Types of bicycle carriages
Modern bicycle carriages are quite diverse. They differ from each other in many initial parameters: from the size of the shaft to the method of fastening. First of all, it should be noted that the design of the mechanism can be collapsible or non-collapsible. The first type is an assembly with cups and bearings (cones) fixed in a cage. The second design option is pre-engineered models. It is believed that they are more reliable and durable, as they are protected from any negative impact. If we talk specifically about the types of construction, then the following should be highlighted:
- Threaded. Fastened (screwed) directly into the frame.
Frame-and-frame. Bearings and shaft are matched with a housing that is easy to disassemble.
With one-piece axle made of metal.
As mentioned above, any carriage is a structure with an axle and bearings. In this case, the shape of the axis can be different. The most common is a square, but there are other types of connecting rods that deserve special attention. That is why, if the question arises of how to choose a carriage for a bicycle, then first of all you need to study the basic standards for attaching the connecting rods. And although there are a lot of such standards, first of all, Honor needs the following options:
- SQR square. Such designs are the most common. They are found on many inexpensive bicycles that are not particularly fancy. However, this is the case when cost does not affect the quality and reliability of the carriage. As for the characteristics of the mechanism, they are approximately as follows: the shape of the shaft is a cut pyramid, the length is up to 126 mm, the fixing method is bolts.
Hollowtech 2. Such carriages have an integrated axle, which is combined with outrigger cups. Consequently, the mechanism consists of several standard elements, which affects its weight and functionality.
Mexa Exo. This carriage system practically does not differ from the previous model in terms of design features, so it can be safely used as an alternative when it is not possible to find a suitable part.
Octalink. Standard carriage with 8 pins. At the same time, the size of the Spitz can be different, depending on the type of system (there are two main types. V1 and V2).
GXP. In general, the mechanism functions according to the standard principle, but it is better not to buy it if such a parameter as the compatibility of the Spitz is important.
ISIS. The shaft size is radically different from all the models presented. In fact, the length of this structural element never changes, although the shape of the carriages may vary.
Power Spline. A mechanism that is not fundamentally different from the rest, but involves the use of 12 spitz.
BB30. A modern carriage system that does not look like standard mechanisms. The diameter of the integrated axle here reaches 30 mm, which is much larger than that of the standard models. In this case, the axle is made of aluminum, which reduces the weight of the structure, while simultaneously increasing its strength.
Obviously, there are other bicycle carriages that are not on the list, but the range presented will be enough to select the right mechanism.
Carriage design features
Modern systems have the same design, which consists of the following elements:
- Base with built-in axle and several bearings.
Cups that perform the function of fastening. They are used to hold the mechanism in a certain place (carriage glass). These cups can be of different types, depending on the type of carriage attachment.
If you position and fix the carriage system, then it will be in a kind of “glass”.
Types of bike carriages: which carriage is better to choose?
How to choose a bottom bracket for your bike?
By nipple type
The nipple is responsible for sealed connection of the pump to the bike chamber, shock absorbers or the air fork of the bike. Many pumps are versatile and support both popular Presta and Shrader standards with an adapter or special pump head.
Presta (FV). a new standard designed specifically for pumping mountain bikes or road bikes, where the pressure inside the chamber reaches 4.2 and 9 bar, respectively;
Shrader (AV). automotive standard, has an increased diameter, which ranges from 8 to 8.5 mm, is mainly installed on the wheels of mountain bikes and bikes intended for extreme riding;
Dunlop (DV). old bicycle nipple;
The presented characteristic has a direct impact on the price, strength and durability of the pump.
Steel. Heavy, reliable. As a rule, floor pumps are produced from steel, which are rarely transported.
Aluminum. Lightweight and reliable. Both floor-standing and portable pump models can be produced in aluminum.
Plastic. Lightweight, not expensive, operated in all weather conditions, small in size, but more fragile.
