Bicycle chain main dimensions
Bicycle chain pitch
All modern bicycle chains have a standard pitch of 1/2 ”or 12.7mm.
The pitch of the bicycle chain is equal to the distance between the pins see Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Bike chains come in standard 1/2 ”or 12.7mm pitch
Conversion of fractional values of inches to millimeters can be done using the Table of conversion of fractional values of inches to millimeters
Checking if the bike chain is too long
After you have chosen the chain length as described above, I recommend that you test the chain operation when using the two smallest chainrings at the front and back. If the foot is almost parallel to the ground, your chain is too long. It will likely jump off bumps frequently (as the switch will not be able to pull it properly). The foot should be at a slight angle. See the photo below for more details:
As you can see in the photo, the foot is set at an angle. This means the chain is tensioned by the derailleur and is the correct length.
The recommended distance from the top roller to the chain is 2.5 to 4.5 cm.In this case, the derailleur will work correctly.
I got about 2.5 here, since this bike has a very large 1 star on the cassette.
Method of using existing circuit
Before removing the old chain, check how much chain you need. Cut a new chain equal in length to the old one. Shift the bike speed so that the chain is on the smallest front sprocket and the smallest rear sprocket. Take a close look at the area of the chain between the lower derailleur and the smallest sprocket. There should be no noticeable slack in the chain at this point. Also check that the bottom of the chain does not touch the pulley. It is okay if there is a little slack in this position of the chain, but it should not bend too much. Too much slack is an indicator that the chain is too long.
If the chain is too long, find the rivet that touches the sprocket and mark the sprocket there. Count two rivets towards the derailleur, lift the link up and slide it to the mark on the sprocket. The chain is now much shorter. Check the slack again. Repeat this step by counting the two rivets and sliding the chain up to the mark. The number of chain links to be cut should be (2, 4, 6, etc.). Repeat until there is no visible sagging.
To determine if the chain is too short, move it to the largest sprocket in the front and the second largest sprocket to the rear. The chain will stretch in this position. Look closely at the S-shaped section of the chain, as this is where it goes through the pulley. Slowly and gently begin to rotate the largest sprocket at the back. If the chain is too tight, it is too short. If the chain moves, but it turns out that there is no double bend, when the chain passes the pulley wheels, it is again too short. You need to add two links to the new chain, compared to the old one. Caution: do not try to lengthen the old chain by adding new links.
If the chain length passes one of the tests listed above, but fails the other, then it is most likely that the derailleur capability does not match the gear. Determine the length of the chain so that it runs through the large chainring to the largest rear sprocket. After that, all responsibility for shifting the combinations when changing gears will lie with the owner of the bike.
If you want to install a new chain and the old one is of the correct length, you can measure the new chain to the length of the old one before installing. First remove the old chain and place it on a flat, flat surface with the rollers vertically. Align the chain. Place the new chain next to the old one in the same way. Check that the ends of the two chains match (either both chains must have rivets at one end, or both chains must not be riveted). The new chain will appear shorter, so slide the links of the old chain so that they line up with the new chain. Install matching rivets on the new chain, with rivets on the old one. Add or remove links as needed based on the checks above and cut the chain at this point.
Road bike chain length
For road bikes, there are usually 3 ways to determine chain length. This is a method in which the chain is placed on a large chainring and a small rear.
Effect of terrain on bike speed
Rough terrain will reduce the speed of the bike. Mountain tracks also have a catastrophic effect on speed, reducing it to 15 km / h. It would seem very little. given the professionalism and physical condition of the athletes, as well as the high technical level of their bicycles. But it should be borne in mind that an ordinary person would not be able to ride a bicycle on such a road at all. I would roll the bike in my hands at a speed of several kilometers per hour.
The speed of the rider on the slopes reaches 90 km / h. On mountain stages, the average value is 36-38 km / h, on flat sections. 50 km / h.
Maximum bike speed
The absolute speed record for cycling is 268 km / h, set by Fred Rompelberg in 1995. Sounds incredible, doesn’t it? Indeed, in order to achieve such a speed, special conditions had to be created for the cyclist. He drove along the salt plain in the tail of a racing car equipped with a special fairing. This not only saved him from the headwind, but also the air whirlwind created by the car carried him along. And the bike itself was of an unusual design.
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In the absence of aids, the highest speed is demonstrated by velomobiles with special ultralight fairings. The speed record for them is 105 km / h when moving on the move (without acceleration) at a distance of 200 m. When starting from a standstill in a one-hour race, the speed record for a velomobile was 75 km / h. But when descending from the mountain, the highest speed (210 km / h) was shown by a mountain bike.
Bicycle speed in everyday life
Records are good and interesting, but for ordinary cyclists, what is more important is how fast they can travel on normal roads on regular bicycles? And how long can this speed be maintained?
Once upon a time, measuring the speed of bicycles was carried out by inconvenient mechanical speedometers. They were only able to show the current speed and total mileage. Modern bike computers are ten times more functional. They show not only all sorts of parameters of the bicycle’s movement, but also information that has nothing to do with it. Altitude, cyclist’s heart rate, location on the globe, and so on.
