How to change bearings on a bicycle
Maintenance and replacement of carriage bearings
Periodic cleaning, lubrication and replacement of worn parts will help prevent sudden movement problems on your bike. Signs of a faulty carriage condition:
- “Clamps” in the pedals. difficult rotation or cranking;
- connecting rods dangle;
To remove the connecting rods and carriage cups, you will need special tools. pullers and an internal hex wrench. The dismantling process is as follows: 1. Turn over and fix the bike.
Unscrew the retaining nuts with a hollow wrench. You can also use a hammer with a chisel, however, the nuts must be knocked out carefully so as not to damage the connecting rods.
Using a puller, twist them off the axis. It will take a lot of effort here.
Pull the cups out of the glass with a carriage puller. The first is to unscrew the cup from the side opposite to the stars. Then remove the axle.
How To Adjust Cup & Cone Wheel Bearings On Your Bike. Maintenance Monday
Remove bearings, inspect and replace damaged parts.
Clean in kerosene, refit and lubricate. When installing, carefully monitor the position: on the one hand, the bearing is placed with balls outward, on the other. inward.
After replacement, cleaning and lubrication, reassemble the carriage in reverse order. After tightening the connecting rods, check their rotation: the lack of effort and cranking indicates that you need to tighten the cups, and vice versa. In these cases, you will have to repeat the disassembly and adjustment.
Prom bearings are installed immediately, no adjustment required.
In this article, we will analyze what kind of bearings are used in a bicycle, and how they differ from each other.
In fact, a bearing is a product that is part of a support or stop that supports a shaft, axle or other movable structure with a given stiffness. It also gives an easy rotation of the bicycle mechanisms, ensures the operation of its main units, a clear fixation of individual parts.
- Rolling bearings
- Plain bearings
- Ceramic bearings
Rolling bearings consist of two rings, rolling bodies (of various shapes) and a cage separating the rolling bodies from each other, holding them at an equal distance and directing their movement. Bicycle rolling bearings are divided into two types:
bulk (“cone-cup”) and industrial (non-separable (“cartridge”)).
Each type has its own pros and cons.
The advantage of bulk bearings is their simplicity and the ability to adjust them. Unfortunately, the latter quality is also a big drawback, since the possibility of adjustment obliges you to perform it regularly. Adjustment is carried out with a flare nut. With its help, the clamping force is selected. Bulk (“cone-cup”) is a set of balls that roll on a cup, removable or pressed into the body of a part.
You need to be careful, because if the force is too low, the bearing will have a play, and if the force is strong, the wheel does not spin well (this can lead to rapid wear of the bushing and poor roll-up).
Industrial bearings (non-separable (“cartridge”)) are a non-separable unit with two rings between which balls roll. Such bearings are pressed into the seat and can be replaced if necessary. In industrial bearings, adjustments are generally not required.
The disadvantage of industrial bearings is the higher price (compared to bulk bearings). If dirt gets into the bearing, it will not be possible to fully rinse it. Most likely, a replacement will be needed. In this regard, bulk bearings have a complete advantage. even in the field, they are easy to wash and lubricate.
Both types of industrial bearings can use a cage that creates a spacing between the balls and keeps them from falling out.
A plain bearing is a support or guide of a mechanism in which friction occurs when the mating surfaces slide. The design of such a bearing is a pair of rubbing materials that have a low coefficient of friction.
Over time, a material that wears out softer and a backlash occurs, then the part needs to be replaced (most often its design provides for replacement). These bearings are used in the construction of inexpensive pedals as well as rear derailleur rollers.
Plain bearings require regular overhaul and replacement of worn elements; they are widely used in those units that do not experience heavy loads and impacts and in units where there is no requirement for backlash.
The most common type of such bearings is mixed or hybrid, in which only balls (or other body of revolution) are made of ceramics, and both rolling rings are made of steel. This is the most common option in the cycling industry. Cage in hybrid ceramic bearings made of low friction synthetic materials.
There are also bulk ceramic (ceramic balls are used) and sleeve bearings (for rear derailleur rollers).
Such bearings have a number of advantages:
They can work at high temperatures, which, of course, increases the speed of work. Ceramics are not subject to corrosion, as well as aggressive acidic and alkaline environments. It does not magnetise, does not transmit electricity, it has higher elasticity and hardness. All characteristics of ceramics are superior to steel. However, if you look at it, then in fact the gain is only in weight.
