How To Know Which Chain On A Bicycle

Bicycle chain length: how to determine and choose the best?

Bicycle chain. one link after the other connected by pins. It is intended for the transmission of torque. The efficiency is capable of reaching 98%. When mounting a new chain on a bicycle, as a rule, it is necessary to correctly calculate its length or the number of links. A short chain can lead to problems when shifting to large sprockets. Too long chain. will sag and jump off the sprockets on its own.

Basic sizing methods

There are two key techniques for determining a parameter such as chain length.

  • The most important thing is to install it on a large sprocket in the transmission system, at the same time it is necessary to install it on the smallest sprocket in the rear sprocket system (another name is the rear cassette). Then you need to pass it through the rear derailer (this is the name of the speed switch). After completing this work, tension it so that the axle that passes through the center of the rear derailleur rollers is in an upright position. If the correct chain tension has been performed and it turns out to be longer, a certain amount of extra links will form at the connection section of the 2 ends. They can be easily removed by adjusting the chain length at the same time to fit your own bike.
  • The next method actually mirrors the sequence of steps of the previous method. That is, mount the chain on the smallest sprocket in the transmission system and the same sprocket in the rear sprocket system. At the same time, there should be a slight tension on the chain, that is, the bike chain should not be loosened. It follows that unnecessary links may also remain in the joint area, which must be removed.

It should be further noted that in determining the optimal length of the bicycle chain, you can practice the first and second methods at the same time. If in both versions the same number of unnecessary links came out, then it means that you can safely remove them.

When the number is different, then it is worth checking again, since it may be that a mistake was made in some of the options. If the wrong number of links is removed, there is a risk of a chain that is too long or too short. In such situations, driving on two-wheeled vehicles is risky, and the degree of reliability of the bicycle chain will significantly decrease.

How to find out for different types of bicycles?

For mountain bike and bike hybrid

There are three main calculation methods for mountain bikes and hybrids.

  • Throw the chain over the largest sprockets at the back and front of the bike, pull the rear derailer leg to the maximum, it is necessary that it moves forward. this will be the ideal size for the bike chain. It should come out like this: the derailer’s body will be almost in line with the paw (this is the maximum, further. failure). Please note that it is recommended to install the foot at a slight slope.
  • As in the previous version, the chain is thrown onto the largest sprockets without involving the rear derailer. We write down or remember the required chain size, then add a couple more links to this parameter, and an acceptable length comes out. In principle, it should come out approximately the same as in the first method.
  • Attach the chain in the front to the large chainring, and to the smallest at the back and adjust the size so that the derailer’s foot is at right angles to the ground, that is, the derailer’s roller axes are under each other.

For road bike

For a road bike, the 3rd method is usually used to calculate the size of the bike chain. This is the technique where the chain is installed on a small sprocket in the back and a large one in front.

For singlespeed (single speed bike)

To choose the length of the bicycle chain for a single speed or a bicycle equipped with a planetary hub, it is necessary to install the latter in the suspension bracket of the frame (dropout) so that in the future, as the bicycle chain is stretched, it will be possible to move it back.

Attention! When replacing a factory chain with a new one, it is imperative to count the links in the factory sample. In the new chain, if necessary, you must leave the same number of them as the original.

How to find out how many links are in a chain?

There are two methods to count the number of links.

  • Count all the outer links together with the lock, and then multiply by 2. It is possible, of course, to count the inner links, but this is not very logical.
  • Count all pins (their number must match the number of links).

Main selection criteria

Choosing the right chain depends on how many sprockets you have in your bike. If it is equipped with 5, then with this option, a typical version with a width of 2.4 millimeters will be suitable. When the conversation is about a bicycle with 6-7 sprockets, then you should choose more expensive and high-quality products, since typical products may simply not tolerate such loads, not to mention the degree to which this process must be taken seriously when purchasing a chain for a bicycle with 8 stars, because only the most flexible and expensive samples can suit him.

Of course, if desired, the use of cheaper analogs is also allowed, but then you will have to replace them quite often, moreover, it will most likely need to be done in conjunction with the cassettes, which makes savings very unlikely.

over, the parameters of your old and new chains should match one hundred percent, and especially this concerns their width.

It should be noted that additional marking is applied to individual samples according to the quality of their manufacture, and, as a rule, it is in the form of numbers. Accordingly, the higher the number of the marking, the better the product. In addition, it should be said that chains often differ in their color, and the best samples are painted exclusively in the color of gold.

You can learn how to determine the length of a bicycle chain in the video below.

How to find out what chain on a bicycle. How long should the bike chain be?

I think many who change chains on their own bicycle ask themselves the question: “What should be the correct chain length?”, Since new chains come with a margin of length. And, of course, the simplest thing we can do is count the number of links on the old chain and leave the same number on the new one.

But what if you are not only installing a new chain, but also changing the cassette or installing a system with a different number of stars? The chain length will change, and the old chain is no longer a helper. Then you should use these 3 methods for calculating the length of the bicycle chain, and no calculator is required for this:

Mountain & Hybrid Chain Length

1 way. Place the chain on the largest chainrings on your bike (large front and large rear), pull the rear derailleur foot as far as possible so that it moves forward. this is your optimal chain length. You should get it so that the body of the switch lies almost on the same straight line with the foot (this is the limit, further. breakage). It will be correct to set the foot at a slight angle, as in

If you make a mistake and make the chain shorter than necessary, then in the case of accidentally turning on the two largest stars in the system, the length will not be enough, and the switch will tear off to hell.

How the derailleur should not be pulled when the chain is too short.

Method 2. The same as the first method, only we throw the chain onto the largest sprockets without using the rear derailleur and remember the desired chain length, after which we add 2 more links to this length and get the ideal length. In theory, you should get about the same as in method number 1.

Shimano Bike Chain Length Method

A chain link is a chain element, a distance that is limited by two pins (axes) of the chain.

Bicycle chain link

Method 3. Place the chain on the smallest sprocket in the back and the largest in the front, and adjust the chain length so that the derailleur foot is perpendicular to the ground, i.e. the roller axes of the switch were under each other.

With the red line, I showed the perpendicularity of the switch rollers relative to the ground.

Attention! If you have a double suspension, then it is necessary to measure the length of the chain in this position of the rear shock absorber, when the driven stars are as far as possible from the carriage (when the shock absorber is compressed).

Road bike chain length

For road bikes, there are usually 3 ways to determine chain length. This is a method in which the chain is placed on a large chainring and a small rear.

Single speed bike chain length

To determine the chain length for a single-speed bicycle or a bicycle with a planetary hub, it is enough to install the hub in the frame dropouts so that it can be further pushed back as the chain stretches.

I installed my planetary hub almost at the beginning of the dropout so I could move it back.

Checking if the bike chain is too long

After you have chosen the chain length using the methods above, I recommend that you test the chain operation when using the two smallest chainrings at the front and back. If the foot is nearly parallel to the ground, your chain is too long. It will likely jump off bumps frequently (as the switch will not be able to pull it properly). The foot should be at a slight angle. For more details, see the photo below:

As you can see in the photo, the foot is set at an angle. This means the chain is tensioned by the derailleur and is the correct length.

The recommended distance from the top roller to the chain is 2.5 to 4.5 cm.In this case, the derailleur will work correctly.

I got about 2.5 here, since this bike has a very large 1 star on the cassette.

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What you need to know about the bike chain

Does the price of the chain affect the quality??

Materials and quality

Most chain models are made of steel. Mountain bike chains are made from a combination of different materials that are added to steel, such as nickel-plated steel or Teflon-coated nickel-plated steel. There are also different grades of steel, depending on which chain is designed for.

Nickel-plated steel chain is less susceptible to corrosion, PTFE chain (Teflon or fluoroplastic) also has a lower resistance to friction between the chain links.

From personal experience

Personally, I purchased two Sram-branded chains for my bike, five chains from Shimano, and the most recent acquisition currently in testing is a KMC X9 SL chain. The similarity of these three options is only that they look the same and have the same purpose. Differences in everything. from the material from which the links are made, from the quality of the processing of the links and the method of pressing the connecting pins to weight, corrosion resistance to rain, snow, dirt.

How to choose the right chain for a beginner?

Therefore, it is better to adhere to the rule that in the cassette-chain link, both components are of the same brand, since the manufacturer, when developing a cassette or chain, “sharpens” in the best possible way only with his bicycle components. The manufacturer does not guarantee the quality of work with third-party brands in the cassette-chain link.

Are there any markings and markings on the chain packaging? What do they mean?

