Here’s what we learned from this thread:
These numbers need to be kept in mind, we will come back to them later
Now let’s forget about the speeds and pay a little attention to backlash in the rear derailleurs and errors in the impulse communication lines with the rear derailleur, in other words, about the errors that accumulate in shirts.
Let’s start with switch play. Anyone who has held the speed switch on a SRAM and SHIMANO bike in their hands knows that SRAM has much stiffer switches. As for the XT-shnyh shifters, they, in general, go straight off the assembly line with backlash (in any case, both of mine in 10th and 9th gears could be called simply disgrace when it comes to backlash issues). Interestingly, SLH has less backlash! I held 2 models for 9 gears in my hands, and both were more “dense” than the HT.
As for the CRAM, both copies of the switches that I had the good fortune to turn in my hands. the 2010 and 2009 X9. were strong, all the moving joints were “bunched together” and did not create noise. in principle, the loofahs of the switches in the parallelogram connections, in the hinge of the chain tension frame and in the hinge of the switch itself, DO NOT affect the quality of the shifting in any way!!
What is the reason? Yes, the fact is that the return spring in the switch frame (the one that pulls back the cable at the moment when you drop the reverse gear to a smaller sprocket) collects these backlashes to one side, as if pressing them, and they immediately disappear and are compensated during switch setting.
Now, regarding the error of communication lines, this is more interesting. Backlash in communication lines appears more or less, depending on many parameters. First of all, the backlash is influenced by the build quality of the mowing line of the tie, and, in particular, they depend on the quality of processing of the shirts along the edges and how perpendicularity of the cuts with respect to the axis of the shirt is maintained. The number of speeds does NOT affect the Backlash of the communication lines.
How to Lube a Bike Chain and Tune the Derailleur in 5 Minutes
This means that if we consider the finished fishing line, then at different positions of the steering wheel, bends of the shirt, etc., the cable can fluctuate about its position by about 0.5-1 millimeters, depending on how well the fishing line is assembled.
A value of 0.5-1 millimeter, in itself, will not say anything, but now it’s time to remember the described cable samples in SHIMAN and SRAM. Now you can superimpose the amount of line error on different transmission types and see what percentage of the line error (noise) can be in relation to the signal value (cable length in one gear). Let’s take the average error value of 0.75 millimeters:
- 1.9-speed CPAM. It takes 3.9 mm of cable for transmission. We observe an error of 0.75 millimeters from the signal level of 3.9 millimeters will be 19%: (100%. ((3.9-0.75) /3.9100%)
- 2.9-speed SHIMAN. It takes 2.4 mm of cable for transmission. We observe an error of 0.75 millimeters from the signal level of 2.4 millimeters is 31%: (100%. ((2.4-0.75) /2.4100%)
- 3. 10-speed CPAM. It takes 2.9 mm of cable for transmission. We observe an error of 0.75 millimeters from the signal level of 2.9 millimeters will be 26%: (100%. ((2.9-0.75) /2.9100%)
- 4. 10-speed SHIMAN. It takes 3.5 mm of cable for transmission. We observe an error of 0.75 millimeters from the signal level of 3.5 millimeters will be 21%: (100%. ((3.5-0.75) /3.5100%)
UNDER THE SAME OPERATING CONDITIONS (quality of shifters, quality of a mowing line of communication, backlash, and so on), 9-speed CPAM OBJECTIVELY HAS MORE CLEAR SWITCHING due to the fact that it has the lowest level of error relative to the signal level (sampling of the cable for transmission). 19%.
Further, according to the quality indicators of switching, the 10-speed SHIMANA follows. 21% of the error, followed by the 10-speed CPAM. 26% of the error and in the last place is the 9-speed SHIMANA with 31% error in relation to the signal level.
That’s it. I think now it has become clear to many why they write that the 9-pin CPAM is less upset, the gears need to be adjusted less often, it is able to work longer with uncleaned dirty shirts and the like And all because the CPAM pulls in the MOST amount of cable on one gear and, accordingly, the error of the mowing line at the moment of switching becomes less noticeable, and the error affects the quality of switching in the least way.
And the conclusion at number two. the 10-speed SHIMANA pleased me, since the amount of pulled cable per transmission has significantly increased in comparison with the 9-speed transmission. Hence the reduction in noise in relation to the signal. HOORAY. This is the reason why the 10-speed SHIMANA began to work more “distinctly” than the 9-speed model, despite the increase in the number of stars and the decrease in the distance between them.