Floor standing, stationary
They pump quickly. but they are large, therefore it is recommended to use them as stationary bicycle pumps. Due to the large volume of the pump chambers, they are able to inflate the wheel for a small number of strokes.
Floor-standing pump models pump the chamber up to 15 bar, therefore they are often equipped with a pressure gauge. It can accurately measure the pressure inside the wheel and prevent the possibility of rupture.
How to choose a bicycle pump?
The pump is an essential tool for the cyclist to keep the bike on track. Understanding the choice of a bicycle pump will help to consider the main criteria for selecting the right pump for the specific needs of the cyclist.
High pressure pumps for fork and shock absorbers
Designed specifically for pumping air into shock absorbers and forks, where the pressure reaches about 20 bar. Distinctive features of fork pumps are the presence of a chamber of small volumes and a special valve design, which eliminates air leakage. The devices can also be used to pump bicycle wheel chambers, but it will take a long time to pump.
Variety of cases and sizes
The efficiency and usability of the device depends on the case. Depending on the form factor, there are these basic types of bicycle pumps.
Shaft and mini pumps
Lightweight and compact bike pumps, but the wheel inflation speed is much slower. Their small size makes them easy to transport on a frame or in a backpack. The efficiency of mini and freewheel pumps largely depends on the model. Some are capable of pumping even tires for road users. 7 bar.
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The bike bottom bracket is not a large structural element, but deserves special attention as it can withstand high pedaling loads and provide a smooth ride for the wearer. Experienced cyclists, when choosing, highlight the importance of this detail and compare it to a shock absorber, which will seem ridiculous. However, understanding the bike and understanding its features of riding on a particular track, you can understand them.
The choice of a bicycle carriage, like any other detail, requires a competent approach from the owner, which is often associated with experience, so the inexperienced should carefully study the information available on this issue.
Difference in the bottom bracket of a bicycle
They are connected using a thread: English, Italian, French. In addition, the sizes are distinguished: 68 mm, 73 mm, 83 mm, 100 mm. and etc.;
- Eccentric fastening, based on fast scrolling of the carriage in the bicycle glass, after which it is fastened with bolts or nuts. The system is installed on vehicles with a planetary hub or fixed gear. Distinguish by diameter: landing (54 mm), standard (46 mm), BSA standard;
- Press-Fit, used relatively recently. It has bearings hidden inside the carriage sleeve, into which an axle with a diameter of 30 mm is inserted. This method increases the reliability of the node. The division into types is carried out according to the diameters of the carriage glass.
What is a bicycle bottom bracket
The carriage assembly is located at the bottom of the frame, namely in the carriage glass. When a load is applied to the pedals, the bike moves. In addition to the force load on the carriage, dust and dirt contamination of the bearings is added due to the low position.
It is divided into collapsible and non-collapsible, but at the heart of all there are unchanged structural elements. According to which the bicycle carriage is classified as a mechanism that requires a special approach when choosing and installing. With its small size, it has a high cost and simple design:
- The shaft or axis of the carriage is its moving core. It is located inside the body and has the shape of a cylinder. On the circles are connecting elements with connecting rods;
- Body. the outer part of the bicycle carriage, on which the bearings are installed, the cups are placed, and the axis is placed inside;
- The cups are the part connecting the glass of the bike and the bottom bracket. Depending on the variety, it can be screwed in or pressed into the glass of the frame;
- The place where the connecting rods are connected is called the spline.
How to choose a bottom bracket for your bike
A pleasant bike ride is ensured due to the well-organized work of all the constituent parts, which are abundant in this two-wheeled vehicle. But having dealt with one or two components, you should not assume that everyone else works on the same principle. Each separate part has its own purpose and peculiarity of work. Particular attention should be paid to more discreet bike structures, such as the bottom bracket. Since this element of the bike is very important when choosing, because it depends on it whether, in principle, a bike ride will take place.
For inexperienced riders, just this detail causes confusion and confusion when choosing. Below we will understand in more detail about this element and how to choose a carriage for a bicycle so as not to be mistaken.