The packaging (if any) usually shows the position of the model in the range of chains produced by the manufacturer. (Deore, SLX, XT, XTR for Shimano, numeric designations for the TM SRAM chain line. pg-950, pg-970, pg 990, for KMC for example X9SL, X9S)

Also, if the chain is intended for a multi-speed transmission, the manufacturer indicates this (most often the designations “9sp”. for a 9-speed transmission, 10sp. for 10-speed transmissions, etc.) Each manufacturer has its own designations.

Are mountain bike chains different from road bike chains??

In general, they do not differ in anything. But there are special bicycle chains produced only for one of the disciplines, MTB (Mountain bike, in the translation from English. mountain bike) or highway, the differences in them are in the angle of the bevel of individual chain links (for example, from the presented Shimano XTR lines. the mountain equipment and Shimano Dura-Ace. line of road equipment).

What does chain length affect? How and how to properly shorten or lengthen the chain to the desired size? How long should the chain be??

The correct chain length affects weight and shifting quality. If the chain is too long and the chainstays are too short, at some chain positions on the sprockets, the chain will not be properly tensioned by the rear derailleur and will sag. If the chain is too short, it will not “throw” on larger stars, which can cause the chain to jam on the stars at the time of switching.

The chain is shortened or lengthened with a special tool. cycling, another name is chain squeezing.

To determine the required chain length, you need to do the following:

In the case of a single-speed transmission, the chain can be tensioned by shifting the rear bushing so that the chain is as tight as possible, but at the same time it easily turns on the stars.

How to behave if the chain breaks during riding and there are no repair materials at hand?

No way. If the chain breaks away from home and there is no special tool with you, then the rest of the way will have to be covered on foot or on a bike in “scooter mode”. Checked repeatedly.

How many kilometers is the chain usually designed for? In your opinion, does the declared number of kilometers correspond to reality?

As a rule, the higher the level of the chain in the manufacturer’s line, the more wear-resistant it is and the greater the distance it can drive. On average, for the chain, wear occurs when it reaches 1000-1500 km with moderate riding with medium loads on the transmission and careful shifting. There are exceptions to these rules, both up and down.

The manufacturer usually determines how many kilometers the bicycle chain is designed for. In my experience, there was a situation that a cheap chain traveled 4300 km, and a more expensive pre-top level less than 1000 km. And all this in conditions of skiing all year round in any weather.

Why does the chain wear out? How and when to clean it correctly? How to process? Can I use lubricants and oils for motorcycles?

The main cause of wear is dirt, riding with a very dirty, unlubricated and uncleaned chain.

The second reason is rolling in dust, rain, snow, mud (in ascending order of wear).

Third. untimely chain lubrication.

The chain can be cleaned using special tools (chain cleaner) or by hand. The main rule for cleaning the chain is that the chain must be clean and dry, lubricant is applied only to such a chain. Do not apply new grease on top of a dirty, uncleaned chain; this can further damage the chain. New grease is applied after the old one has been washed.

For a very dirty chain, I use the following method:

Do not use special agents for cleaning and polishing metal when cleaning the chain. you can damage the coating of the chain.

Lubricants for motorcycle chains can be used. even cheaper than specialized lubricants for bicycle chains. There are different lubricants for different weather. chain lubricant for dry weather and for wet.

The chain must be cleaned when there is visible adhering “mass” of dirt, which interferes with the normal cranking of the transmission. When riding only in dry weather at moderate loads, the chain needs lubrication every 250-300 km. In this case, it is enough not to perform a complex procedure with cleaning in gasoline overnight, but simply wipe the chain dry from dust with a rag, then apply lubricant.

Lubrication should only be applied to the chain joints. no lubrication is needed on the chain segments, it only collects all the dust and dirt from the roads.

Can chain segments from different manufacturers be combined in one chain? (that is, to assemble a single chain from the remains?)

Can. If the chains do not differ from each other in characteristics and wear.

How to tell if a chain is worn out?

For this there is a special tool for determining the “stretch” of the chain.

If the chain is properly maintained, cleaned and lubricated in a timely manner, then the wear of the chain will consist only in stretching in length. On average, this happens after 1000-1500 km, provided the chain is of good quality. But even without a tool, you can understand that your chain is worn out. For example, with strong intense acceleration, the chain will fly off the stars, scroll, especially if the rear stars are new. The same thing happens with “not new” well-worn components. Please note that you cannot put a worn chain on new rear sprockets, as the sprockets will wear out very quickly in this case.

All about bike chain

The invention of the chain drive over a hundred years ago was one of the revolutionary steps in the development of the bicycle.

Bike chain

With the help of the chain, it became possible to transfer the force from the pedals to the rear wheel of the bicycle, which made it possible to reduce the size of the wheels to modern sizes, increase the efficiency, significantly increase the speed of movement and increase the safety of riding. One of the main advantages of the chain drive is the ability to use multi-stage transmission.

Bicycle chain device

Currently, single-row roller chains are used on bicycles with 12.7 mm or 1/2 inch pitch lengths. Early bicycles had only one gear and two stars: drive and driven. On modern bicycles, two or three chainrings are used and four to eleven rear stars. The number of gears directly affects the width of the chain links: the more there are, the thinner the chain.

Bicycle chain width, depending on the number of sprockets in the cassette:

Cassette Chain (width). (number of stars)

8.7. 11.0 mm 4. 5 8.7 mm 6. 7.8 mm 7. 7.3 mm 8. 7.05. 7.1 mm 9. 6.6 mm 10. 5.85. 6.2 mm

Bicycle chain manufacturers

The best quality bicycle chains are available from manufacturers such as Campagnolo, SRAM, KMC and Shimano. Similar in quality to them are: Wippermann, Mavic, Rohloff and SunRace. There are also many other little-known manufacturers. Chains from SRAM, KMC and Shimano can be interchangeable if they are designed for the same number of sprockets in the cassette. The manufacturers themselves believe that their chains are only compatible with their components, but those who assemble bicycles install chains in different variations.

Read more Bicycle chain

Old and new types of bicycle chain

There have been many revolutions in bicycle design in the past fifteen years. Some of them have become noticeable and striking, for example, the emergence of a new type of bike. mountain, disc wheels and new designs of handlebars. Other innovations were not as noticeable, but no less significant, such as the emergence of clipless pedals, bicycle computers and index gear shifting.

The same little-noticed revolution has taken place in bicycle chain designs. Many people don’t pay much attention to bicycle chains. From the outside, they all look the same. What is interesting to look at is the switches, and there is a lot to discuss. The most interesting thing is that the circuit is the element under which all switches are designed.

In old-style bicycle chains, there are ten parts for two half-links. The standard chain used on a multi-speed bike has 114 links and 570 parts. more than the rest of the bike. The chain has 114 inner plates, 114 outer plates, 114 rollers, 114 cups (bushings) and 114 rivet shafts.

Read more Old and new types of bicycle chain

Bicycle chain wear

After the brake pads, the chain is the most worn-out part of the bike. With long-term use, the chain stretches due to the appearance of backlash between the holes in the plates and the pins where they are pressed. Bicycle chain wear occurs for several reasons:

Chain misalignment with different gear options. 2. Loads arising in the links when the chain moves from one star to another when switching.

Since the chain works in an open state, dust, dirt and other objects falling into the links, due to friction, increase chain wear.

On bicycles, single-row roller chains with a link length of 1/2 inch. 12.7 mm are used. Ideally, a new chain should have a length of 12.7 times the number of links in the chain. How to find out the state of chain wear in order to control the situation and change the chain in time, prolonging the life of the cassette?

READ  How to Fit Mountain Bike Stem

How to determine wear on a bicycle chain

Take a section of the chain with the number of links in it. 20. Multiplying the number of links by the length of the standard link 12.7 mm, we get the size of the section of the new chain of 20 links, equal to 254 mm. We take a ruler and measure.

Read more Bicycle chain wear

Bicycle chain maintenance

The new chain is treated with grease. This is done to preserve the chain during storage. This lubricant will last until the first cleaning of the chain. There is no need to wash it out, as it works well and performs its functions much longer than liquid lubricants. It is only necessary to remove the top layer with a rag so that dust and dirt does not stick to it.

When to lubricate the chain

You can determine the moment when the chain needs to be lubricated by ear. When the chain makes a noise (“chirping”) or whistle when pedaling under load, it means that it needs lubrication. The soft and quiet operation of the chain means no lubrication is needed. Under normal conditions of bicycle use, one lubrication with liquid oils is enough for 50. 150 km. Thicker graphite greases last much longer. When driving in the rain, grease is washed out much faster.

