How to check spoke tension on a bicycle

Replacing the bike camera

To remove the tire and remove the damaged chamber, it is necessary to remove the remaining air: the cap is unscrewed and the wheel is lowered by continuous pressing on the nipple. If there is no air in the tire, which is more often the case with punctures, then simply unscrew the cap.

To remove the tire, you need special paddles. Of course, you can pry the camera with an ordinary screwdriver and even a knife, but it is better to have a professional tool. With the help of assemblies, the tire is pushed on from the side opposite to the nipple. As soon as it starts to tighten, you need to pry the sides a little further, until a sufficiently free part of the tire is formed, and it can be safely pulled off the rim.

You need to tighten it very carefully so as not to damage the rim, you should not use too much force. When the tire is removed, remove the damaged camera and install a new one. The nipple is threaded into the hole in the rim, then the chamber is evenly distributed around the circumference.

Attention! The camera must lie flat, without kinks, otherwise you will have to reinstall it. There must be a flipper at the bottom of the rim to protect it from the spokes. If it is torn, you need to install a new one or get by with two layers of thin electrical tape.

From above, the outer part of the tire is put on the rim, this time from the side of the nipple. When installing the tire, the correct direction of the tread pattern must be taken into account. Usually, arrows are drawn on the tires, and in the upside down state of the bike, the forward direction is backward in the lower position. However, the rear wheel of a speed mountain bike is easy to go wrong, thanks to the cassette on the side. After mounting, the camera is inflated.

How to tighten the spokes on a bicycle correctly?

Tightening the spokes at home is not an easy job and you will have to spend a sufficient amount of time on this operation, especially if you are starting the repair for the first time. To successfully complete this task, you should prepare special tools, without which you will not be able to tighten the spokes on the bicycle. To adjust the knitting needles you must purchase:

  • special key for adjustment;
  • a device that allows balancing;
  • a set of keys for dismantling the wheel;
  • screwdriver.

When to remove the rear wheel

It is unlikely that the idea of ​​unscrewing the chassis from the bicycle frame would just come to mind, unless, of course, a person specializes in bicycle dismantling. But this is a completely different case. Dismantling the rear wheel will be required if the following problems are observed:

  • noticeable damage to the rim;
  • complete wear when a wheel needs to be replaced;
  • a flat tire or a burst tire;
  • bulkhead bushing.

This includes the planned replacement of the rear sprocket system and chain.

Before removing the bike, turn it over and place it on the saddle and handlebars. It is better to remove awnings in the form of a mirror, a bell and a lantern in advance so as not to damage them under the weight of the frame. V-brakes are first released and disassembled, otherwise they will not allow the wheel to be pulled out freely. With disc models, everything is easier. you can immediately remove the wheel.

I must say that the removal process itself consists only in unscrewing the eccentric or unscrewing the fastening nuts from the axis of the bushing, who has something. If the mount is an eccentric, simply unscrew the handles and twist the wheel. The nut fastening is loosened with one or two wrenches.

Usually one wrench of the appropriate size is enough, with which the nuts are removed one by one. If the hub axle turns, then the nuts are unscrewed simultaneously in different directions. It is recommended to use open-end wrenches or box wrenches. The adjustable version is undesirable, as its thick horns “eat up” the corners of the nut due to loose fit and sliding.

With what effort is it necessary to pull the knitting needles?

It is recommended that the final wheel tension equalization be performed only after rim curvature issues have been resolved. This position should not be allowed when some of the spokes are relaxed, and some are pulled like a string to ringing.

As mentioned above, the main criterion for correct tension is the deflection of the element when it oscillates up to 2 mm.

The tension and balancing are performed correctly if during shrinkage there are no extraneous sounds in the form of a crackle or squeak.

Removing the cassette and bulkhead bushing

A hub is one part of a bicycle wheel that requires periodic maintenance. On average, you need to look into it once every 2000 km of run, in terms of time it is 2-3 months of active driving. If the wheel is already squeaking and there is a decrease in the efficiency of rotation, in other words, the great rides worse, then it’s time to remove it and inspect the hub.