Other advantages of ceramics over steel, such as resistance to aggressive environments or high operating temperatures on a bicycle, are not needed. Corrosion resistance is a big plus. But, to a greater extent, this applies to bearings made entirely of ceramics, mixed ones are still susceptible to corrosion. The cleaning intervals for both steel and ceramic bearings are the same.
When buying bearings, remember that there are no good bikes without good bearings.
Lack of lubrication, incorrectly selected or installed bearing can not only cause damage to the bike, but also lead to an accident and become a serious threat to its owner.
Front fork damping system
It is the presence of a shock absorber that allows the biker not to pay attention to obstacles and makes the bike passable. A good shock absorber resists the reaction of the support to the front wheel in a timely manner, so the fork must be kept in good condition
How to lubricate shock absorbers
Normally, it is necessary to lubricate the “legs” of the plug after 150-200 kilometers, after 700 kilometers (on average) the oil seals are disassembled and lubricated, and annually or after running 3-4 thousand kilometers. the oil in the shock absorber is completely replaced.
It is better to show all the care of the fork in the video than to describe it in detail in text. For example, here you can see all the preventive maintenance operations for the front fork and shock absorbers:
Replacing wheel hub bearings
The hub is not just a wheel pivot. Without the built-in articulation mechanism, forces would be transmitted unevenly to it, and the bike would not be able to move. The same symptoms appear when the bearings are worn out.
Disassembling the hub is as easy as disassembling a fork. For the rear wheel, the procedure will be slightly more complicated than for the front wheel, since you will first need to remove the cassette with sprockets. On a single-speed bike, the retaining ring and the sprocket itself are dismantled.
In general, the disassembly is as follows: 1. Remove the wheels from the dropouts.
Dismantle the sprockets with a cassette puller and a locking whip. On single speed, open the stopper with a screwdriver or a special spreader.
Unscrew the fastening nuts with a 15 wrench. For the rear wheel hub, unscrew the nut on the side opposite to the stars.
Pull out washers and bearing units. Bulk ones are being moved, industrial ones are being replaced by new ones.
Clean parts and replace damaged components.
Pull out the axles, wipe the inner cavities of the bushings.
It is important to place the bearings correctly and press the cones in the same way as before disassembly. In no case should it be skewed, the details should fit exactly into their rightful places
It is not advisable to swap them during a bulkhead. This threatens backlash and deterioration of wheel travel.
New bearings are selected in advance according to the old ones. they must be the same as they were before the repair. Lubrication is the key to rebuilding and replacing (in the case of “bulk”). When installing the “flush”, the assembly itself does not need to be lubricated, only the inner cavities of the bushing and the axle. After installation, we check the performance of the wheels: smooth running without play and clamps indicates that the parts are installed correctly.
“Don’t eat yellow snow”. the mountaineer’s rule
Immediately upon disassembly, we make a defect. Fold the balls in groups of the left-right side. Cones too. It is highly advisable to pour the balls from the same side from which you took them. And tighten with the same cones. Because they have already got used to each other.
If you saw yellow balls from one of the sides (or maybe from all sides), then do not reassure yourself that they are gold, bronze, or, at least, cadmium plated. This says only one thing. On this side, water got under the boot and they got rusty. and this is the main reason to go over the bearings (50:30 is a wild jamb of cheap rear wheel hubs). And if they are rusted, then, most likely, they hooked and knocked the cone. Like mine:
Corrosion has corroded the flare nut on the rear hub bearing, which is why it crunches
New cones are on sale, are inexpensive. If possible, it is better to replace it. Otherwise, the balls will be covered, and then the sleeve.
Required tools and materials
Before removing the pedals, it is necessary to prepare the tool and auxiliary materials that are most likely to be needed.
- lubrication. it is recommended to clean and lubricate the removed parts;
- cleaning rags;
- kerosene or solvent. in case the axles do not unscrew or there are large contaminated areas.
- an adjustable wrench is a universal solution, a small one is desirable, otherwise it will be difficult to get to the nut;
- open-end wrench for 15. fits almost all models;
- bicycle kit. in case of emergency;
- pedal wrench. supplied by manufacturers for non-standard nuts and just in sets;
- puller. addition to the foot pedals. a standard tool, often supplied by the manufacturer, serves to hold the axle when turning to the side with a wrench.