The chain must be cleaned before lubrication. Lubricating a dirty chain should only be done as a last resort. A simple way of cleaning is with a regular dry cloth or soaked in kerosene or gasoline. You can use a lubricant. wash WD-40 or AB-80 or more inexpensive Russian-made VT-100. Most help the chain is effectively cleaned with special brushes or scrapers, you can use an old toothbrush. The most efficient way to clean the chain with special cleaning machines.

Read more Caring for your bike chain

Seized bike chain links

It happens that while cycling, you regularly feel that the pedals are jumping or jerking every three or four turns. This suggests that there may be links in your bike chain that are tight and not bend well. Most often this happens with the link with which the chain was connected during installation. When using squeezing and pressing the pin, its end pulls out the near plate, thus two outer plates are clamped.

A simple and proven way to fix bike chain link binding. It is necessary to do this: shape the section of the chain with a clamped link in the shape of the letter Z. The non-working link should be in the diagonal part of the letter Z. Then you need to bend the two ends of the chain away from you and towards yourself, as if breaking and unscrewing the chain. This way you can open the pin plates a little and give the chain link better flexibility.

Read more Bicycle chain stuck

Bicycle chain slip

Sometimes bicycle pedals will slip, especially when a lot of force is applied to them. This is even more common when the cyclist steps on the pedals. To avoid chain slippage, the rider has to downshift and stay seated instead of standing in higher gears.

Very often the switch is blamed for slipping and jumping the chain, as well as spontaneous gear shifting, but the phenomena listed above are very rarely caused by its improper operation.

Chain overshoot causes one of two unrelated phenomena. direct overshoot and spontaneous gear changes. The main thing to solve the problem is to determine what exactly comes from the two cases.

Read more Bicycle chain slip

Single Gear Bike Chain Guard

One of the significant advantages of a bike with one gear (fixed gear and single speed) is the ability to install full chain protection. both from the bottom and from the top. Such protection allows an order of magnitude to reduce the amount of everything that causes accelerated wear of the chain. water, sand and dust that get into the chain when driving. Especially in this sense, sand is dangerous, which, getting inside the rollers, mixes with the lubricant and works like an abrasive.

There are factory options to protect the circuit, but they have several disadvantages:

Every single gear cyclist wants a lightweight, inexpensive chain guard that can be removed without tools in the field in one minute, costing a penny, etc.

Read more Single Gear Bike Chain Guard

articles on bike chain:

Block bike chain

Chainline chain

about the Chainline

Bicycle chain wear

After the brake pads, the chain is the most worn out part of the bike, as it is part of the drive. With long-term use, the chain stretches due to the appearance of backlash between the holes in the plates and the pins where they are pressed. Bicycle chain wear occurs for several reasons:

Chain misalignment with different gear options. 2. Loads arising in the links when the chain moves from one star to another when switching. 3. Since the chain works in the open state, dust, dirt and other objects falling into the links, due to friction, increase the wear of the chain.

On bicycles, single-row roller chains with a link length of 1/2 inch. 12.7 mm are used. Ideally, a new chain should have a length of 12.7 times the number of links in the chain. How to find out the state of chain wear in order to control the situation and change the chain in time, prolonging the life of the cassette?

How to determine wear on a bicycle chain

Take a section of the chain with the number of links in it. 20. Multiplying the number of links by the length of the standard link 12.7 mm, we get the size of the section of the new chain of 20 links, equal to 254 mm. We take a ruler and measure.

The photographs show that the distance between the extreme centers of the 20 links is approximately 254 mm.

In this photo, the distance of the 20 links is just over 255mm. The difference between the first and second case is 1.1 mm or 0.45%.

When to change the chain. indicators in percent

Numerical value

When measuring chain stretch using 20 links as an example. (the length of the new chain at 20 links is 254 mm).

Excessive wear of the chain, in addition to indistinct gear engagement, also contributes to accelerated wear of the cassette stars. To control this process, there are three approaches to using a chain on a bicycle.

Riding to the extreme limit of chain stretch (0.5%). Regular measurement and control of the chain size, especially after 1000 km of run and its timely replacement.

Circular replacement. Having three chains, you can change them sequentially one after another in a circle, after 500. 1000 km, without waiting for complete wear. This method is usually used when using a chain and cassette of the same price range.

Replacement frequency. Every 1000. 2000 km, simply install a new chain. The method still does not exclude regular control, but it significantly allows you to save the bicycle cassette.

To prolong the life of your bike’s drivetrain components, you need to regularly clean and lubricate the chain.

Also read on this topic:

Bicycle chain. The invention of the chain drive over a hundred years ago was one of the revolutionary steps in the development of the bicycle. With the help of the chain, it became possible to transfer the force from the pedals to the rear wheel of the bicycle, which made it possible to reduce the size of the wheels to.

Bicycle chain maintenance. The new chain is treated with grease. This is done to preserve the chain during storage. This lubricant will last until the first cleaning of the chain. There is no need to wash it out, as it works well and performs its functions much longer than liquid lubricants.

Scheme for preventive bicycle lubrication. Consider a preventive bike lubrication scheme. these are the points on the bike that are lubricated regularly after multiple rides. And also after hitting the bike in the rain or before a long ride.

How to avoid puncture. After each ride, pay attention to the condition of the bicycle wheels. A cursory inspection of the tires will allow you to find stuck objects that have not yet entered the inside, and although the pressure in the wheel is normal, then on the next trip this problem will come out.

Replacement of tires and tubes. Tire and tube replacement does not require a large set of tools. If you have disc brakes, then after opening the eccentric and unscrewing the nut, the wheel comes out of the fork without problems. often there are V-BRAKE rim brakes, where the pads are located.

How to find out what chain on a bicycle. Bicycle chain. Device, marking, width and rules for selecting a bicycle chain

We are launching a series of articles on bicycle chain.

First, consider their device and types, markings, as well as how to choose the right chain width and length.

The following articles will discuss the issues of chain wear, how to measure and reduce it, how to properly remove the bicycle chain (using a tool such as squeezing the chain and without it), as well as how and with what to wash and lubricate the bicycle chain (after active driving through mud and washing bike, as well as when preparing it for winter storage).

Bicycle chain. a transmission element that transfers the force of the cyclist’s legs to the rear wheel.

It allows you to convert a person’s muscular strength into energy of movement and transfers 95-98 percent of the efforts of the legs applied to the pedals.

Bicycle chain device and types

The chain is made up of links. Each link consists of two half-links: internal and external. The half-links are also called “chain pitch” and are fastened together with a special element. a pin, on which the roller is put on. The teeth of the sprockets cling to the roller.

All bike chains, except for Half-Link, consist of two types of links: internal and external.

All bicycle chains have the same full link size. one inch (25.4 mm) and therefore one half link at 1/2″ or 12.7 mm. Often the half-link is simply called “link”

This is due to the same tooth pitch on all sprockets. You can remove or add only the whole link, i.e. cycle lengths are multiples of an inch.

This does not only apply to Half-Link chains. They can change one link at a time, the length of which is 1/2″ (12.7 mm.), Which allows you to more accurately select the size of the chain. But we’ll talk about this below.

The widths of the chains are different and depend on its type and the number of stars in the cassette. The width of the bike chain is measured between the plates of the inner link.

There are several types of chains. 1. Chain for single-speed bicycles (Single-speed)

As the name implies, it stands on single-speed city bicycles without gear shifting, on children’s and teenage bicycles, as well as on bicycles with a planetary hub. These bikes have a single sprocket on the rear wheel and the gearshifts take place inside the rear hub.

Single speed bike chain

Chain on planetary hub

A single-speed chain, if properly used, practically does not wear out to complete “death” and “lives” as much as the bike itself. This is because the chain on a single speed bike is a straight line from the chainring to the rear sprocket and does not experience lateral bending stress as is the case with multi-speed bikes.

They are made of thicker and, accordingly, strong and rigid plates, subjected to thermal and chemical treatment to increase wear resistance.

Note that the teeth of the single speed sprockets grip the chain link to the full height of the roller and hold it more securely. The load on the roller is uniform and constant. This is one of the reasons why they practically do not stretch, unlike the multi-speed bicycle chain.

Single-speed chain width, measured as the distance between the plates of the inner link, 8.7 to 11.0 mm.

By the way, the pedaling efficiency on a straight chain is higher than on a skewed multi-speed chain. there is no energy loss to overcome the friction that occurs when it bends.

Multi-speed bike chain

The multi-speed bike chain is designed for bicycles with gear shifting. Differs from single-speed by the presence of a gap between the link plates. It allows the chain to bend sideways (see picture above). They are also usually smaller in width, as the cassette sprockets are thinner on shifting bikes than on single-speed models.