The perplexed inhabitants shrug their shoulders and nervously mutter, because, in theory, it should have happened that the transmission would be even worse than a nine-speed one but no. everything is exactly the opposite. you would still learn how to make switches without backlash
IT’S TIME TO MAKE SOME CONCLUSIONS
In the event that you need the clearest transmission and there is NO need for a rear 36-tooth chainring, then the choice is obvious. 9-speed CPAM, which has the maximum amount of transmission cable, minimum noise of the mowing line and no backlash in the active joints of the switches.
If at the word CPAM you get nausea, and this, apparently, is something personal, from which the psychologist cannot relieve you, then the 10-speed SHIMANA will help you. A significant amount of cable per transmission (outperforms the 10-speed CPAM and 9-speed SHIMANA), a fairly low noise of the mowing line, however, there is play in the switches, but, as mentioned above, the backlashes are eliminated by the spring of the parallelogram of the switch frame, and, in addition to the splitting and unpleasant sensation that you vparili used, no problems arise.
We take the shifters from the 10-speed SHIMAN XT (.), Connect it to the SRAM SWITCH FOR 9 (.) Gears, for example, X9. HOORAY. Now this can be realized, since we already know that 9-speed CPAM pulls 35 mm of cable, and 10-speed SHIMANA pulls 35 mm of cable! Yes, you can crossbreed, and, during the operation, pour all this with beer, so that there is no rejection.
- 1.Rear shifter. nine-speed CPAM X9 (tested on two samples of 2010 and 2009)
- 2. shifters. 10-speed SHIMANA HT 2011
- 3.cassette. ten-speed SHIMANA XT 11-36 (.)
- 4. chain. SLH 74ya in short, just a ten-star chain
CHOOSING THE SPEED SWITCH ON THE BIKE: SHIMANA OR SRAM?
Actually, it never occurred to me to write such an article initially, however, recent events simply do not leave any choice, and it rains outside, so you can sit on the couch at home, drink beer, surf the forums but let’s start from the very beginning.
It was decided to dismantle the rear transmission SHIMANO SLX 9speed (shifters, rear derailleur, chains, cassette) and purchase a 10-speed XT transmission. cassette 11-36, coins, derailleur The main reason for changing the transmission was the desire to change the 36 rear sprocket, and somehow it became boring, but, as they say, when your life stops bubbling, you need to change either the razor or the woman. Having carefully examined all the pros and cons, a decision was made to measure the transmission, because both the razor and the woman suited me. )))
In general, the updated transmission was glued together by the fins. the cock broke (at the same time, having fulfilled its function. preserving the frame dropout), but the rear derailleur ground and the frame turned out, so that the alignment of the rollers in the derailleur foot was disrupted and, to top it all off, the parallelogram of the frame floated. In short, the death of a career at its very rise In the photo. life in the switch is slowly fading away, and the pulse has not died down yet:
In general, it was necessary to replace the switch, but the initial slackness inherent in the XT switches from the box jarred the brains, and SLH did not want it either, due to the fact that it uses a huge variety of “iron casting”, while it looked askance at the XTP his wife said that she would knock out a relative from the house only in contacts, and the HTR switch would stick out of the house…. Simply put, it was necessary to come up with a solution.
Here I read an excellent thread about the discussion of the decimal place, the essence of which was that our friend from Melitopol. Valera (XTR-ych). measured the cable samples for various rear transmission systems, and for this he thanks a lot, because the person did not regret your free time, and that is it, friends, is the only human resource that cannot be returned thank you.
Indeed, the world is going crazy, the clearest 10-speed transmission will be obtained (with other factors being equal) if you use the rear 9-speed CPAM switch and SHIMANO coins for 10 gears. Regarding the issue of chains and cassettes. here it is optional, this post is not discussed.
Simple option for setting gear shifting.
- I drove my first couple of hundred kilometers and felt that the switching reaction speed became lower due to the shrinkage of the sheath of the switching cable (shirt);
- assembles the bike himself from the box.
This procedure can be performed on the go, just make sure that you do not hit anyone or crash into anything.
- To begin with, reset the chain, using the shift lever on the steering wheel, to the smallest sprocket, if you have a numbered display system. to the number 1;
- Then, while riding, switch to the next one. If this does not happen immediately, but with a noticeable delay, unscrew the adjusting screw on the shifter body a little, just a little bit, about a quarter of a turn;
- Switch to the next gear, if the problem persists. repeat everything described in the previous paragraph until the desired result is achieved;
- If everything works as expected, switch to the largest star, then switch to the previous largest star. If switching occurs with a delay. screw in the adjusting screw on the shifter body by about a quarter of a turn;
- Switch to the next gear, if the problem persists. repeat everything described in the previous paragraph until the desired result is achieved;
- This method works for both the front derailleur and the rear derailleur. As you can see, you do not need to bend anything with your hands to restore the switching performance and this procedure can be carried out without any difficulties at any time.