They are not all the same and you need to know a little about their construction. So, the pedal is part of a system that includes a set of sprockets, a crank carriage and, in fact, a set of axles, platforms, bearings and accessories. on this below.
Structurally, a bicycle pedal consists of several parts:
- The axle is a metal pin that is screwed into the connecting rod. Provides the basis for the rest of the structure.
- Platform. a plane that contacts the foot and is fixed on the axis.
- Bearings. the assembly that connects the axle and platform, allowing rotation.
- Fittings. bolts and nuts that fix all the components of the pedal. Unscrewed during disassembly.
On the platform, the pedals are divided into contact (with fastening for special shoes) and ordinary. The method of removal depends on the type: for contact mechanisms, the fastening scheme is a little more complicated. Combined options, combining, on the one hand, an ordinary platform, and on the other, a contact device, are no different in terms of dismantling from contact.
Removing the pedals from the bike is easy enough, but don’t forget about preparing tools and materials, as well as possible problems. The main thing is to keep the entire system in order, since in case of damage or other problems, the inconvenience of using the bike will be very great.
Removing the pedals
The first thing you need to arm yourself with is the hex wrenches from the repair kit. But there is one thing. the hex wrench may not be on friendly terms with all bicycles. An alternative to it will be special keys for the pedals, which are flatter than normal.
You should carefully inspect the assembly and find a radial depression in the connecting rod. When the internal thread is found, screw the connector into the puller.
The crank pedal should be removed by turning the crank set at the 3 o’clock position
The left pedal is unscrewed, setting the crank at the nine o’clock position
And the last thing: remember. both bicycle pedals are unscrewed counterclockwise, that is, they have different threads. When the old ones are unscrewed, then you can start screwing on the new, correctly selected pedals
Happy bike rides with good pedals!
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Since the system is constantly exposed to the environment against a background of severe mechanical stress, torsional problems can arise. In this case, two methods are used:
- Soaking the bike pedal in kerosene or solvent to remove as much dirt as possible that is blocking rotation.
- Heating of the connecting rod and axle. Slight deformation helps loosen the threads and remove the axle.
It is also important to carefully tighten the axle during installation so as not to damage the threads, which is a considerable problem in case of subsequent removal.
How to correctly insert the bearing into the bicycle pedal
How to remove pedals from a bike
A bicycle is the most affordable, fairly convenient and useful means of transportation. Many people are fond of riding two-wheeled vehicles, someone performs virtuoso tricks on BMX, but in any case, timely maintenance and repair of equipment plays an important role. This avoids many unforeseen problems. There are times when the question arises: how to remove the pedals from the bike? Going a little deeper into the intricacies of the design, you can effectively carry out vehicle repairs yourself. Thus, you can feel the technique as much as possible, customize it according to individual preferences and easily deal with unexpected breakdowns.
Replacing the bearings in the carriage
The most susceptible to damage is the crank and pedal assembly. It is called a carriage, and the bearings that are located in it can accommodate pedaling if they no longer meet the requirements.
The carriage of a bicycle can be open or closed; the operation of the bearings depends on its type. For example, the open one rotates thanks to the bearings in the cups installed in the bottom bracket and built into the frame tube. This is a complex unit, since it is subject to external influences more than other parts of the bicycle, which means that they need to be changed often. The carriage cup can have different sizes and threads depending on the type and model of the bike.
In closed carriages, the bearings are protected, so dirt from the street cannot spoil them.
Bearings are support devices for the moving parts of a bicycle. They hold the parts in place and help the mechanism to function properly, making the pedals rotate smoothly, for example. The rest of the components of the bicycle structure work in the same way.
Since bearings on a bicycle can be in different places, the principle of their operation is different, which means that before changing them, you need to know what types of this product are. They are divided into three types:
- Plain bearings;
- Rolling bearings.
Let’s dwell on the extreme option. In total, two types of rolling bearings are used for a bicycle: a cone-cup (or bulk) and non-separable, which are called “cartridge”.
Bulk consists of a set of balls and a cup built into the bike. Cartridge are two rings with balls. They do not need adjustment, since such bearings just need to be changed if the need arises.