Note that the cogwheel and chainring teeth on multi-speed bikes do not grip the chain link to the full height of the roller, but approximately halfway. Their teeth are lower, as the chain jumps from one sprocket to another when shifting gears. Because of this, the load on the chain rollers is not as uniform as on the single speed models.

In the article “What are the gears (speeds) of a bicycle and how to change them” already mentioned the recommended and not recommended options for switching gears. They are caused by a strong skew of the chain, which leads to rapid wear not only of the chain itself, but also of the rear (on the cassette) and front (in the system) stars. Here are these options again:

The chain of a multi-speed bike is almost always skewed, which reduces pedaling efficiency and leads to wear of the transmission elements: chain, chainrings and chainrings.

Just like the previous type, they consist of internal and external links.

Lightweight bike chains.

They have hollow pins and perforated plates.

They are often 20-25 percent lighter than their standard counterparts, but more expensive and less durable. Used by cyclists struggling for every gram of excess weight. These are mainly racers.

Due to their design features, such bike chains stretch more and are generally not as strong as the types discussed above.

Half-link bike chains

Chains with one repeating link are called Halflink chains (in English Half-link, where half is half, link is a link).

The peculiarity here is that they do not have internal and external links, and all links are the same. In this case, the link length is 1/2″ (12.7 mm.). It is easier to adjust them to the desired length, because can be shortened one link at a time. However, operating experience shows that, due to the design features, they are more often torn and more stretched.

How to properly install the Half-link chain on a bike.

When replacing the Halflink chain, you need to remember the direction of its movement. the wide part of the link towards the steering wheel.

Bicycle chain locks

Chains from different manufacturers differ in the type of connection. There are chains with a connecting link, and there are without it. For example, bike chains from manufacturers such as Shimano and Campagnolo come without a link. SRAM and KMC, on the other hand, manufacture chains with special locking links (SRAM PowerLink, KMC MissingLink). With their help, it is much easier to install and remove from the bike.

Locks for single-speed and multi-speed chains differ in the type of blocking. In a multi-speed chain, the rivets should practically not protrude above the side plates. The locking link consists of two halves, each of which is a cheek with a pin pressed on one side. Such locks allow you to put on and remove the chain without a special device called chain squeezing.

What materials are bicycle chains made of?

Chain characteristics such as durability, weight, strength, corrosion resistance depend on:

  • material from which it is made,
  • surface heat and chemical treatment,
  • from the presence of a special coating or coating.

All chains are made from various steel grades.

Visually and roughly, the quality of the chain can be judged by its color. Chains of relatively poor quality have a yellowish tint. If the side plates are black, then it is blackened and blued metal, which is better, but, in general, the same low quality. Medium chains are white and shiny. these are nickel plated chains. The highest quality is matte gray.

Bicycle chain markings

The circuit marking contains all the data on its geometric parameters.

It usually contains 2-3 lines.

1/2″ x 3/32″. 116 links

Pin length 7.3 mm

What do the numbers in the chain marking mean:

  • 1/2″. Chain pitch. Half-inch 12.7mm. As mentioned above, it is the same for all bike chains.
  • 3/32 ”- Inside Width. This is the distance between the plates of the inner link. It is directly related to the thickness of the stars of the system and cassette. Naturally, if the stars are wide, then a thin chain will not sit on them.

Usually these dimensions are as follows:

1/8″ (3.18 mm) is the accepted standard for single speed, Freestyle, BMX and planetary hub chains. For example: “Tyazhmash”, “Ditton”.

3/16″ (4.76mm). Older single speed bike chain standard

3/32″ (2.38 mm). for cassettes with 6, 7, 8 stars. 6, 7, 8, 18, 21, 24 speeds.

11/128″ (2.18 mm). for cassettes with 9, 10 stars.

  • 116 Links. the number of links in the chain. The chain length is described in more detail in the article “How to correctly determine the length and tension of a bicycle chain”
  • Pinlength7,3mm. This is the outside width of the chain or pin length. It is related to the distances between the stars of the cassette and the system. If the chain is wider than this distance, an adjacent sprocket with a larger diameter will prevent the chain from sliding into place when shifting gears.
  • There is also such a parameter as “Tensile strength”. For example, 820 kgf. This means that to break the chain, you need to apply a force equivalent to 820 kg.

    For a quick conversion of fractional or decimal fractions of an inch to mm, you can use the corresponding tables here.

    If the chain or lock is labeled 8S, 9S, 10S, 11S. means this chain is designed for 8, 9, 10 or 11 speeds.

    Bicycle chain width

    Modern multi-speed bicycles have a different number of gears, depending on the number of stars both in the front in the system (sprockets) and in the rear in the cassette (driven sprockets). The more stars in the cassette, the shorter the distance between them and the smaller the width of the front and rear derailleur frames. To determine the required chain width, you need to know the number of sprockets on the cassette.

    The width of the multi-speed chains depends on the number of stars in the cassette and is shown in the table:

    How to choose the right length of the bicycle chain (how many links there should be) for a single-speed bike or for a model with gear shifting is described in the article “How to determine the correct length of a bicycle chain”.

    How to choose the right bike chain?

    First of all, look at the markings on the chain on the bike and look for a similar.

    Chain markings from popular manufacturers are shown in the picture in the table below. Campagnolo chains have an explicit number of gears in the name.

    Manufacturers define the quality of their chains by marking them with letters and numbers. The higher the number in the label, the better the quality. KMS chains are made in different colors. the best ones are painted gold.

    In recent years, Shimano has produced the following types of chains:

    • Super narrow HG, designed to fit on bikes with 9-11 cassettes,
    • HG (Narrow HG) on old cassettes for 6-8 gears
    • IG (Narrow IG) designed for 8 and 7 star cassettes.
    • Single speed bike chains

    Sometimes the cheapest bikes equipped with Shimano Tourney ratchets also have UG-30 or UG-50 5-7 chainrings. The digital index in the marking, for example IG-51, indicates the class of the chain: the higher the number, the better and more expensive it is.

    The SRAM chain digital index encodes the gear count as the first digit and the chain class as the second and third digits. For example, the PC-991 is designed for a 9 star cassette. 91. chain class.

    SRAM produces chains for 11,10, 9, 5-8 gears.

    Only use single speed bike chains. Do not try to put them on a multi-speed bike, and it will not fit.

    You cannot put a chain designed for a smaller number of stars on a cassette with a large number of stars. Wider doesn’t fit between the stars.

    7-star bike chains can be used on 7-, 6-star cassettes, but not on single speed bikes.

    Designed for 8 stars can be put on 8 and 7 star cassettes.

    A 9-star chain can only be put on the same cassette. 9 stars.

    Designed for 10 and 11 stars in a cassette can only be placed on 10 and 11 star cassettes, respectively. Campagnolo and Shimano 10-star bike chains are incompatible.

    KMC and Mavic 10-speed bike chains are compatible with both standards.

    Naturally, the financial aspect should also be taken into account. Branded products are not cheap. However, modern Chinese bicycle chains, much cheaper, do not always differ greatly in quality from branded products. Sometimes it is cheaper to change several Chinese chains than to overpay for a branded one, especially since most of them are produced anyway in China.

    Most popular bicycle chain manufacturers

    Shimano is a famous Japanese company. one of the leaders in the production of bicycle parts.

    Compagnolo is an Italian manufacturer of quality, but not cheap, chains and other bicycle parts.

    SRAM is an American company.

    KMC is a Taiwanese company that for over 30 years has been producing chains that are not inferior in quality to Shimano and SRAM but at more affordable prices.

    Wipperman is a German company. As everything German is famous for quality and reliability, but also high cost.

    READ  How to Shift Sprockets on a Bicycle

    I would also like to say about the domestic manufacturer “Tyazhmash”. Its products are intended for single-speed bicycles and are analogous to old Soviet chains (with the emblem “Made in USSR”). Just like 30-40 years ago, they are made of high-carbon steel, which significantly reduces the wear of rubbing parts. They have high strength, withstanding a breaking force of 1100 kg. They are not afraid of jerky loads and impacts when falling. They are practically eternal, despite the fact that they are much cheaper than their foreign counterparts, even Chinese.

    Video How bicycle chains are made

    What else can you read about bike chains:

    • How to properly wash and lubricate a bicycle chain
    • Bicycle chain worn. What is it and how to measure bike chain wear.
    • How to reduce wear on your bike chain
    • How to correctly determine the length and tension of a bicycle chain
    • How to remove a chain from a bike. Forcing the chain. what is it and how to use it.
    • How to protect pants, skirts, coats and raincoats from getting caught in the bike chain
    • How to put a loose chain on a bicycle
    • Bike chain and sprocket protection. Rockring.