High gears (large sprocket (H))
When adjusting the high gear limiter, the chain is set to the smallest sprocket at the rear and the largest at the front. Counterclockwise rotation of the adjusting screw moves the derailleur frame closer to the frame, and clockwise rotation further away from the frame. Turning the screw, you need to set the switch so that the outer part of the frame is as close as possible to the chain, but does not touch it when pedaling.
After adjusting the extreme positions, rotating the pedals, alternately shift gears in both directions. If the chain does not come off badly from large stars to small ones, then you need to loosen the cable. To do this, rotate the cable adjustment drum on the lever clockwise. If the chain does not switch well from small stars to large ones, then, on the contrary, pull the cable by rotating the drum counterclockwise.
Be careful, on some switches the adjusting bolts “L” and “H” may be opposite.
After adjusting the front derailleur, you need to test its operation under load. To do this, you need to get on a bike and ride, changing gears. If the chain transitions from one sprocket to the next smoothly and quickly without touching the derailleur frame, then everything is fine. If it touches, then you need to check the parallelism of the frame and gears, as well as the stars themselves (they can be deformed).
Note, however, that if the chain is in strongly diagonal positions (for example 3-1, 2-9, 1-7, 1-8, 1-9), it may rub against the derailleur frame. This is permissible, since such a position of the chain is undesirable when driving (how to switch speeds correctly).
When the chain frictions against the derailleur frame, dents may remain on the latter, and you can forget about a clear gear change. Then no setting will help.
So, thanks to this article, you already know how to configure the rear derailleur, let’s now deal with the front.
And as always, don’t be afraid to tweak your switch yourself. You will hardly break or damage something if you do not do it on purpose and with excessive force.
- Determining the type of switch
- Adjusting the position of the switch
- Adjust the gap
- Exact fit
The principle of operation of the front derailleur is the same as for the rear derailleur, you pull the cable with the shifter and the cable moves the derailleur. You release the cable with the derailleur, the spring returns the derailleur.
Determining the type of switch
But first you need to decide on the type of attachment of the switch to the frame. The following picture will help you with the XTR FD-M985 and FD-M985-E switch:
As you can see, there are 2 types of switches:
The first type is attached to the seat tube of the frame with a special clamp. The switch can rotate around the pipe and move up and down it, which requires additional precision during installation.
The second type is attached to the frame. This switch moves a little up and down, which allows you to accurately adjust the height. And it is always in the plane of the stars, which allows you to avoid unnecessary hassle with the setting.
If your frame does not have a mount for such a switch, then you can purchase a special adapter (Figure 6 in the photo), which in turn is clamped between the bottom bracket and the bottom bracket of the bike. Remember to align the adapter parallel to the seat tube.
Today we will consider the first type of switch, since it is the most demanding to configure. The second type is configured in the same way, except for setting the switch in the same plane with the stars.
Switch to the largest star in the back and smallest star in the front.
Fully screw in the cable preload adjustment bolt on the shifter.
Loosen the derailleur clamp bolt so that it can rotate freely around the frame seat tube. Adjust the angle of the derailleur so that the derailleur frames are parallel to the small crank chainring.
Now adjust the height of the switch. Shift the gear to the largest chainring (if you are having trouble shifting because the derailleur is resting and does not want to go higher, see Step 8). Different manufacturers recommend a height of 1 to 3 millimeters between the top of the tooth of the large star and the edge of the outer frame. If you don’t want to bother with measurements, then you can set the gap using a regular coin. Insert the coin so that it is sandwiched between the large star and the edge of the outer frame. Install the switch clamp bolt.
Go back to the smallest star in the front and the largest in the back. Loosen the bolt that secures the derailleur cable. Use a screwdriver and bolt “L” to set the minimum clearance between the inner edge of the frame and the chain. By turning the bolt clockwise, you decrease the clearance, while turning it counterclockwise, you increase.
Rotate 1 turn of the cable preload adjustment bolt on the shifter.
Stretch the cable itself slightly and secure it with the bolt. In this case, the switch should not move towards the larger star.