The main problems with the bushing are backlash and insufficient lubrication of the bearings. Due to a violation of the fit or increased friction, the parts begin to wear out rapidly. If the wheel has not been serviced for a long time, the bearings may crumble altogether. To gain access to the bearings of the hub, you will need to temporarily get rid of the rear sprockets.

The reverse gear is removed using a puller and a so-called whip. Removing the cassette is a short-lived affair, but it will take a lot of effort to unscrew it from the wheel. In stages it looks like this:

  • The stripper is inserted into the cassette nut.
  • The whip holds the large star of the system so that it does not turn.
  • With a wrench, the puller rotates, unscrewing the slotted nut.
  • We remove the small stars that are installed on top, carefully fold them to the side along with the washers, and then remove the cassette itself.

Dismantling rear sprockets with a puller

Before disassembling the hub, you should slightly loosen the spoke tension. This can be done using a round key with knocked out holes for different diameters of the knitting needles. You need to loosen a little, a quarter of a revolution is enough. If the sleeve needs to be replaced, the spokes must be unscrewed enough to easily pull it out of the engagement.

A complete bushing replacement is required if both the axle and the bearings become unusable. However, often when the bushing is jammed, the axle is in normal condition, it is enough to change the bearings. Often, both will still serve faithfully if they are well lubricated. Proper lubrication will prevent parts from wear under dynamic loads.

Speed ​​bike rear hub diagram

The bulkhead of the axle part of the wheel is associated with cleaning the axle and bearing balls from dirt. The removed parts must be temporarily placed in a solvent, then allowed to dry, lubricated and reinstalled. Bearings in a skewed position must be adjusted by returning them to a straight position. However, during the backlash, the parts are already faulty, so replacement is the best option.

Tensioning the spokes on a bicycle

Wheel alignment requires high qualifications and a lot of experience. Many professional riders do almost all of the bike tuning themselves, but the professionals rely on the wheel alignment. Therefore, it makes sense to focus on the fact that the first time it is unlikely that it will be possible to do the alignment well.

To work, you need a special key for the spokes (more precisely, for the nipples of the spokes). Nipples come in different sizes: 3.22 mm., 3.3 mm., 3.45 mm., 3.96 mm. It is important that the key fits exactly, otherwise it will slip.

It is desirable, but not necessary, to have a special wheel straightening machine and a tool for measuring the tension force of the spokes. And it’s really great if you have a special tool for centering the rim relative to the hub.

If you do not have a special machine, you can adjust the wheel on the bike using the brake pads of the rim brakes to assess deformations. In this case, it is necessary to especially carefully check how level the wheel is and how the brakes work.

I usually write actions in steps: first step, second step, etc. But here I could not come up with such an algorithm. It is quite possible that after straightening the ovoid (radial displacement), the lateral displacement will have to be corrected again, or vice versa.

There are several criteria for evaluating alignment:

  • Lateral displacement
  • Radial displacement
  • Spoke tension
  • Centering with respect to the sleeve

All of these misalignments are corrected by tightening the spoke (turning the nipple clockwise) or loosening the spoke (counterclockwise). In this case, only the nipple rotates, the spoke itself does not rotate.

The spokes on the right pull the rim to the right. Those on the left. to the left. If the spokes are taut on one side, then the rim will be “skewed” at this point. It is worth paying attention to the following important point: the spoke affects not only the section of the rim to which it is attached, but also the neighboring (but to a lesser extent).

One spoke tension acts on adjacent rim sections

Since few people have a wheel straightener, the further description is focused on the option with installing a wheel on a bicycle. Naturally, before adjusting the rim, you need to remove the tire and tube. (There should also be a flipper. such a strip that protects the camera from the spokes, it can be removed immediately).

You can start inspecting the wheel with the tension on the spokes. If there are knitting needles that are not at all taut, you need to tighten them.

You can measure the tension of the spokes using a special tool. Each wheel has its own recommended values. The rear wheel spokes always have a tighter tension than the front spokes.