    Cycling Science. how bicycles work and the physics behind them

    Chris Woodford. Last modified: August 18, 2019.

    If you had to pick the best car of all time, what would you say? If we were talking about machines that helped spread knowledge and educate people, you would probably choose the print press. If we were talking about inventions that allow people to farm the land and feed their families, you could pay for a plow or a tractor. If you think transportation is really important, you can choose a car engine, a steam engine, or an airplane jet engine, but for its purity and simplicity, I think I would choose a bicycle. This is a perfect example of how pure, scientific ideas can be used in highly practical technology. Let’s take a look at the science of cycles. and just what makes them so great!

    On

    What’s so great about bicycles?

    Diagram: Comparison of the efficiency of everyday machines (approximate, indicative values, expressed as a percentage). Except for the bicycle, new technologies (e.g. diesel engines) are generally more efficient than older technologies (e.g. steam engines).

    What’s so great is that they get you quickly to places without consuming fossil fuels like gasoline, diesel and coal, or creating pollution. They do this because they convert the energy our body produces very efficiently.. in kinetic energy (energy of motion). In fact, as you can see from the diagram opposite, these are the most efficient vehicles ever developed by humans. By using the strength of your muscles in a surprisingly efficient way, a bike can convert about 90 percent of the energy you give to the pedals into kinetic energy that propels you forward. Compare that to a car engine, which only converts about a quarter of the energy from gasoline to usable power. and at the same time produces all kinds of pollution.

    Think of it this way: if you are driving wherever you go, you are carrying a piece of metal that probably weighs 10 to 20 times more than you (a typical compact car weighs over 1000 kg or 2000 pounds). What a waste of energy! Ride your bike and the metal you need to move with you is more than 6-9 kg (14-20 lbs) for a light racing bike or 11-20 kg (25-45 lbs) for a mountain bike or tourer, which is % of your own weight.

    Higher efficiency means you can continue cycling on the same amount of fuel, which is another great benefit of bicycles, although difficult to quantify. According to the classic book Cycling Science by David Gordon Wilson et al. km / h (20 mph) could travel more than 574 kilometers per liter (1350 miles per US gallon) if high energy liquid food existed. gasoline “. Whatever one may say, the bikes are simply amazing!

    Where does your energy go?

    We have described a bicycle as a machine, and scientifically, this is exactly what it is: a device that can increase force (making it easier to go uphill) or speed. It is also a machine in the sense that it converts energy from one form (everything, what you ate) to another (the kinetic energy of your body and bike as they ride). You’ve probably heard of a law of physics called conservation of energy, which says that you can’t create energy out of thin air or make it disappear without a trace: anything you can do. is to convert it from one to another. So where does the energy do you bike ride? In scientific terms, we say that it means “doing work.” but what does this mean in practice?

    Riding a bike can sometimes feel like hard work, especially if you are riding uphill. In the science of cycling, “hard work” means that you sometimes have to use quite a lot of force to pedal at any distance. If you are going uphill, you need to work against gravity. If you walk fast, you are working against the force of air resistance (drag) pressing on your body. Sometimes there are irregularities; on the road you need to drive; it requires more strength and uses energy too (bumps reduce your kinetic energy, reducing your speed).

    But whether you are going uphill or downhill, fast or slow, on a flat road or bumpy, there is other work that always you just need to make your wheels spin. When the wheel rests on the ground, supporting the load of, for example, a cyclist, the tire wrapped around it is crushed in some places and bulging in others. As you go around the circle, different parts of the tire contract and bulge in turn, and the rubber they are made of pulls and pushes in all directions. Squeezing the tire repeatedly in this way is a bit like kneading a loaf: it takes energy. and this energy is known as rolling resistance. The greater the load on the tire (the heavier or more you carry), the higher the rolling resistance.

    For a racing bike that rides fast, about 80 percent of the cyclist’s work is spent overcoming air resistance, and the rest. to combat rolling resistance; much slower for the mountain biker on rough terrain, 80 percent of their energy is spent on rolling resistance and only 20 percent is lost on dragging.

    Chart: Slow mountain bikes spend most of their energy due to rolling resistance; faster racing bikes spend more due to air resistance.

    How much energy are we really talking about? In the Tour de France, according to the fascinating Analysis by Training Peaks, the best riders average about 300-400 watts of power, which is roughly 3-4 old-fashioned 100-watt bulbs, or about 15 percent of the power required to run an electric teapot. In comparison, you can generate about 10 watts with a handheld power generator, although you cannot use one for very long without getting tired, what does that tell us? It is much easier to generate large amounts of energy over a long period of time using large leg muscles than using arms and hands. This is why bicycles are so smart: they use the most powerful muscles in our body.

    How the bike frame works

    If an adult weighs 60–80 kg (130–180 lb), the bike frame must be stiff enough if it does not snap into place or buckle up the moment the rider climbs on board. Ordinary bicycles have frames made from durable, inexpensive tubular steel (literally, hollow steel tubes containing nothing but air) or lighter alloys based on steel or aluminum. Racing bikes are more likely to be made from composites with carbon fiber. which are more expensive, but stronger, lighter and resistant to rust.

    You might think that the aluminum tube bike frame would be much weaker. than one made of steel, but only if the tubes are the same size. In practice, each bike must be strong enough to support the rider’s weight. and the stresses that can arise from different types of handling. Thus, larger diameter tubes and / or thicker walls will be used for an aluminum bike. than a steel tube bicycle.

    The frame doesn’t just support you: its triangular shape (often two triangles join together to form a diamond) is carefully designed to distribute your weight. Although the saddle is positioned much closer to the back of the handlebar, you lean forward to hold onto the handlebar. Corner bars in the frame are designed to more or less divide your weight evenly between the front and rear wheels. If you think about it, it really matters. If all of your weight has moved over the back of the wheel and you tried to pedal uphill, you will fall backwards; similarly, if there was too much weight on the front wheel, your heels would fall off every time you climbed down the mountain!

    The frames are not designed to be 100% rigid; this will make the ride much less comfortable. Most bike frames flex and flex a little, so they absorb some of the shock. ride, although other factors (such as saddle and tires) have a much larger impact on ride comfort. It is also worth remembering that the human body itself is a remarkably efficient suspension system; When mountain biking on rough terrain, you will very quickly learn how your arms can act as shock absorbers! Indeed, it can be very instructive to look at the body as an extension (or addition) to the base bike frame, balanced on it.

    How bicycle wheels work

    If you’ve read our article on How Wheels Work, you know what the wheel is and the axle it rotates. this is an example of what scientists call a simple machine: it multiplies force or speed depending on how you turn it. Bicycle wheels are usually more than 50 cm (20 inches) in diameter, which is taller than most car wheels. The taller the wheels, the more they multiply their speed as you turn them on the axles. This is why racing bikes have the tallest wheels (usually around 70cm or 27.5 inches in diameter).

    The wheels end up supporting all your weight, but in a very interesting way. If the wheels were solid, they would be squeezed (squeezed) as you sat in the seat and pushed back to support you. However, the wheels on most motorcycles actually consist of a solid hub, a thin rim and about 24 high tension spokes. Bicycles have spoked wheels rather than all-metal wheels to make them strong and lightweight and also reduce drag. (some riders use flat “paddle” or oval spokes instead of traditional rounded spokes in an attempt to reduce drag even further).

    It is not only the number of spokes that are important, but also the way they are connected between the rim and its hub. Like the strands of a spider web or the hanging ropes of a suspension bridge, a bicycle wheel is under tension. Spokes are tight. Since the spokes intersect with the rim on the opposite side of the hub, the wheel is not as flat and flimsy as it sounds, but it is actually a remarkably strong three-dimensional structure. When you get on your bike, your weight is pressing on the hubs, which stretch some spokes slightly more and others. slightly less. If you weigh 60 kg (130 lb), you will have to push about 30 kg (130 lb). down on each wheel (not counting the bike’s own weight), and the spokes. this is what prevents wheel warping.