How to put bearings in the carriage correctly
How to change bearings on a bicycle
How to disassemble the pedal axle on a bicycle
All decent bikes must have quality bearings. They are located in several nodes and may differ from each other. So, some of them are designed for a fork, others for pedals, so both the carriage and the wheel can be disassembled. So that the products do not deteriorate ahead of time, you need to regularly lubricate them, as well as replace them. over, install exactly those bearings that are needed in this unit.
It is important to pay attention to quality, appearance and other characteristics. If you make a mistake by installing the wrong device, the entire bike may break down, and this is a direct threat not only to the vehicle, but also to your safety.
Replacing the bearings in the front fork
Loose bearings look like balls moving in a wheel hub. They roll along the groove and provide support. The number of such balls is always certain, therefore, during their replacement, it is important not to lose a single one, and also to change the entire set if at least one of them has worn out ahead of time. If you don’t know how to change bearings on a bike but would like to do it yourself, take note of the following advice:
- Remove the wheel;
- Unscrew the steering bolt;
- Disconnect the washer;
- Unscrew the top cup.
You will find balls under the cup. Be careful not to crumble during the process. It won’t be a problem if your bike has a separator cup.
Loose bearings have to be lubricated and cleaned more often, because they are completely unprotected, unlike industrial ones. The bike will have to be checked more often, to sort out the cups, inspect the wheels and launch new balls in time if the old ones are worn out.
After carefully pouring them out of the cups into the glass so as not to get lost, remove the plug. The cups should be rinsed well to remove dirt, just like the balls. Be sure to dry them or wipe them dry, as moisture affects the device negatively. The balls may rust or deform and will need to be replaced. You cannot use them even if only one is damaged. In this case, you will need to replace everything with new ones. Use grease for the cups, grease the axle as well. Only then reassemble the structure in exactly the same way as it was disassembled.
The main / Repair / Do-it-yourself bicycle carriage repair
Assembly and installation of a collapsible carriage
The collapsible carriage is very similar to the one used on domestic bicycles, therefore the assembly and adjustment process is not difficult.
Before assembly, you need to rinse all the parts in some kind of solvent (I use kerosene), wipe with a cloth, and dry. I do not recommend using gasoline. it can damage the plastic seals in the cups. The new carriage should also be washed. the grease on it is most likely preserving.
It is also a good idea to check the frame bottom bracket for damage and any debris. Several times I found shavings, sawdust there, which fell into the carriage assembly from the seat tube of the frame. When caught in the bearings, the sawdust will not contribute to the easy ride of the bike.
The carriage is installed in the reverse order of removal.
When assembling the carriage, the most difficult thing is not to confuse the ends of the carriage axis. its right and left sides are different. Usually on the axle or on a plastic casing (on some carriages this casing is not provided) letters are applied corresponding to the sides of the axle.
The cups cannot be confused. they have different threads (the left cup has the right one and vice versa)
We put the plastic cover on the axle. We put the bearings in the cups. If the bearings have cages, then we lay them out with a cage (balls. inside the cups). Lubricate the bearings with a thick grease With the same grease we grease the threads of both cups.
We start assembling from the right side. We insert the axle into the right cup, and screw this cup into the frame until it stops. This requires a slotted wrench for the carriage. The right cup has a left hand thread.
Now screw the left cup in the same way on the other side. It has a right-hand thread. Let’s move on to adjust the carriage. (you can go directly to step 1)
Removing the carriage
Some manufacturers of bicycle parts produce bogies with loose bearings that use balls as filler. When removing such a carriage, it is necessary to ensure that the balls do not fall out of the bearings, otherwise they will need to be replaced with new ones. When dismantling the carriage, the connecting rods are removed first, for which a special tool called “connecting rod squeezing” is used. To remove the carriage itself, you will have to purchase an original puller produced by the same company that produced spare parts for the bike. For example, for a Shimano bottom bracket, only a Shimano puller will work. True, there are also universal tools suitable for spare parts from several manufacturers. For example, the integrated carriage cup puller can be used with HOLLOWTECH II, GXP or Howitzer carriages. And the ISIS 8-spline puller is suitable for working with parts from manufacturers such as Shimano, Truvativ and SRAM. The puller must be placed on the left side of the carriage and, trying to avoid it skewing in order to avoid damage to both the spare part and the tool, carefully unscrew the carriage cup. Then you can proceed to those actions for which the removal was made, that is, cleaning, lubricating, adjusting or replacing the carriage and bearings. Also, using kerosene or WD-40 composition, the entire thread is necessarily washed.