Bicycle mounting method
- Integrated Bottom Brackets. These are the bottom bracket shafts connected together with the bicycle crank. Due to this, strength increases, weight and cost are reduced;
- Not integrated. they have a separate component, with the help of which a crank of a certain type is attached;
- Cartridge and non-cartridge. In the first case, the bearings are pressed into the cartridge at the factory. For the second case, the principle is similar, but if the cartridge is not cartridge, dirt and dust may get in.
During maintenance, you will need a special tool that you will have to acquire if the replacement takes place at home. Special pullers and the disassembly process itself differ depending on the type of carriage assembly.
Before disassembling the carriage assembly, it is worth wiping the parts from dust and dirt. Next, start untwisting the left connecting rod, since the right side is more time consuming due to the presence of sprockets.
Certain types may have nuts that require a special wrench. You need to unwind carefully, without jumping off the tool, otherwise the edges of the parts will lick off.
Then, using a special key, insert it into the grooves and unscrew the cup on the left side. We take out the bearings from the assembly, remove the dirt inside and wash them in solvent, gasoline or any other degreaser. Then we lubricate them with bearing grease. The assembly is carried out in the reverse order, with the accompanying lubrication of the internal parts. Depending on the type of system, the process may take place slightly differently.
Varieties of carriages by design principle
There are several varieties divided into different groups:
When to use a generic table?
The general table of frame selection for the cyclist’s height can be used in those rare cases when the manufacturer (brand) does not have its own dimensional grid on the website and / or does not have an official representation on the Internet at all.
Most often, this is typical for budget bikes. In the case of them, the selection is great according to the following general table:
We find the range in which your height falls, and look at the size of the frame in centimeters, inches or conventional units.
Why a universal table is not a panacea for choosing?
To reduce the selection of the frame size to one table, to put it mildly, is problematic for several reasons:
- Different manufacturers use their own designations. Let’s say it’s not difficult to figure out centimeters and inches, but letters (conventional values) are often used. S, M, L, XL. Here, each brand may have its own interpretation, which is due to different geometry (frame shape) for a specific type of bike, different fit.
- Each brand has its own engineers who design (draw) the frames. As a result, the brand table is only suitable for models of one brand (and even then not for all).
- There are many types of bicycles, and each has its own size chart. So, if you are interested in a road model, then the renowned manufacturer Merida from Taiwan offers four different series of road bikes. In total, 18 pieces of plates for the selection of only adult models can be made:
|Variety of Merida bikes.|
Almost every major bicycle manufacturer in the world market tries to be original, and not adhere to some uniform standards and universal sizes.
Consider in detail the differences in the dimensional grids of three famous brands: Merida, Giant and Cannondale:
In this trinity, already from the first conventional sizes, the size differs by 2. 3 cm, and with an increase in the frame, the discrepancies become more critical: already XL Merida is equivalent to L Giant. Considering the fact that on highways users “twist” hundreds of kilometers every day, then every centimeter can play a role.
You can also compare the dimensions of frames in cm from Cannondale and Merida. So, a value of 50 cm for an American manufacturer corresponds to a height of 162 to 166 cm (XS), and for a Taiwanese one. 163. 172 cm (S).
For MTB mountain bikes, these manufacturers have their own dimensional charts (selection tables). Let’s consider them using the example of hard tail, that is, single-suspension models:
Just look at the size M, and you can immediately see the big differences:
- the Merida has a frame size of 43 cm, the optimal height is from 167 to 183 cm;
- the Giant “M” is designed for users 171. 180 cm;
- Cannondale has a frame size of 18 inches (45.7 cm), which is optimal for cyclists from 169 to 178 cm.
As you can see, there can be no talk of universality. You need to select for a specific brand and type of bike.
And what about the children’s bikes? There is a universal table?