    Since each wheel has a couple dozen spokes, you might think that each spoke should only support a fraction of the total weight. maybe only 1-2 kg (2.2-4.4 lb) if there are 30 spokes, which can be done easily. In fact, the spokes carry the load unevenly: several spokes that are near the vertical carry much more load than others. (There is still debate among cyclists about how the load is actually perceived, and whether it is better to imagine a bicycle. hanging on the spokes at the top or pressing on the spokes at the bottom.) How the wheel spins. other spokes move closer to the vertical and begin to carry more of the load. The load on each spoke rises and falls sharply with each revolution of the wheel, so eventually, after many thousands of repeated stress and strain cycles during which each spoke quickly stretches and relaxes, one of the spoke (or its connection to the wheel or hub) can fail due to metal fatigue. This instantly and dramatically increases the load on the remaining spokes, increasing the likelihood of their failure and causing a kind of domino effect, due to which the wheel sags.

    How bike gears work

    A typical bicycle has three to thirty different gears. toothed wheels are linked by a chain, making the car faster (in a straight line) or easier to pedal (uphill). Larger wheels also help to drive faster in a straight line, but this is a big drawback when it comes to hills. This is one of the reasons why mountain bikes and BMX bikes have smaller wheels than racing bikes. Not only do the gears on the bike help increase pedaling power when you go uphill: the pedals are attached to the main gear by a pair of cranks: two short levers that also increase power. that you can attach with your feet.

    Gears can significantly affect your speed. On a typical racing bike, for example, the gear ratio (the number of teeth on the pedal wheel divided by the number of teeth on the back of the wheel) can be 5: 1, so one pedaling will set you in motion about 10 meters down the street. you can only move your legs so fast, you can see that the gears effectively make you go faster, helping you to move further with each pedaling.

    Read more in our main gear article.

    Image: Bicycles Before Gears: Early bicycles like these (known as “Penny Fartings” or “Tall Wheels”) had a huge front wheel that effectively increased your speed and allowed you to go very fast in a straight line. There were no gears: the front wheel spun once, when the legs were pushed up and down on the cranks (pedals). It was quite difficult to go downhill (if you did not take your foot off the cranks), but uphill. almost impossible! Detail of the original 1887 painting by Henry “High” by Sandham, courtesy of the Library of Congress.

    How bicycle brakes work

    No matter how fast you move, there comes a time when you have to stop. The brakes on a bicycle work using friction (the force of friction between two objects that slide past each other as they touch). Although some bikes now have disc brakes (similar to those used in cars) with separate brake discs attached to the wheels, many still use traditional caliper and shoe rim brakes.

    When the brake levers are pressed, a pair of rubber shoes (sometimes called blocks) are pressed against a metal inner rim at the front and rear of the wheel. As the brake pads rub firmly against the wheels, they turn. your kinetic energy (the energy you have because you walk together) into heat, which slows you down. Read more in our main article on brakes.

    Rim brakes versus disc brakes

    Caliper-driven rim brakes apply pressure to the outer edge of the wheel, where it rotates fastest, but with the least amount of force. This means that they require relatively little braking force to slow down. wheels (so they can be small and light), although you will still have to press hard and you will have to apply that force longer to get yourself and your bike to stop. One of the big disadvantages of rim brakes is that they are completely exposed to rain from the top and sides and splash from the wheels; If the brake pads and wheels are wet and dirty, there is significant lubrication, the friction between the brakes and the wheels can be up to ten times less than in dry conditions (according to David Gordon Wilson Cycling Science), and your braking distance will be much longer.

    work closer to the hub, so they need to apply more braking force, which can put stress on the forks and spokes, and are both heavier (which can affect the bike’s handling) and mechanically more difficult, but they tend to be more effective in wet weather and mud.

    Browse online bicycle forums and you will find a wide variety of opinions on which type of brakes are best for different types of bikes, terrain and weather conditions. Some people like disc brakes because they make the bike better; others love rim brakes because they are so simple and straightforward.

    Figure: Disc brakes (simplified). When you press the brake lever, the cable or hydraulic line (yellow) acts on the calipers (blue), which press the brake pads against a disc called the rotor (red) attached to the wheel. Since the calipers are attached to one of the forks (gray) and the braking force must pass through the spokes (black) to stop the wheel, disc brakes put much more stress on the forks and spokes than rim brakes.

    How bicycle tires work

    The friction between rubber tires also works to your advantage and the road you ride on: it gives you grip that makes your bike easier to control, especially on wet days.

    Like car tires, bicycle tires are not made of solid rubber: they have an inner tube filled with compressed (compressed) air. This means that they are lighter and more resilient, which provides a more comfortable ride. Pneumatic tires, as they are called, were patented in 1888 by Scottish inventor John Boyd Dunlop.

    Different types of bicycles have different tires. Racing bikes have narrow, smooth tires designed for top speed. (although their “thin” profile gives them higher rolling resistance), and mountain bikes have thicker and stronger tires with deeper tread, more contact with the road, and better grip (although, being wider, they create more air resistance).

    Why clothes matter

    Friction. great thing about brakes and tires, but it’s less welcome in another form: like air resistance that slows you down. The faster you go, the more resistance becomes a problem. At high speeds, racing a bike is like swimming through water: you can actually feel the air pushing you and (as we have seen) you spend about 80 percent of your energy overcoming resistance. Now the bike is nice to be thin and streamlined, but the cyclist’s body is much thicker and wider. cyclist creates twice as much drag as their bike. This is why cyclists wear tight neoprene clothing and pointed helmets to optimize and minimize energy loss.

    You might not have noticed, but the handlebars of the bike. it is leverage. Likewise, the longer handlebars provide a lever to make the front wheel turn easier, but the wider you spread your arms, the more air resistance you create. This is why racing bikes have two sets of handlebars to give the rider the best, most streamlined pose. There are the usual, external steering wheel for steering and an internal one for holding Straight. The use of these inner handlebars forces the cyclist’s arms to be much tighter and more streamlined. Most cyclists now wear helmets for both safety and security reasons. aerodynamics.

    Bicycles. this is physics in action

    Let’s summarize briefly with a simple diagram that shows all of these different aspects of the science of cycles in action:

    .Cassette Buying Guide

    | Wiggle Cycle Guides

    Bicycle cassette. This is a group of sprockets located on the rear hub of your bike that fit into slots on the free hub body and are held securely in place by a threaded cassette retaining ring. Find out everything you need to know in our Cassette Buying Guide.

    What is a bicycle cassette?

    Bicycle cassette. This is a group of sprockets located on the rear hub of your bike that fit into a slot in the free hub housing and are held securely in place by a threaded cassette retaining ring. A typical cassette may have anywhere from five to 13 sprockets, although most modern bicycle transmissions use 9, 10 or 11. Recently, 12 sprocket cassettes are more commonly used in high performance groupsets such as SRAM AXS, SRAM Eagle and the latest Campagnolo Record and Super Record drivetrains.

    What do cassettes do?

    provide a range of gear options for your chain. Gear ratio range allows you to vary the cadence (rpm) for optimum efficiency.

    Launch your chain on one of the big sprockets. with a large number of teeth. will provide “easier” transmission. This reduces the torque required to turn the rear wheel. ideal for climbing hills. but that also means you need to do more pedal rotations to cover the same amount of ground.

    Using a chain on a sprocket with fewer teeth will maximize torque, which means you need to depress the pedals less often but harder. This will allow you to continue adding power through the drivetrain without “spinning” (pedaling at an uncomfortably high RPM) on a downhill or sprint.

    Thus, a good gear range on your cassette allows you to select the optimum torque level based on pedal speed to transfer your total effort to the wheels in the most efficient way.

    How to choose a bike cassette?

    At first glance, the choice of cassettes can seem overwhelming. There are different combinations of stars for different tastes, terrain and disciplines. For example, triathlon bike cassettes differ significantly from mountain bike cassettes.

    The main thing to consider. this is the spread of gears on the cassette. The smaller the difference between the largest and smallest number of teeth, the smaller the jump between the gears; facilitating smoother gear shifting. However, having closer sprockets usually reduces the size of the largest sprocket on the cassette, leaving you with a gear ratio that may be less suitable for climbing and rough terrain.

    Road bike cassettes

    The largest sprocket on a road bike cassette is usually smaller than mountain bikes, which results in less gear transitions Most road bike cassettes have the smallest sprocket with 11, 12 or 13 teeth, and the largest sprocket has 21 to 32 teeth.

    READ  Bike 26 Wheels How Tall

    The vast majority of road bikes come with a 12-25 cassette that fits most bike trails when combined with a compact or standard chain.

    If you are riding a lot of hills or struggling with climbing hills, a cassette with a lower gear ratio for the largest sprocket (27 teeth or more) is better. This will allow for longer rotation rather than chopping.