Removing the carriage from the bike and maintaining it
In this article, we will cover the maintenance of Shimano open bottom bogies. The carriage can be with loose bearings, so be careful when removing, as the balls can scatter in different directions, as well as in the form of a non-separable cartridge.
After removing the fixing bolts, using the squeezing of the connecting rods, we screw the puller with the threaded part into the connecting rod until it stops, but here you need to tighten it progressively and without much effort so as not to break the thread. We remove the connecting rod from the carriage axis and wipe the seats. After removing the connecting rods from the carriage shaft, you need to remove the carriage itself, for this you need a shimano carriage puller.
If you have a different carriage type, you will need other carriage pullers. In addition to the puller for shiamno, there is also a puller for integrated carriage cups and is suitable for HOLLOWTECH II, GXP, Howitzer. Another ISIS Bottom Bracket Puller with 8 Splined Puller Mount and is suitable for Shimano, Truvativ and SRAM. All types of pullers can also be equipped with handles, and you do not need an adjustable wrench.
How To. Replace Wheel Bearings | Halfords UK
When unscrewing the carriage, it must be remembered that the carriage must be removed from the left side, that is, from the side where there are no stars on the connecting rod. We take a puller, insert it into the carriage slots on the left side and turn it counterclockwise with an adjustable wrench. It is very important to avoid any distortions of the stripper when unscrewing the carriage cups, so as not to damage the cup itself and the stripper.
After the carriage has been removed, it is necessary to check the carriage cup for dirt, sand and other things that could get there, both through the carriage and the seat tube of the bike.
If you have an integrated carriage, then you can change the bearings by replacing the seals. To check the condition of the industrial bearings, remove the boot and see the old bearings. They can be removed with a special puller for internal bearings or disposed of with a hammer and chisel (not recommended). We clean and lubricate the seat, after which we put new industrial bearings.
Before installing the carriage, wipe and lubricate all threaded connections.
Bicycle carriage repair (maintenance)
You will need a tool to remove the carriage.
A bicycle, like any other type of movement, requires maintenance, which can be performed both in specialized workshops and at home using a special tool. Today we will talk about the repair (maintenance) of the carriage, which includes disassembly, lubrication, installation and adjustment of the bike carriage.
As discussed in the previous article, a bicycle bottom bracket is a bearing assembly that connects the crankset to the frame and provides a torque function to the bike crankset. The carriage is located in the bottom bracket of the frame, which is located between the down tube and at the intersection of the chain stays. Because the carriage is located at the very bottom of the bike and when the bike is used throughout all seasons of the year, it is often exposed to external influences, i.e. saws, dirt, moisture, etc. Over time, in the area of the carriage “crunching” may occur, backlash, clicking and the carriage begins to go out of its usual work. the smoothness and accuracy of work decreases, sometimes even jamming may occur. All of this can be corrected with carriage maintenance.
Closed-type carriages (cartridge) cannot be repaired, therefore, if problems arise with this type of carriage, it simply changes to a new one. But the carriages of an open type (collapsible) lend themselves to maintenance, since they are a shaft (axis) that rotates with the help of bearings that are installed in the carriage cups and screw directly into the carriage cup of the bicycle frame. Therefore, they can be easily removed, lubricated, replaced bearings and reassembled, or simply replace the old carriage with a new one.
Carriage repairs may include:
- scheduled carriage maintenance (lubrication and bulkhead);
- elimination of backlash of the carriage;
- tight rotation of the carriage axis;
- extraneous sounds in the area of the carriage assembly.
Bicycle bottom bracket installation
When assembling the carriage, the main thing is to place the cups correctly. Let me remind you that they have different threads, namely. the right cup has a left-hand thread, and the left one has a right-hand thread. Before installing the carriage, grease the carriage cup, bearings and cup threads with grease. The assembly of the carriage must be started from the right side. To begin with, we insert the carriage axis into the right cup and twist it with a carriage puller, and then the left one until it stops. After the carriage cups have been screwed in, it is necessary to check the carriage for any backlash (the carriage should rotate easily and silently). To do this, we twist the carriage axis in different directions. Be careful and make sure that the cup runs smoothly along the thread, as it is very easy to damage it. We put in place the connecting rods and fixing screws.