For children’s bicycles, the wheel diameter is usually the main selection criterion. But the so-called universal “one size” frame size from different manufacturers is also often different. So, for example, at Giant “one size” is designed for children from 105 to 125 cm in height. Cannondale in children’s models is not tied to height, but to the age range.
There is also no consensus regarding the selection of the wheel diameter. Here are just a few of the so-called “universal” dimensional grids for children:
If possible, it is better not to rely on such universal tables, since children grow up quickly, every centimeter or inch is doubly important. The best option is to go to the official website of the brand and find its size chart or recommendations for choosing.
When the wheel diameter is already over 20 ”, the size of the frame should also be taken into account. It can be from 12.5 to 14 inches here. In addition, already starting from 20 “diameter, some manufacturers offer divisions into urban, mountain and acrobatic BMX great for children. Their geometry is also often different.
For bicycles with a wheel diameter of less than 20 inches (in the absence of a branded size and / or an official website from the manufacturer), it is permissible to choose a model according to the following general table:
How to choose the right frame size bike?
Manufacturers whose class can be conditionally classified as middle or above average (not to mention advanced brands) must have an official website and a branded dimensional grid.
On the page describing a specific bike model, you need to find the corresponding frame selection tab. It can be “geometry”, “geometry”, “size chart” or “geometry and size”, etc. Open the tab and select the frame for your height. This is how it looks on the official website of the Author trademark:
For a given height (179 cm), the optimal frame size (18 inches) is highlighted in red.
How to choose a bike for your frame size: the 5 most important tips
It is necessary to select a bike taking into account your height. There is a direct relationship between this anthropometric indicator and the size of the frame of a 2-wheeled vehicle. Selection errors here affect not only comfort, but also safety in the event of, say, extreme braking. An unsuitable size leads to an incorrect fit: the knee joints are overloaded, the load on the back increases. It would seem that there can be mistakes: there is a ready-made general table, where the optimal frame size is given for any height. But you should not blindly trust her and consider her a universal assistant. Why? How to choose the right frame size bike? We will answer these and other questions in this material.
You can choose a bike yourself, both in terms of frame size and other important parameters, in our general catalog.
How else to choose the right bike frame?
So, it is often a waste of time to use universal frame-fitting tables. A separate, and most importantly, the correct version can be made for a specific brand and type of bike. For selection, it is better to go to the official website and deal with the geometry of individual models.
You can also use Google and image search. At the request of the type “bike brand rostovka”, where instead of “brand” a specific brand is indicated, you can find a dimensional grid of manufacturers and types of bikes of interest. road, mountain, city, etc.
It should also be remembered that a range of sizes “from and to” is always offered, so two frames may be suitable for one height, for example M and L. It is customary for children to take for growth, that is, the one that is larger. And adults should consider the following factors:
- riding style. Fans of extreme driving are better off choosing a model with a smaller frame. It gives you great maneuverability. For calm “pokatushek” you can take a frame of a larger size;
- weight and physique. Slim and light users should look at the larger frame that is suitable for the height, and large and heavy users should look at the smaller one. In the latter case, it will be easier to get on and off the bike, it will be more convenient to steer;
- optimal frame height. So, the distance from the frame, when it is between the legs, and the cyclist is on the ground, to the groin area should be at least 5 cm.If this backlog is less, then the risk of unpleasant injuries increases when sliding off the saddle (for example, during emergency braking or jumping off the pedal );
- convenience. Personal feeling and comfort should be the deciding factor. Actually, therefore, ideally, you should first test a few bicycles in practice, and only then make a final decision. Plus, don’t forget that users with a special body constitution can always adjust the fit by adjusting the saddle and / or tilt of the stem.
Pay due attention to the selection of the frame and then the ride will give only pleasant emotions. Good choice and exciting cycling adventures!
Frame to person height ratio
Bicycle companies use three types of frame sizes. letters, inches and centimeters. The most common sizes are in inches, the rarest designation is centimeters.