    When choosing a road bike cassette, make sure your derailleur can accommodate the largest sprocket. A rear derailleur with a longer cage is necessary for larger sprockets because more chain is required to bypass more teeth. Use a small derailleur in a cage with a large sprocket cassette and you risk overstretching the derailleur. You can also see the chain slack when using the smaller sprockets on the cassette.

    For climbing hills and mountainous terrain, we recommend a road cassette such as the 11-32T SRAM Red 22 XG1190 11 Speed ​​Cassette (A2) or the 11-34T Shimano Ultegra R8000 11 Speed ​​Cassette.

    For flatter terrain and time trials, we recommend a road cassette such as the 11-25T SRAM Red 22 XG1190 11 Speed ​​Cassette (A2) or the 11-28T Shimano Ultegra R8000 11 Speed ​​Cassette.

    Mountain Bike Cassettes

    mountain bikes have a greater range of sprocket sizes due to the wide variety of grades encountered off-road. Riding down a flat forest trail and then steep technical climbs requires some serious jerk; mountain bike cassette sprockets require large clearances to accommodate, which means sacrificing the smooth, tight shifting that road versions have.

    know, which, chain, bicycle

    The 11, 12, and now 13 speed cassettes were a significant step forward in mountain bike development. sprockets means that the largest gear can have a huge number of teeth, which provides an easier transmission for impossible climbs while reducing the amount of jump between each gear. This evolution has allowed mountain bikers to ditch their triple chains, including the little jailbreak star, often ridiculed as the “grandma’s ring.” Instead, mountain bikers can use double or even single chains, reducing weight, clutter, and the frequency of mechanical problems.

    10-Speed ​​Mountain Bike Cassettes are now available with sprockets such as 11-32, 11-34, 11-36 and 11-42. Wiggle’s Selling 10 Speed ​​Mountain Bike Cassette. this is a Shimano HG81 SLX 10 speed cassette.

    Meanwhile, 11-speed mountain bike cassettes have an even wider sprocket range, allowing for even greater gear ratio choices such as 11-40, 10-42 and even 11-46. Best-selling 11-speed mountain bike cassette on Wiggle. Shimano Deore XT M8000 Cassette (11-46).

    A 12-speed transmission is also available for MTBs. Shimano 12 Speed ​​Gear Ratios: 10-45 & 10-51.

    If you are considering upgrading to a 12-speed hub, chances are you will need to change the hub. Shimano 12-speed cassettes can only be used with a Microspline Freehub body, while SRAM 12-speed cassettes can only be used with an SC Freehub body.

    Buy Mountain Bike Cassettes on Wiggle

    Compatibility of various transmissions

    In some cases, it is possible to use a cassette from a different manufacturer than the rest of the transmission.

    SRAM and Shimano are interchangeable on road or mountain bikes because the sprocket spacing is the same.

    However, Campagnolo road cassettes only work with Campagnolo transmissions.

    How do I install a new cassette?

    Once you find the perfect cassette for your bike, you’ll be glad to know that the installation process is relatively easy.

    You will need a chain whip, a dedicated Shimano or Campagnolo removal tool (remember Shimano and SRAM are cross compatible), an adjustable wrench, and possibly a few gloves.

    After you have removed the rear wheel, secure the cassette with a whip chain, attach the removal tool, and remove the retaining ring with an adjustable wrench. Slide the old cassette and replace, then reinstall the retaining ring using a whip chain and wrench.

    Choosing the best cassette for turbo simulators

    Some riders prefer to use a special cassette and chain when using a turbo trainer. There are several reasons for this.

    First, if you are using a wheeled trainer, you probably have a dedicated training tire. To avoid changing tires every time you head out to practice indoors, many riders have a training wheel. And to save time when changing cassette, the dedicated training cassette also saves time with wrenches.

    If you choose this setting, then use your worn out street chain on a relatively worn out training cassette. not a good idea or it will start to gnash its teeth.To make things easier, many riders opt for a dedicated tire, wheel, cassette and chain just for the turbo trainer.

    And since you don’t have to worry about weight as much, cheaper models are available.

    Those with direct drive machines often need a spare cassette that is compatible with their machine.

    In any case, you may want to use a cassette that will best facilitate cadence training, as large climbing cassettes are not so necessary. For this reason, thicker cassettes such as 11-24 or 11-25 are usually preferred.

    The Complete Guide to Bike Gears and Shifters for Beginners

    Changing from a single speed bike to a bike with multiple gears. big step. Not only do you need to learn how to change gears, you also need to learn which gears to use and figure out when to change to which gear.!

    I recalled this when I received a request for help.

    Well, that’s understandable! Here’s The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Bike Gears and Shifting. which explains everything a beginner needs to know about using a multi-speed bike.

    Introduction to mechanisms and terminology

    Since bicycles came with more than one sprocket front and rear, they were commonly referred to as the number of gear combinations offered. For example, a road bike with two chainrings and a five-speed freewheel at the rear was “10-speed” because the five rear sprockets could be matched to either of the two chainrings. (2 x 5 = 10, that’s simple math.)

    But once you learn more about transmission, you will see that this is a really confusing way of describing things. So, first, let’s understand the terminology:

    The front sprockets attached to the connecting rod are called sprockets. If you have two stars (large and small), this setting is called “double”. If you have three stars (large, medium and small), you have a triple setup.

    The gear cluster on the rear wheel is an overrunning clutch or cassette. If your bike has five gears in the rear, it probably has a freewheel; if your bike has eight to ten gears in the rear, it has a cassette. Each ring on the cassette is referred to as a cog. (There is no difference in this article between a freewheel and a cassette, so don’t worry about that.)

    This article will take a modern mountain bike with three chainrings and an 8-speed cassette as an example. Some people would call it 24-speed, but most avid cyclists and bike mechanics just call it 8-speed. ”

    Learn How Shifters and Gear Shifters Work

    Having gears won’t do you any good if you don’t understand how shifting works, so take a look at this.

    Gear shifting begins with the gear shift levers. which are usually located on the handlebars next to the grips. When you move one of the shift levers, the cable pulls or releases one of the shifters. which moves the chain from one gear to another.

    In typical installations, the left derailleur is matched to the front derailleur (so it switches between sprockets.) The right derailleur is matched to the rear derailleur (which switches between teeth on the cassette).

    Let’s first talk about the shift levers (“shifters”).

    Each switch will have numbers indicating which gear you are in (this is a gear indicator). In this example, our left radio button shows numbers 1-3 and our right radio button shows 1-8.

    The lower the number, the easier the transmission will be. So if both gear indicators read “1”, then you are in the lightest gear the bike offers. If the left derailleur is in position 3 and the right. in position 8, you are in the heaviest gear on the bike.

    On the left switch, you will see numbers indicating which gear you are in. 1, 2 or 3. Number 1 corresponds to the small ring, 2. to the middle ring, and 3. to the large ring. For chainrings, larger sprockets equal a stiffer gear.

    On the right switch, all numbers are 1-8. Number 1 corresponds to the largest screw and number 8 corresponds to the smallest screw When it comes to cassette, larger prongs equal lighter gear.

    Let’s not forget about switches.

    This is the easy part because as soon as you shift the levers, the shift cable will transmit your instructions to the derailleur.

    When shifting gears, the derailleur cage (through which the chain runs) moves to either side. Let’s say you’ve shifted the front derailleur to a lighter gear. The front derailleur slides to the left, thereby “knocking” the chain off the chain to the smaller sprocket. As long as the derailleurs are set correctly, they will do their job exactly the same, and you can focus on shifting!

    Switch types

    Before getting into gear shifting and gear selection, let’s take a quick look at the different types of derailleurs. (We will focus on three types that are most common on modern bicycles.)

    First, the shift lever. With this type of shifting, there are no levers. You shift by turning part of the handle forward or backward, depending on whether you want a harder or lighter gear, it is very easy to master, which is why it is sold on most mountain bikes in the 100- 300 price range.

    Note: Images in this article depict gear levers.

    Second, trigger shifters. They are also very common on mountain bikes, but also on road bikes in a different form. (They are commonly called Shimano RapidFire or Shimano STI.)

    In this case, you will have two “triggers” next to each handlebar. There are two triggers on each switch because the triggers only move in one direction.

    On the left trigger switch, the small trigger switches to a smaller star for easier switching. Larger gear lever will shift to a larger sprocket for a firmer gear.

    On the right trigger switch, the small trigger shifts to a smaller gear, giving you a stiffer gear. A larger gear lever shifts to a larger gear for easier transmission.

    (Trigger shifters sound complicated, but they are not a problem with a little practice with them.)

    Basic principles of gear selection

    You are now familiar with the basics of how shifters and derailleurs work, so let’s move on to gear selection.