It seems to an ordinary person (not an athlete) riding a bicycle that he is moving at a higher speed than he really is. Having fixed the speed of 25-30 km / h with a glance on the speedometer, he thinks that this speed is maintained by him throughout the entire time. But in reality, the average speed turns out to be much lower, no more than 20 km / h.
Of course, the average speed value depends on the rider’s physical condition and the quality of his bike. A professional, well-trained athlete who “winds” several thousand kilometers of roads a year on wheels is able to move at a much higher speed. For example, drive a distance of 100 kilometers or more at an average speed of at least 25 km / h.
Marathon cyclists with special physical condition can maintain an average speed of 30-35 km / h for several hours. At the same time, the current speed in certain areas can reach 40 km / h. over, groups of cyclists usually move faster than individuals. Group races often take place at an average speed of more than 50 km / h, and on slopes it sometimes exceeds 100 km / h.
But sometimes even loners show extraordinary speed. For example, a professional athlete Francesco Moser in 1984 maintained a speed of at least 50 km / h for an hour. This record has not been broken to this day.
And here are the specific results recorded at the “Tour de France”.
- Lance Armstrong in 2003 showed 40.940 km / h.
- In 2004, he almost repeated his achievement. 40.553 km / h.
- Armstrong again in 2005. 41.654 km / h.
- Oscar Pereiro in 2006. 40.784 km / h.
- Carlos Sastre in 2008. 40.492 km / h.
How to increase your cycling speed
First of all, by improving physical condition, that is, exercising. Regular exercise will increase your results pretty quickly. The quality and type of bike is important. The machine must be suitable for the road conditions and driving style. Having a lightweight, well-adjusted bike and training is much more enjoyable.
And here is how the parameters of the bicycle and the design of some of its nodes affect the speed of movement.
A saddle that is too low makes it difficult to ride fast. In addition, it is difficult and traumatic for the knees.
On a hard surface, narrow, smooth rubber is easiest to roll. Wide tires with large lugs create more resistance to movement. On too soft ground, sand and gravel, the situation changes slightly in the opposite direction. Given that roads are usually hard, it is surprising that some household bike manufacturers are equipping their products with prohibitively wide, deep lugs.
On hard surfaces, the higher the pressure, the easier it is to ride. For soft soil, it is best to keep it medium. In general, the optimal tire pressure for specific roads needs to be selected empirically.
The smaller it is, the easier the bike accelerates. The farther the wheel element is from the center of rotation, the more important is its weight for acceleration. That is, according to the degree of influence on overclocking, the elements are arranged in the following sequence: tire with a chamber. rim. spokes. bushing.
Large wheels roll easier than small wheels because they create less drag on bumps. in accordance with the laws of theoretical mechanics.
Transmission condition (bottom bracket, chain, rear sprockets, bushings)
Wear of elements (chains, bearings, bushings), not lubricated, dirty chain. all this creates additional resistance to driving.
With a low seating position and narrow handlebars, the ride is easier, but to a certain extent. In general, there is no universal position of the cyclist suitable for all cases. It is different for each situation.
In calm weather, noticeable air resistance occurs at a speed of 25-27 km / h. With a slight headwind. already at 10-15 km / h.
Deteriorate rolling on smooth asphalt. On hard roads with small bumps and stones, they make it easier.
For each style and occasion, its own geometry is optimal. No wonder their number is so great.
At the end of the article, I offer you a record of the record breaking by Fred Rompelberg in 1995:
Connection speed testing rules
For an error-free test of the Internet speed, several conditions must be met:
- All programs that have access to the network must be closed. At the time of verification, nothing should be downloaded to the device
- VPN is also worth turning off
- If possible, it is better to connect to the Internet directly, rather than through a router.
- When using online services, you need to select the incognito mode, since some browser extensions can affect the connection speed
- When checking the speed of the Internet via Wi-Fi, disconnect all devices except the one on which you want to check the speed.
Internet speed check
Internet speed is the amount of information transmitted per unit of time. Now internet speed is measured in MB / s. 50 MB / s means that 50 megabits of information can be transferred per second. As a rule, when it comes to the speed of the provider, the maximum possible speed is indicated, which is achieved under certain conditions.
Incoming and outgoing internet speed, ping
Inbound speed is the amount of information that can be downloaded to a computer or mobile device in a specified time. Relevant when opening pages of sites, downloading files, using online services, watching videos or listening to music over the Internet.
Outgoing speed. the amount of data that is sent to the network in a certain period of time from the user’s device. Important for uploading files to cloud storages and websites, transferring files via mail or instant messengers.
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MB. Do not confuse megabits (MB or Mbps) and megabytes (MB or MB). these are different units of measurement. One megabyte includes eight megabits.