For the correct selection of the frame, you need to know your height. It is better to measure it without shoes, standing with your back to a flat surface, such as a wall.
The easiest way to find a frame if you don’t know your height for sure is to take a bike and throw your leg over it. Stand on your feet steadily so that the upper tube of the frame does not reach the groin area at least 3 cm, or better. 10 cm.
This is the best and safest option. True, it is only suitable for men’s bicycles. If the frame is female, then you need to sit on the seat so that it is convenient to press the pedals (the leg should be fully extended when the pedal is in the lower position), and also easily and conveniently reach the steering wheel with your hands.
There is no optimal frame size for all types of bicycles, as over time and the development of technology, manufacturers are moving away from the classic triangular frame. Products appear in new geometry.
The average table for road, city, hybrid and mountain bikes looks like this:
When choosing a frame, you should pay close attention to a number of points.
- If the transport is planned to be used for regular trips, and the growth is approaching the upper limit, then it is better to take a smaller frame. For sports activities. more.
- Smaller bikes are more agile and faster.
- If the frame is large, this does not mean that it is strong. It is worth paying attention to the composition of the material.
- It makes no sense to buy a bike separately for a man and a woman if they are of different heights.
A good quality model will cost an impressive amount, this is the law of the market. a decent one cannot be cheap. You can conditionally divide purchases into several groups.
- Up to 500 are inexpensive models made of low quality components and requiring regular financial investments. The saying that the miser pays twice is very relevant in this case.
- Up to 1000. the middle class belongs to this price category. The main difference from inexpensive cars is the quality of the parts from which the bicycle is assembled, as well as the technology for manufacturing the frames. It has the same meaning as the body for a car. This should never be forgotten. For the manufacture of frames in this category, various alloys are already used, which make the main part of the bicycle lighter and stronger. The second point is attachments and accessories. The better the parts, the less they require maintenance and adjustments.
- Price above 1000. these are branded models of very high quality workmanship and assembly.
Adult and mature people most often use standard wheel size for bicycles.
- 26 “is the most common size, one might say” classic “. They are used on all models of mountain and ordinary bicycles. The advantages of these wheels are good sliding, the ability to easily overcome obstacles. They are most suitable for riders of small to medium height.
- 27.5 “is the size for mountain bikes for a smooth ride and reliability over rough terrain.
- 28 ″ is the most comfortable diameter for driving on equipped roads in cities or on highways. The width of such wheels is always narrower than usual, and they usually use tires without spikes of the “slick” type (in common people it is called “bald”).
- Finally, 29 ″ is a new, not yet widespread size, perfect for tall and above average people.
When choosing wheels, the weight of a person is important. For overweight people, it is better to use 28-29 inches wheels. this will make the trip easier. But if, in addition to being overweight, a man also has a short stature, then the best option is 24-26 inches.
How to choose the wheel size?
The most important element of a bicycle’s design is the wheel. Its size, measured in inches (″), is the diameter of the rim without a tire, but some manufacturers may indicate it in centimeters for the convenience of buyers.
No one will be able to give an honest answer to the question of which wheel size is most relevant for this particular person, and which ones will be better for him to ride. They are different for adults and children. When choosing them, it is important to focus on the height and weight of the cyclist, because the convenience of riding a particular bike model will depend on this.
for all types of bicycles except folding bicycles
for bicycles with a folding frame
This table shows the most common and average statistical values of the ratio of wheel size to rider height.
If you believe the statistics, then the wheels on children’s bicycles are divided by ease of use as follows:
- for the smallest users under the age of 3 years, wheels of 10-12 ″ are used;
- at the age of 3 to 6 years, full-fledged wheels with chambers with a diameter of 16 inches are already in use;
- when the child is from 6 to 9 years old, then the most suitable size is 20 ″;
- in adolescence. this is about 13 years old. 24-inch wheels are most relevant.
But one should not forget such a factor as a rather rapid growth, and if you focus on models of a smaller diameter, then there is a risk. the child will quickly outgrow them, and riding will be inconvenient.
