fixing screw, which is located on the cross-over;
- pull the cable out of the shirts;
- if necessary, disassemble the shifter and pull the cable out of it;
- a new cable must be inserted into a special groove in the shifter, and it is the metal tip of the cable that must enter into the groove;
- lubricate the entire cable with a special grease, you do not need to spare the consumable;
- pass the cable through the shirts;
- there are special grooves on the frame, into which shirts are tucked;
- fasten the cable with a screw on the front end.
In case of poor gear shifting, pay attention to the return spring. it must be clean and lubricated. To achieve this, you just need to rinse the spring under running water, dry it completely and lubricate it thoroughly.
Note: this “repair” of the cock is a temporary solution to the problem of shifting gears. The fact is that the rooster is a consumable that needs to be changed on time, and not constantly repaired / pulled.
In some cases, the bike owner pays attention to a deformed rear derailleur (the front derailleur rarely suffers on impact). it can also be returned to its original position with the help of hands. But if the rear derailleur is deformed too much, then it is advisable to replace it.
Note: After performing specific manipulations to repair bent / deformed parts, you should not use the bike for too long. this may end in a fall, another breakdown at the most inopportune moments. And in some cases, such carelessness can lead to a traffic accident.!
How to properly adjust the rear and front derailleurs on a bicycle: photo and description of the process
Despite the fact that the bicycle was invented a long time ago and, it would seem, should have been out of date for a long time, but this two-wheeled vehicle is gaining more and more popularity every year. Cycling enthusiasts prefer this type of transport due to its convenience, ease of operation, environmental safety and practicality. Not only ordinary bicycles are very popular, but also mountain, track bikes, in which modern innovative technologies are involved. In order for the owners to enjoy cycling, they need to take care of it and monitor the condition of all parts and assemblies. If, in the process of cycling, you hear extraneous sounds, creaking, knocking and twitching during gear shifting, it’s time to pay attention to such a detail as the gear selector.
How to adjust the speed switch on a bike
It often happens that either the speeds on the bike are not switched clearly, or some new transmission elements have been installed. In this case, you will need to adjust the speed switch and it is quite possible to do this work on your own, without contacting specialized workshops.
To understand the process of self-adjusting the speed switch, you need to know the definition of some specific terms, otherwise it will be difficult to understand the instructions.
- Speed switch (crossover). This is a transmission element that is specifically responsible for gear shifting. If there is a rear crossover, then it also acts as a support for the tension of the bicycle chain. The crossover (back and front) can be described as follows: it is a parallelogram mechanism equipped with a powerful return spring, on which the frame is fixed. The rear derailleur has two rollers inside the frame. if the level of cable tension increases, then the frame shifts the chain to large stars, and if this cable tension decreases, then the chain is shifted towards small stars with the help of the frame. The mechanism of the front derailleur works in the same way.
- Shifter. It is designed to switch speeds by changing the tension level of the cable. Most often, the shifter is located on the handlebars, but in some bicycles it can also be located on the lower tube of the frame triangle. Note:shifters and speed switches have a common connection on the steering wheel (this is provided by a cable) and are covered with a jacket.
- Cassette. This is the name of the rear transmission unit, which consists of stars of different sizes (of different diameters and with a different number of teeth) and is installed on the rear hub drum. If the bike is old, then a ratchet is used instead of a drum in the rear hub.
- Cock. It is a metal part that helps maintain the integrity of the frame and rear derailleur in the event that the vehicle has been hit. The rooster is always attached to the frame, and a cross-over is already attached to this metal part. When a blow occurs, it is this very cock that breaks, and the frame and the speed switch (crossover) remain intact.
- System. This is the name of the front transmission unit, which consists of stars of different diameters and with a different number of teeth. These stars are fastened to each other and the connecting rods with special hollow bolts on the connecting rods, but you need to know that there are no hollow bolts in cheap bicycles. the stars and connecting rods are riveted to each other.
How to properly adjust your bike‘s gear shifting
The gearshift system is one of the most vulnerable parts of a bike. Transmission components are susceptible to wear and tear and imbalance, which requires repeated adjustments during operation. The main symptoms of speed discord include difficult shifting while driving and chain jumping over one or more sprockets.
If the above signs appeared suddenly, and the quality of all components of the transmission is not in doubt, then it is necessary to adjust the speeds in the rear and front sectors of the gear shift. It is not worth neglecting the adjustment, since over time the stars will experience increased wear, the chain will begin to fly off, and it will be completely inconvenient to ride. The procedure for setting the speeds on a bicycle is not difficult and can be done at home.
How to adjust the front derailleur
There are also clear and simple step-by-step instructions for adjusting the front derailleur:
- Shifting the chain to a smaller star.
- Unscrew the fixing screw and release the cable.
- We find the screw marked “L”, with its help we adjust the position of the frame so that the chain is between the plates of the frame, but does not touch them.
- We stretch the cable, fix it with a screw.
- Now we move the chain in the cassette to a smaller sprocket. it is convenient to do this using the rear derailleur.
- With the front derailleur, move the chain to the middle sprocket and look. if the chain on the second one touches the outer side of the frame everywhere, then you need to increase the cable tension using the drum located on the left shifter.
- We switch the gear to the largest sprocket in the cassette and check. if the chain touches the walls of the frame, you need to move the last element so that the chain is located in the middle. This manipulation can be done using the screw marked “H”.