Ping is the server response time to a request from the user’s device. The lower the internet speed, the higher the ping. It depends on the channel load, the characteristics of the devices and the physical distance from the user’s device to the server. It is worth checking the ping if the pages are loading slowly, the loading of video and music is interrupted or the Internet completely disappears from time to time.
How to make an internet speed test?
To check your website speed online, use our free internet speed measurement service. Click “Start Internet Speed Test” and after a few seconds the service will show the download and upload speed with ping, IP and location of the device, provider and the amount of used traffic.
Cycling speed record. Maximum speed
What is the maximum speed a person can reach while cycling? There are many records achieved in different conditions, in different situations and at different times.
How it all began?
Cyclist Jose Meifret set the world speed record on a bicycle (204.73 km / h) in 1962 in Friedberg (Germany). And it all started even earlier. Since the inception of the bike, there have been many attempts to achieve maximum riding speed.
Perhaps it is worth talking about the most significant and important records in the history of the development of this sport, and of transport itself.
In 1899, Charles Murphy, after training for about 2 months, decided to set a record for the speed of driving in Long Island on the railroad. To do this, it was necessary to attach one carriage to a steam locomotive and equip it with a cap so that the cyclist could hide from the wind. At first, due to the mistake of Murphy himself, he lagged behind the train, but then he nevertheless caught up with him. Thus, in June 1899, a record for the maximum speed was set. It was 100.2 km / h.
The next bicycle speed record was only set in 1937. This happened in Los Angeles (California). Record holder Albert Marquet moved behind the car, which was also equipped with a fabric frame for the cyclist to move inside it. His record was. 139 km / h.
Within 5 years, in 1942, a new record was set (again in California). And in this case, the car in front was a racing car, and the bike was improved. At that time, the record holder Alf Letourne had the highest speed on a bicycle.
The record was recorded at around 175 km / h. But the world achievements did not end there.
An ordinary untrained person, not in a hurry, on a city highway can move at a speed of about 12-15 km per hour, taking into account both the descents and the ascents of the road. This value is taken as the average speed of the bike.
A slightly exercising person on a bicycle with certain amenities (for example, toe clips, gear shifters, good brakes) are able to move faster. at a speed of 30 km / h.
There are not only speed records for cycling, but also world records for keeping speed. In 2005, on the famous cycle track in Krylatskoye, the representative of the Czech Republic O. Sosenka kept the achieved speed (49.7 km / h) on the bike for 60 minutes. He was unable to maintain the 50 km / h value due to the fact that his bike had only one gear and a rather high saddle. Such a record is difficult in terms of wear and tear.
On good roads, you can safely maintain a high speed of 60-70 km / h on a 9-kilometer descent, even on heavy mountain bikes. It turns out that these values should be taken as the maximum speed for ordinary amateur cyclists.
Records. World record for cycling speed
The absolute speed record for cycling was set in 1995. Its value is 268.8 km / h. This was accomplished by Dutchman Fred Rompelberg. The record was important and valuable not only for the cyclist, since he turned 50 that year.
Mountain bike speed record
Descents from the mountain can also be under different conditions: on an ice surface and on a dirt surface. Therefore, the records are separated.
On a winter track on a mountain bike, with excellent transport equipment (excellent aerodynamics of the bike, aerodynamic equipment), the speed record on a bicycle is firmly held by the athlete Eric Baron. In 2000, in the Alps (April 12), he accelerated his bike to 222 km / h.
Two years later, on the slope of the Sierra Negro, the same athlete took 3rd place, after his own previous second, literally “drove” about 400 meters down the gravel. It was a real hell for the cyclist: at the end of this terrible interval, the maximum speed of the bike reached 210.4 kilometers per hour, and his bike literally exploded.
There is no limit to human and technical capabilities. A person will always strive to conquer new heights.
The increase in friction that occurs between the tires and the road surface begins to increase the degree of rolling resistance. Narrow tires that push through soft ground are difficult to pull off the surface. And wheels with wide tread, on the contrary, rub too hard on the asphalt and wear out quickly.
For this reason, it is recommended to select wheels according to such indicators as width, area and tread depth. Indicators must correspond to the road surface on which trips are planned.
On the roads, cyclists always attract attention, who, when stopping at traffic lights, do not get off their two-wheeled friend, but balance on it. Such a trick serves not only to attract glances, but also has a practical function: if you stop the pedals, then in 3 revolutions you can gain a decent speed.
Bicycle speed: what happens and what affects it?
Every person who starts cycling is interested in how fast you can accelerate, and what affects its performance. To understand this issue, you should familiarize yourself with the main factors that affect the pace of driving, and methods that help to increase it.
How to increase?
Every cyclist wonders how you can increase your cycling speed. There are several techniques with which you can increase your performance, become more enduring and experienced.
To speed up, you need to work on yourself, getting rid of a few extra pounds. The effect will be noticeable immediately on climbs, and the frontal silhouette will become smaller, which indicates a decrease in air resistance.
Interval training can help you improve your average speed. For this, two minutes of intensive driving in several passes are enough. Can be practiced while commuting 3-4 times in one trip.