Bottom Bracket Fitment: What Size Do I Need? (Size DOES Matter)
Determining the type of bike
To choose this type of transport, you need to ask yourself several questions. depending on the answers to them, they are already determined with the type of bike. The key points when choosing are: the budget for the purchase, height and weight, as well as the place of its use (roads, off-road, mountains).
Place of use
The habitat of the iron horse is where and how you will apply it.
- Mountain bikes. This category can be called universal. They are used not only in the mountains, but also for traveling over rough terrain. Due to the presence of a wide tire, it is quite convenient to ride on asphalt roads.
- Two-suspension. This line is characterized by the presence of a second shock absorber on the frame. That is, they have two damping points. on the front fork and on the frame under the seat. Dual cushioning provides a more comfortable ride and makes these bikes comfortable to ride off-road. When buying double-suspended models, the correct size is very important.
- Regular and tourist. Such a product is perfect for various purposes related to household issues, such as commuting or shopping. It is advisable to install a rack and basket, as well as fenders and a footrest, if they are not provided in the kit.
- Mixed bicycles. They are also called cross or hybrid. If you combine driving on flat roads with driving on rough terrain, then the road model will not do the job. There is no shock absorber in its design, and narrow wheels will not cope with off-road conditions. Hybrids have increased cross-country ability, but are inferior in speed to road.
- Stunt. Fans of extreme sports should pay attention to bicycles of the BMX class. These bicycles have a reinforced construction specifically designed for higher loads.
Crankset types and standards
As mentioned earlier, the bottom bracket is designed to attach the crankset to the bike frame, so let’s consider attaching the crankset to the bottom bracket itself. There are different standards and they are not interchangeable, i.e. If you have spline cranks, they will not fit on the square bogie. Below we will analyze the most popular types of mounts in more detail:
Wedge fasteners are the most outdated ones in use today. This type of fastening is the most unreliable and does not withstand heavy loads. On the plus side, the components are very cheap. This mounting standard is now used on children and some road bikes.
Connecting rod fastening with a wedge
Square and diamond bindings are the most popular in the low to mid price range. The connecting rod has a square hole and is pressed onto the carriage shaft. After pressing, the connecting rod is secured with a nut or bolt. If it is a bolt, then the thread is inside the carriage shaft, and if it is a nut, then there are projections on the end of the shaft in the form of a part of the bolt. If in the hole of the connecting rod (in the shape of a square) the side of the square is directed along the axis of the connecting rod, then such a mount is called a square. If the angle of the square is directed along the axis, then this type is called a rhombus.
Connecting rod mounts. rhombus and square.
Shimano Octalink is Shimano’s splined crankset standard. During the entire existence of this standard, there were two of its subspecies. The first version of the Octalink standard had 8 splines 5×2, then the splines were increased to 9mm. The first option is no longer released.
ISIS is a spline standard developed by Race Face. The standard is not patented and is open to other manufacturers, therefore, carriages with such a mount can be found in the line of other companies. A distinctive feature of ISIS is the same shaft length for all types of connecting rods.
Howitzer is Trivativ’s spline standard. Externally, Howitzer splines are very similar to ISIS splines, but in fact they are not compatible. The Howitzer standard is designed for outboard bearing bushings. The location of the bearings outside the bottom bracket provides a stiffer connection.
What Type of Bottom Bracket do I Have?
PowerSpline is a standard again from Trivstiv. This type of connection has a larger number of splines (12) and provides a smaller shaft diameter than ISIS.
In addition to the crankset mounting standards listed above, there are mounting types with an integrated axle. The carriage axis can be integrated into the left or right crank arm, or even both. These connecting rods are more commonly used on road bikes as they reduce the overall weight of the bike.