We bring the rear switch into working condition
If the rear derailleur is crooked, a bent cock is most likely the cause. Mechanical damage to the rooster can also be detected using special equipment, which is usually found in bike shops. The rooster is considered a consumable item and should be replaced if deformed. If a breakdown catches you on the road and the cock is not very damaged, you can bend it manually. This is done with a neat unhurried movement, with one hand applying force to the rear derailleur, the other holding the frame.
The rear derailleur itself could be damaged in the event of an impact. Unlike the front derailleur, which is difficult to damage, deformations of the rear derailleur are much more common. As a result of the impact, the switch frame may bend, there is nothing criminal in this, you can bend it back and ride calmly. If the parallelogram mechanism is broken or bent, it should be replaced. A broken chain adjuster screw is not an irreparable problem, but the derailleur will perform significantly better if the screw is replaced, and the same goes for the lug where the screw is secured.
Find your sport
The reasons contributing to the deterioration of the gear shifting process are as follows:
- Worn or stretched cable
- Spring return problems
- Mechanical damage to the rooster
- Mechanical damage to the switch
We bring the cable into working condition
The condition of the cable directly affects the quality of the entire transmission. The most common problems with the cable are two. it is torn or badly worn out, or stretched. You can tension the cable using the cable tension drum, which is located on the shifter. To replace the cable, the following steps are required:
How To Set Up & Index Road Bike Gears | Road Bike Maintenance
- Loosen the cable fixing screw on the derailleur
- Remove the cable from the shirt. Very bad, worn out cable will need to be cut.
- Remove the cable from the shifter, disassemble it if necessary.
- Insert a good cable into the shifter, into the groove holding the cable end.
- Lubricate the cable along the entire length with heavy grease.
- Thread the cable through all available shirts.
- Insert the shirts into the grooves located on the frame.
- Fix the cable in place with the screw.
Setting up the rear derailleur
After eliminating all the defects described above, nothing can prevent you from correctly adjusting the bike, and you will receive flawless gear shifting as a reward.
- The bike turns over, and the shifter, which is responsible for changing the speeds on the rear derailleur, sets the chain to the smallest sprocket.
- The cable is completely loosened by unscrewing the fixing screw
Now you need to adjust the switch so that the star located on the foot and the smallest star are on the same line. This is done using the adjusting screw marked with the letter “H”.
- After setting the correct position, it is necessary to tighten the cable and fix it with a screw.
- A well-tensioned cable should allow the chain to shift seamlessly from a smaller chainring to a larger chainring. If shifting is not clear, increase the cable tension. The drum, which is usually located on the shifter or derailleur, will help with this.
- The rear derailleur selector sets the chain to the largest sprocket.
- Use the adjusting screw marked “L” to achieve the position of the switch where the largest sprocket is in line with the sprocket on the foot.
Gear shift types
Before making any adjustments, determine what kind of gear shifts your bike has. There are 3 main types of switches.
- External switching mechanism.
- Internal switching mechanism.
- Combined type.
The internal gearshift mechanism appeared earlier than the external one. The progenitor of multi-speed bushings is the English company Sturmey-Archer. It was they who created the first two and three speed hubs, which were released in 1902.
Change the cable on the bike. video
The gear selector is an important part of a multi-speed bike. Thanks to this component, it becomes possible to move in extreme conditions, which include movement against the wind, ascents, poor road quality. The transmission unit must cope with all these problems. The quality of the ride and the safety of the cyclist depend on the smooth operation of the speed switch. This skill is very useful, and every bike owner should learn how to independently adjust the gear shifter. Each cyclist can make adjustments to the bike’s gear shifters on their own. You need to study the theory in detail by reading the instructions, or using the advice of experienced bike owners.
Before setting the derailleur, the rear derailleur must be adjusted. Placing the bike in the correct position (wheels up) will greatly facilitate the entire adjustment process. So, all the necessary details will be in sight, and it will be much easier to get to them.
Reasons for poor gear shifting:
- physical defects of the switch parts;
- contamination of parts. To prevent this from happening, the components of the transmission unit must be periodically cleaned of dirt, dust and old grease;
- worn out cable with elements of damage. Such a part requires replacement;
- damage to the cock.
If you observe damage, deformation and wear of the constituent parts, they must be replaced as they are practically irreparable.
If all parts are OK, adjust the switch. What is the speed selector made of? The components of the speed switch are as follows:
- The handle for shifting the speeds, located on the steering wheel;
- A shifter that attaches to the handlebars near the handles. Handles and a cable are attached to the shifter. It is with the participation of the cable that the impulse is transmitted from the shifter to the stars;
- Cassette, which includes stars of different sizes;
- front fixing mount;
- rear derailleur, whose main function is to transfer the chain to the necessary sprockets.
What can affect the quality of the switches
It is important to find out what caused the problem.
Bicycle undercarriage device, principles of operation. video
External Shifting on Speed Bike
The outer type belongs to most multi-speed bicycles. It is used on both mountain and city walking models. The mechanism is made up of gear shifters and stars that form a cassette or system. Variable speed with rear and front derailleurs.
Elements of external type of gear shifting. derailleur and cassette
This type of gear shifting can be seen on both the Forward Dortmund city bike (7 speeds) and the Forward Agris mountain bike (24 speeds). You can customize this switch yourself by examining the mechanism.
Rooster bent or broke
If the foot of the rear derailleur is oblique, then the mount is bent. You can fix this defect yourself.
- Hold the foot with one hand and grasp the switch with the other.
- Carefully, without sudden movements, align the position of the rooster until the rear frame is level.
The rooster should be replaced with a new one as soon as possible. Even if you align it, such a detail will not last long.