Installing a collapsible bicycle carriage
This type of carriage has a standard device that is well known to all owners of domestic bicycle bikes, which is why it is quite simple to install and configure it.
- Before starting the installation, we thoroughly rinse the newly purchased carriage and other parts in kerosene (it is better not to use gasoline: it is harmful to plastic, the oil seals in the cups may suffer). We check for small debris and scratches in the frame unit to which the carriage will be attached. If something gets into the bearings from there, the bike will go “with a creak”.
- We carefully study the ends of the carriage axis (the main thing is not to confuse them!). There must be a special mark on the axle or casings (they are not available everywhere). The bowls have a special thread, thanks to which it is impossible to confuse them.
- A plastic casing must be placed on the axle. We put bearings in the bowls so that the balls are on the inside of the bowls. The bearings and threads on the cups are thickly coated with grease.
- We start to collect on the right. We attach the axle to the cup on the right side and screw it all the way into the frame mount using a slotted wrench. Left hand thread on the cup.
- In the same way we screw in the left cup from the opposite side.
After the installation of the carriage is completed, proceed to the adjustment.
Bicycle carriage repair
Bike bottom bracket problems are familiar to every cyclist. It happens that it loosens up or emits characteristic annoying clicks. This does not always mean that the part needs to be completely replaced. It is enough to competently repair the carriage on a bicycle, without postponing this matter for later.
We remove and repair
The carriage can be integrated or non-integrated. The latter, according to the type of device, are divided into cartridge (axle, cups, connecting rods. a single system) and collapsible (parts can be unscrewed so that they can be repaired and cleaned). Usually, the carriages of a walking bike or an average mountain bike are arranged in a standard way, so they can be repaired according to the worked out scheme.
To make it more convenient to operate, it is better to turn the bike with the wheels up and put it on the handlebars.
After you have made sure that the bike is level and firm, you can proceed to repair:
- Carefully remove from the axle first the left, then the right connecting rod.
- Thoroughly rinse the carriage assembly, remove the old dirt accumulated behind the connecting rods. We clean the splines in each cup very carefully. if they are clogged, it will not be possible to install the puller.
- We proceed to remove the carriage itself. We start on the left (where there are no stars). If your bike has a lock nut, carefully unscrew it with a wrench (you can use a family man). Nuts of this type usually have a right-hand thread, so you have to make some effort, but try to tighten the nut carefully so as not to rip the wrench.
- After that we take a spline key or a special key for the carriage. As soon as it enters the grooves, we immediately unscrew the cup with an adjustable wrench with a long handle. If you have a collapsible carriage, the cup must be removed together with the bearing.
- On the right side (where the asterisks are), we perform similar actions using the same long key. The thread on the cup, accordingly, is no longer right, but left, so force is required.
- Next, you need to remove the right cup with the axis or the cartridge (depending on the type of carriage).
- If you have a collapsible design, we remove the bearings from the removed carriage. The places where the old grease remains are thoroughly cleaned. We wash all parts in kerosene or any other solvent.
After the carriage is cleaned and the parts are dry, we install in the reverse order.
Adjusting the bearings
Loose bearings are often the cause of extraneous noise, backlash and unpleasant rattling in the rear wheel carriage. Doing so can damage them, deform the cups or impair the clarity of gear changes. If you experience any suspicious symptoms, you need to consider how to tighten the bottom bracket on your bike. In this case, it is better not to postpone the adjustment. If you have the skills, it will be possible to pull up the carriage even during the trip, bypassing the disassembly stage.
- Starting work, remove the left connecting rod from the rear carriage and unscrew the lock nut with a special wrench. Then, using the slotted wrench, slightly loosen the left cup.
- We twist the left cup almost all the way. It is worth wrapping it loosely or too tightly, as the axle starts to play or jam. To avoid the latter, slightly (about ¼ turn) loosen the cup with a long wrench.
- After that, screw on the lock nut from above and tighten it all the way with the same wrench that was used to unscrew.
- Checking how the carriage axis works. To do this, we twist it by hand, then we swing it back and forth on the sides. Even a small lift or a barely perceptible jam is a good reason to repeat the adjustment from the beginning.
If you cannot find a balance between play and seizure even after several attempts, you will have to replace either the entire carriage, or worn out or insufficient quality bearings.