Connecting Rods to Bottom Bracket Shaft Standards
Types of Bottom Brackets (Glasses) of a Bicycle
When choosing a new carriage, it is worth paying attention to the carriage glass. Carriage assemblies can be threaded or unthreaded. Each type is divided into several types according to the type of thread and size. There are about seven types of carving in total, but we will list only the most popular ones. Let’s take a closer look at what threaded cups are:
English thread. also called BSA or I.S.O. This is the most common thread type and occurs in about 70% of cases. The width of the carriage assembly can be 68, 73, 83 and 100. The thread size is 1.37 “x 24 tpi (tpi is the number of threads per inch). The thread is multidirectional. There is a right-hand thread in the left cup, and a left-hand thread in the right one. Such a thread is good in that it releases all types of carriages with any connections for connecting rods.
Carriage cup with English thread
Italian thread (ITA). the size of such a thread is М36х24 tpi. The width of the bottom bracket is 70 mm and the threads are right-handed on both sides. All types of carriages are also produced for such a thread, but it is much more difficult to find them.
French thread. has a size of 35×1 mm or 25.4 tpi. Both threads are right hand threads. Such threads are outdated and new carriages cannot be found for them. But you can convert the thread to the BSA standard, since the glasses with the French thread have a width like the BSA of 68 mm.
Swiss thread. this thread is identical to the French one, only the left cup is with a right-hand thread, and the right one with a left-hand thread. New carriages are also not on sale for such a thread, but you can re-cut it.
Carriage assembly without thread
Now more and more often you can find carriage assemblies that have no thread at all. The carriages are simply pressed into such glasses. Let’s take a look at nine of the most popular types of threadless carriage glasses. For convenience, we will compose a table in which all the parameters for each type of carriage assembly will be indicated:
Despite the variety of no-thread nozzles and differences in size, an adapter adapter can be selected for almost any option. So when buying a new frame, you can choose the appropriate adapter, which will allow you to install an existing carriage and a system of connecting rods.
The bottom bracket is a part of a bicycle designed for attaching the crankset to the bicycle frame. In addition, the carriage provides free rotation of the pedals relative to the frame thanks to the bearings in the bike carriage. In its principle of operation, the bottom bracket resembles the front hub of a bicycle. The carriage must be able to withstand higher loads than the bushing. In addition, due to the location of the carriage, it is susceptible to heavy contamination, which makes it necessary to provide good protection against external influences.
For moderate skating, routine carriage maintenance is sufficient by cleaning and lubricating the bearings. But sooner or later any part of the bicycle breaks down and the carriage is no exception. Then the question of the correct choice of a new carriage arises, which is not as easy as it seems at first glance.
Types of carriages. Bearings
Carriages are divided into two main types. collapsible and non-collapsible. The latter last longer, since their inner part is less susceptible to contamination, but after failure, they most often cannot be repaired. Collapsible carriages are more prone to dirt, but can be serviced and cleaned.
Two types of bearings are used in carriages. ball and industrial. The first ones are used in collapsible carriages and can be either bulk or with a separator. Industrial bearings (flush) are found in non-collapsible carriages.
Collapsible and non-collapsible carriages for a bicycle
How to choose a bottom bracket for your bike
Choosing a bottom bracket for a bicycle is a complicated process. You can simplify it if you go shopping with an old carriage. But more often you want to improve the bike and install a more expensive bottom bracket. For such a case, this article was written. Having studied our material, you can easily pick up a new carriage for yourself.
By material of manufacture
In the manufacturing process, different raw materials are used: stainless steel (chromium-molybdenum), aluminum, carbon, titanium. Steel products are chrome-plated or nickel-plated. Aluminum spokes are used when it is necessary to reduce the weight of the bike itself. Carbon and titanium products are lightweight but expensive. They are used for sports models.
Nuts are made from bronze, aluminum and steel. The first ones are good because they rarely stick to it, which makes it easier to replace the spokes if necessary. Steel products differ in budgetary cost, although specialists like them less than bronze products. Aluminum options are more expensive but lighten the wheel structure.
Why do we need?