Shift the gear to the largest sprocket in the front and the smallest in the back. If you are unable to switch because the switch rests and does not want to go higher, then use the bolt marked “H” and unscrew it until the chain jumps to a large star.
Adjust the minimum gap between the outer edge of the frame and the chain so that the chain practically touches the outer frame, but does not touch it. By turning the bolt “H” clockwise, you decrease the gap, while turning it counterclockwise, you increase.
Pedal along the way, switching speeds on the chainrings using the shifter up and down. If the chain does not come off well from the large sprocket to the small sprocket, loosen the cable by rotating the cable preload adjustment bolt on the shifter from Step 2 clockwise. If the chain does not fit well on a large sprocket, then tighten the cable by rotating the preload adjustment bolt counterclockwise. Get optimal performance. Profit!
Manufacturers allow a slight wiping of the switch frames in the extreme positions with strong chain distortions. These are positions where the chain is on a small star in front and a small star in the back, or a large star in front and a large star in the back. But it is better to try to avoid wiping with fine tuning.
Adjusting the front derailleur is not such a difficult task, using the recommendations in the article you can adjust the derailleur yourself.
How to Clean and Lubricate a Rear Derailleur
How to remove the front derailleur on a bicycle
In some cases, you still need to loosen the front derailleur adjusting screw to improve gear shifting to a small sprocket. Because of this, the chain begins to jump off the sprocket, to prevent this, you can install a special device. a limiter. It attaches to the seat tube of the frame and physically prevents the chain from jumping off the system.
Adjusting the front derailleur of the bike
Adjusting the front derailleur of a bicycle is made only after adjusting the rear one, because the setting of the front derailleur is influenced by the position of the chain on the cassette (it should be possible to shift reverse gears). Setting up the front derailleur requires a good eye and a little patience. Before adjusting, its moving parts should be well cleaned and lubricated.
But even with a good tuning of the front derailleur, there is no guarantee that it will shift gears clearly. This is due to the nature of his work, he switches the circuit at the top when it is energized. For a clear gear change on the system, slow down the pedaling pace during shifting.
How To Clean And Lube Your Drivetrain | GMBN Tech How To
Low gears (small star (L))
When setting the end of your bike’s front derailleur, set the chain to the small sprocket at the front and the large sprocket at the back. Next, loosen the anchor bolt on the switch (which secures the cable), then tighten it all the way and loosen the adjusting drum on the shifter by one turn.
The lower gear limiter serves to prevent the chain from moving beyond the smallest sprocket. If you tighten the stopper too tightly, it will be difficult or impossible to change gear to a small sprocket, and if you tighten it too loosely, then the chain will jump off the sprocket. The position is adjusted by turning the adjusting screw L, when turned clockwise, the switch frame moves towards the frame, and when turned counterclockwise, the frame moves towards the large star. Tighten the stopper so that the chain is as close to the inside of the derailleur frame as possible, but does not touch it.
After that, you need to pull the cable and secure it with an anchor bolt.
Service and customization
Derailleurs are some of the most subtle elements of a bike to adjust. Minimal tolerances and the fatal effect of misalignment on the chain and sprockets. all of this dramatically increases the importance of correct tuning.
With the ride now standardized, cyclists have a little less set-up to worry about. Previously, it was also necessary to work with the tension of the cable. Now the main thing is to set the correct position of the extreme points of the switch.
This is done using bolts H (High, high position) and L (Low, low position). The chain is moved first to the largest chainring at the front and the smallest at the rear, and with constant observation, using the screw H, the bicycle derailleur is set so that the planes of the chainring, chain and derailleur frame become parallel. Then a similar adjustment is made for the other extreme stars using the bolt L.
There are many obstacles that can interfere with the simple setting of the switches, and which will require more serious intervention, which is already problematic to do it yourself:
- damage to any frame;
- discrepancy between the set of stars and the capacitance of the switch;
- damage to the frame or cock;
- cable drive mismatch.
It is best to avoid these issues before starting the setup.
Design and principle of operation
The constructive structure and principle of operation of the shifter is elementary, and since their inception, little has changed.
Consists of several parts: lever handle, movable block, retaining spring, arm of the movable block, wound cable and housing. This design was created in order to “feed” the cable and fix it.
How to properly shift gears on a bike?
Gear shifting rules are simple and not so numerous:
- You only need to switch when the bike is moving. If you don’t pedal, nothing will happen.
- When switching, the load on the bike chain should not be too large. Switching should be smooth and smooth.
- Do not switch uphill. The speed must be set in advance.
- Correct speed change is a step change, i.e. one speed at a time. It will save the chain and nerves.