    The most important thing here is that there is no such thing as “correct” transmission. The choice of equipment depends on many factors, not least comfort. In fact, transmission is personal preference. so you and your friends are likely to be driving in different gears even if you are driving at the same speed on the same road.

    However, one thing to consider. this is your cadence. Cadence. it is another word for pedaling speed (basically the speed at which the legs rotate in a circle). It is measured in revolutions per minute, or “revolutions per minute”.

    Cadence is important because it directly affects your comfort level. Slow pedaling usually means you are using a gear that is too stiff and your leg muscles tire quickly. It can also hurt your knees. A good rule of thumb. Maintain a sufficiently high cadence, typically in the 75-90 rpm range. (Here’s how to count your cadence.)

    But aside from comfort and cadence, the middle of your gear range. good starting point. Let’s say you start out on a flat road at an easy to moderate pace (on a “24-speed” bike). You should be in the middle ring (2) in the front and about the fourth largest gear train (4) in the back.

    (A good moderate transmission is shown on the left.)

    To make small changes to your speed, you will need to shift the rear derailleur. If you need to move a little faster, switch to a smaller gear (5, 6, or 7.) If you want to slow down, switch to a larger gear (1, 2 or 3.)

    But if you come to a steep hill or long descent, you will need to make a big jump in your gear. So instead of flipping the rear derailleur, you flip the front derailleur first.

    Example of correct switching

    Here’s an example of how you can shift gears while cycling: At the beginning, you are in the middle ring and one of the middle gears. Then…

    Let’s say you are climbing a steep hill. You will switch to the small chainring (1). If this transfer is not easy enough. then. you switch the rear derailleur to the large gear (1, 2, or 3.)

    Once you reach the top of the hill and the road is level, you can go forward and switch the rear derailleur back to a slightly smaller gear by going to 3 or 4. Then it’s time to switch the front derailleur back to the middle ring. (2.) If the road remains level, you can stay in that gear or switch the rear derailleur again by shifting to 5 or even 6.

    But then, when you go downhill, you need to change gears a lot, so you move the front derailleur to the big ring (3.) That should give you a good gear. If you need a stiffer gear, you can switch the rear derailleur to the smallest gears, 7 and 8.

    Repeat this process as the road changes.

    Just remember: Flipping the left switch makes a big difference. and toggling the right switch. This is a fine tuning of the gear selection You will flip the right derailleur (for the rear derailleur) more often than the left derailleur.

    What to look for

    If you followed the process of gradual gear shifting. you may have noticed that we only used about 12 different gear combinations, while the bike actually offers 24. Why?

    Well, your “24-speed” bike is not designed to use all gears. Some gear combinations are very rough and sometimes dangerous.

    You see, you want your chain to move in a straight line. to keep the bike running smoothly. You do this by using certain combinations of gears and avoiding others. (A straight catenary is shown in the previous section.)

    For example, if you are using a small chainring, you will want to use the four largest chainrings, numbers 1-4. When you are on the middle chainring you can use most of the gears, but I would stick with the numbers 1-6. When using the large chainring, you should use the smallest gears, 6-8, to keep your chain straight.

    If you use extreme gear combinations such as the smallest ring and the smallest cog or the large ring and the largest cog, this is called a cross-chain. Because of this, the chain is at too great an angle, which leads to its rapid wear. (You will usually hear some kind of rattling noise coming from the chain if you do.) This also increases the chances of the chain falling off the bike.

    When to go (some more pointers)

    To shift smoothly and easily and maintain a consistent comfortable cadence, you need to anticipate your shifts, similar to the example above.

    If you are approaching a steep hill climb, you need to shift to a lighter gear. before you need. The steeper the hill, the more gears you will want to downshift.

    If you wait until you can barely pedal before downshifting, you will have a tough hill climb!

    Likewise, if you are driving downhill, gradually increase your speed as your speed increases. Don’t wait for your feet to spin like crazy!

    One more thing to expect. it is starting after stopping. If you are in a big gear, you need to downshift when you slow down and stop. If you stop while still in a big gear it will be very difficult to start again!

    But if you anticipate this and downshift before stopping, you can easily get started.

    Technique for correct gear shifting

    Switching. there is more to it than just turning the levers. Shifting requires precise coordination between the arms and legs; the better you coordinate your movements, the smoother your shifts will be.

    The basic principle here is that you have to pedal for the bike to move. The chain must move forward for the derailleurs to do their job, so always depress the pedal when shifting.

    But there is a little trick. For smooth gear shifting, pedal lightly and gently. This is called “soft pedaling”.

    If you pedal too hard, the force of your foot will override the switches, and there will be no shifting, just a grinding sound! (Think about it, your legs are big and muscular, and the derailleurs and chain are just small pieces of metal.)

    So here’s how to change:

    When you move the gear lever by hand, simultaneously release the pedaling one step. You should hear and feel the smooth shifting. Then you can resume pedaling with full force. Don’t worry, you only relax for a second, so you won’t lose speed just by soft pedaling.

    That’s all. Most people who are having trouble shifting gears just have to try to pedal gently. It is a common misconception that you have to pedal hard and fast to change gears; correct gear changes actually require the opposite!

    Just go and practice.

    Getting Started (Practice Improves)

    Now that you know what to do, it’s time to do it. But it doesn’t hurt to do a few training runs first.!

    The first thing I would do. it is manually sorted out the gears. Simply support the bike so that the rear wheel is not touching the ground (if you don’t have a repair stand, just hang the bike from a tree branch or something), and then shift gears while pedaling with your other hand.

    Once you see it in action, head to the empty parking lot and ride in a circle. You just want to “feel” the switch so that it becomes second nature. You want to be able to ride and pay attention to your surroundings without having to look at switches.

    Don’t be discouraged if it takes time, we were all there at one point! It’s not easy to go from one speed to 24 or 27!

    (Think of it like driving a car with a manual transmission. Most people don’t know how to do this!)

    Levi Bloom. seasoned endurance athlete who has trained and competed for over 17 years Former Category 1 (Professional Regional Track) road and mountain bike rider, now Cycling Coach (US Cycling Certification Level 3) and Trainer Sports Nutrition (Precision Nutrition Certification Level 1).

    How long should the bike chain be?

    I think many who change chains on their own bicycle ask themselves the question: “What should be the correct chain length?”, Since new chains come with a margin of length. And, of course, the simplest thing we can do is count the number of links on the old chain and leave the same number on the new one.

    But what if you are not only installing a new chain, but also changing the cassette or installing a system with a different number of stars? The chain length will change, and the old chain is no longer a helper. Then you should use these 3 methods for calculating the length of the bicycle chain, and no calculator is required for this:

    Mountain & Hybrid Chain Length

    1 way. Place the chain on the largest chainrings on your bike (large front and large rear), pull the rear derailleur foot as far as possible so that it moves forward. this is your optimal chain length. You should get it so that the body of the switch lies almost on the same straight line with the foot (this is the limit, further. breakage). It will be correct to set the foot at a slight angle, as in

    Method 2. The same as the first method, only we throw the chain onto the largest sprockets without using the rear derailleur and remember the desired chain length, after which we add 2 more links to this length and get the ideal length. In theory, you should get about the same as in method number 1.

    Shimano Bike Chain Length Method

    Method 3. Place the chain on the smallest sprocket in the back and the largest in the front, and adjust the chain length so that the derailleur foot is perpendicular to the ground, i.e. the roller axes of the switch were under each other.

    With the red line, I showed the perpendicularity of the switch rollers relative to the ground.

    Road bike chain length

    For road bikes, there are usually 3 ways to determine chain length. This is a method in which the chain is placed on a large chainring and a small rear.

    Single speed bike chain length

    To determine the chain length for a single-speed bicycle or a bicycle with a planetary hub, it is enough to install the hub in the frame dropouts so that it can be further pushed back as the chain stretches.

    I installed my planetary hub almost at the beginning of the dropout so I could move it back.

    Checking if the bike chain is too long

    After you have chosen the chain length using the methods above, I recommend that you test the chain operation when using the two smallest chainrings at the front and back. If the foot is nearly parallel to the ground, your chain is too long. It will likely jump off bumps frequently (as the switch will not be able to pull it properly). The foot should be at a slight angle. For more details, see the photo below:

    As you can see in the photo, the foot is set at an angle. This means the chain is tensioned by the derailleur and is the correct length.

    The recommended distance from the top roller to the chain is 2.5 to 4.5 cm.In this case, the derailleur will work correctly.

    I got about 2.5 here, since this bike has a very large 1 star on the cassette.