A bicycle wheel spoke connects the hub to the rim. Due to it, the wheel acquires high strength with low weight. In addition to ensuring the integrity of the structure, the spokes are a kind of shock absorbers. Thanks to their flexibility, it is possible to distribute the load on the rim. In an upright position, they overcome gravity.
They consist of a rod and a nipple or a mushroom nut, which is necessary for fastening to the rim. The riveted end of the rod is bent, the second has a thread (threaded or knurled). Options of the second type are considered more reliable and durable. Bicycle spokes center the rim, keep the shape of the wheel, in addition to strength, give it rigidity.
By size and caliber
The size of the products depends on the type of bike.
- models for children and adolescents are suitable for options with parameters in 12 and 16 inches;
- the trial needs products in 19 and 20 inches;
- 20-inch spokes fit BMX, liguerads and folding bicycles;
- rear wheel modifications for turf, street, downhill and freeride require 24-inch products;
- the main part of mountain bicycles needs products with a size characteristic of 26 inches;
- 27 inches is considered an obsolete bicycle wheel size;
- 29 inches buy for mountain, hybrid, and city bike models.
The thickness of the needles is usually measured in mm. Depending on the type of bicycle spokes, its indicators can be 1.6, 1.8, 2, 2.3 mm. At the same time, depending on the bike, the models for the front and rear wheels may be different. The thickness of the reinforced models is 3 mm in diameter. Such options are used for motor wheels. The nipples are 12, 14, 16 mm long. Spoke parameters are matched to the diameter of the entire wheel.
To find out the necessary parameters, you have to resort to deriving a special formula or using a length calculator. The second method is much simpler, you can find Russified applications that are able to adjust the geometric length of the needles by 1 mm. The simplified formula looks like this:
SpokeLengthx = SQRT (Wx2Dx2ERD2-2DxERDcos (360 / (N / 2) K).
- SpokeLengthx. right or left spoke (XR or xL);
- Wx. WR or WL (length from center to flange);
- Dx. DR or DL (flange diameter);
- S. diameter of the hole for the spoke.
The assortment of brands includes products with a length of 175, 184, 186, 188, 252, 254, 262 mm. Based on the variety, the knitting needles can be standard or colored. The latest options are made of stainless steel.
In England, adult bicycle wheels were originally fitted with 72 spokes (32 in the front and 40 in the rear). In other countries, 36 spokes were put on the wheels. For a typical bike, this number was quite sufficient. Their number for a road-type analogue may be less (28, 24 pcs.).
It was believed that the reduction allows for greater maneuverability in terms of changing speeds. Marketers believed that for a good ride, it is enough to use no more than 32 units. for each wheel.
However, despite experiments with an extreme number of spokes (16 pcs.), Wheels with 36 spokes each have the best strength characteristics. Products with less quantity are suitable for recreational cyclists. In this case, the number of spokes in different models may vary, but it should always be a multiple of 2 or 4.
By standard sizes
The entire assortment on sale is divided into 2 groups: direct and indirect types. Variable section options include multiple rulers.
- Single-butted. Rare, thickened at the head end. They are used when high strength is required on wheels with a rim with typical holes.
- Double-butted. Helps reduce bike weight, thickened at both ends but flattened in the middle. Excellent stretch, transfer part of the stress to adjacent spokes, effective under shock loads.
- Triple-butted. They differ in three different section diameters. A great option for those looking for durable and strong bicycle spokes. They have the advantages of the first two types, suitable for tourism with a load.
- Aerodynamic flat. Looks like a teardrop or flat profile. They are too wide for a standard sleeve, which means that when fastening them, you have to make holes in the flange.
Bicycle spokes can be classified according to several characteristics.
Bicycle spokes: what are there and how to choose?
The quality of bicycle wheels depends on the level of performance of their elements. Wheels consist of three items: hubs, rims and spokes. In this case, the spokes are the connecting element of all parts. From the material of this article you will find out what they are and how to choose the desired option.