- If you have a classic system (3×8), then each chainring has its own personal rear chainring. This will prevent chain distortions.
The large chainring is used for cruising. Average is needed for poor asphalt, dirt roads, etc. The small sprocket is invaluable for steep climbs, when driving on sand, long grass, etc.
Gear shifting on a bicycle is a complex and organic system. It cannot be divided into separate elements: everything must correspond to each other, and then the bike will “fly”.
Top Speed Derailleur Manufacturers
The most famous switch manufacturers in the Russian market are Shimano and Sram. Both the first and the second proved to be excellent.
For many years there has been a heated discussion among cyclists about which company has the best equipment. So far, no one has won in this dispute. The quality, lightness and reliability of the derailers are the hallmarks of both companies.
Correct installation of the front derailleur
You can only start the front derailleur setting after adjusting the rear derailleur. Installation is the initial step in adjusting the speed switch. It’s very important to do it right.
- before installing the switch, it is necessary to inspect the condition of the constituent parts and, if necessary, clean them from dirt and lubricate.
- The next step is to adjust the location of the front derailleur. On the frame, it should be located along the pipe under the saddle.
- Set the steering angle parallel to the drive sprocket on the front cassette of the transmission unit.
- Next, you need to adjust the gap between the underside of the derailleur frame and the upper mowing line of the teeth of the large gear. The gap should be minimal.
- Adjust the cable tension.
- Place the chain close to the inside of the frame.
It is also worth paying attention to setting up the chain. The bicycle chain is a very important element, with the help of which the impulse is transmitted from one chain to another and the adjustment process takes place. The technical condition of the circuit is of great importance for the operation of the entire system. If, for some reason, the bicycle chain stretches or deforms, this cannot but adversely affect the operation of the entire transmission unit. To prevent this from happening, the chain must be periodically removed and cleaned, and then set the correct position. There are lock and lockless models of bicycle chains. They differ in the way they are connected. To remove the locking chain, it is enough to find the link with the lock and disconnect it with a screwdriver. The lockless bicycle chain is disconnected using a squeeze. This tool helps to push the link axle out and make the connector. If it skews for some reason, this can adversely affect the gearshift process.
One of the best manufacturers of bicycle parts, including derailleurs, is the Japanese company Shimano, which has a proven track record of producing products in which Japanese quality is combined with budget and price. Shimano derailleurs are suitable for all types of bicycles. Shimano derailleurs are installed on both regular touring bicycles and mountain and track bikes with gearboxes up to 33 speeds.
Another recognized market leader is Sram. The products of this company are used on bicycles of the city bike category, as well as on sports bicycles. Sram products are of good quality and affordable price for cycling enthusiasts.
Every bicycle owner who prefers this type of transport to others is obliged to understand how to switch its speeds. It is believed that the more speeds a bike has, the better it is. But in fact, speed only allows you to improve the quality of maneuvering and squeeze the maximum out of the bike’s capabilities, so then everything depends on the dynamic efforts of the person riding the bike. Conventional bicycles have a simpler design compared to high-speed ones. With a bike like this, there is less hassle, but it also has fewer options. In the transmission unit of such bicycles there are only two stars: one large and one small. Multi-speed bikes, which have gained popularity in recent years, have two sets of sprockets in their transmission units: front and rear. Each cassette consists of stars of different sizes. To switch gears correctly, you need to remember a few basic rules:
- If your bike is not equipped with a planetary hub, you only need to switch gears on it while driving, otherwise there is a danger of damage to the bike.
- During gear shifting, it is not necessary to apply significant dynamic forces, in order to eliminate the danger of a burst of flowers, it is advisable to change gears sequentially, without making sharp jerks.
Bicycle front derailleur
The transition to the setting of this mechanism is possible only when the rear derailleur is set. This feature is important to take into account before starting work. The figure shows the switch (round, black).
Leave the chain on the middle sprocket of the front block and place it on the large sprocket in the rear block. If chain friction is observed, re-engage adjuster L. To adjust stop H, the chain moves to the largest sprocket at the front and smallest at the back. The adjuster will help to position the chain in the optimal position without friction and excessive tension on the chain. At the end of the work, be sure to check the quality of its implementation.
Why is there a violation of gear shifting
To understand what action should be taken to adjust gear shifting, you need to understand what causes may lead to the problem in question. Experts identify several such predisposing factors:
- deformation of the rooster;
- stretching the cable;
- deformation of the speed switch;
- malfunctioning return spring.