Analog and digital spoke tension meters

Perhaps experienced mechanics can tell the tension by sound or feel. But it seems to me that this is not the most reliable option.

If you want to tighten the wheel, you can turn the nipple of each spoke by touch. But it seems to me that this is not the most reliable option.

Many bicycle mechanic specialists do not know how to properly assemble wheels at all, which can be ridden for a long time without adjustment. But even qualified mechanics do not have enough time for thorough work and skip some operations, as a result of which quality and reliability are reduced. Therefore, it is best to understand and assemble the wheels yourself. This is done as follows:

Lubricate the spoke threads and rim with oil where they touch the nipples. Without this, it is impossible to pull the spokes tight enough.

If the holes on the hub flanges are countersunk on one side only, the spoke heads should be on the non-countersunk side. countersink is designed to bend the spoke.

Insert nine spokes into one flange so that there is a free hole between them and so that the heads are on the outside. If it is a rear wheel, start at the right (threaded) side of the hub.

Take the rim, find among the holes offset to the right, the closest to the right of the valve hole.

Insert the first spoke into this hole and turn the nipple two turns. This spoke is called the key.

Count four holes clockwise from the key spoke, insert the next spoke and tighten the nipple.

Check what you have done for the following conditions:

but. The threaded part of the sleeve faces the worker;

b. The spoke closest to the valve hole is to the right of it;

from. Both spokes connect the right side of the rim to the right flange of the hub:

d. Three free holes between the spokes.

If all these conditions are met, secure the remaining seven spokes using every fourth hole in the rim.

Bicycle wheel building: truing by ear. Free app to check spoke tension

Flip the wheel. Now it is facing you with its left side. Next, you need to connect to the rim nine spokes inserted from the outside into the left flange.

Find the key needle. It is located to the left of the valve hole or through one nipple hole.

The tenth spoke should be next to the key to the right (left. in the original) of the valve hole. In this case, the tenth spoke should not cross the key spoke.

After installing the tenth spoke, the remaining eight spokes of the left flange are dialed in the above sequence.

Now half of the knitting needles have been dialed. In the case of the rear wheel, these spokes are called drive spokes. Their heads should be on the outside of the 2 flange. If you look at the rim, pairs of free holes and pairs of holes with nipples should be interspersed along the entire circumference. The nipples should only be screwed in a few turns.

check, spoke, tension, bicycle

We turn to the tension spokes, the heads of which should be on the inside of the flange. We pass one tensioning needle through the hole in the flange and twist the sleeve so that the already dialed needles receive a direction as close as possible to the tangent to the flanges. For a rear wheel, grasp the threaded part of the hub and turn it clockwise. The first idler spokes intersect the three pre-assembled drive spokes (counting only those belonging to the same flange). Each tension spoke should run outside of the first two spokes it crosses and inward under the third crossed.

When assembling the first nine idler spokes, be sure to insert them into the corresponding holes in the rim, i.e. in those that are offset to their flange.

The rest of the tension needles are recruited in the same way. In this case, it may turn out that the ends of some of the spokes do not reach the nipple holes. This is usually caused by one or more of the nipples snagging on the rim with their tips and not going into the holes. If this is not the reason, then you have turned the nipples too far, which, until all the needles have been dialed, should turn no more than two turns.

B. Pre-tension

Before tightening the knitting needles, screw all the nipples to the same depth. For example, with long knitting needles so that their ends come out flush with the splines of the nipples. If the spokes are short for this, it is sufficient that the same number of threads are visible on all spokes. Uniform screwing of the nipples is very important because greatly facilitates the entire further process. In this case, the spokes should not be taut yet.

In the case of the rear wheel, now is the time to tackle the umbrella. The right knitting needles should have a higher tension than the left knitting needles. For most bushings, it is sufficient as a first approximation to turn all the right nipples another 3.5 turns.

We proceed to even tension of the knitting needles. Starting from the valve hole, turn each nipple one turn. If there is a lot of slack in the knitting needles, add one turn at a time. In this case, after passing three-quarters of the rim, it may become difficult to turn the nipples. This means that the second turn is excessive and all nipples tightened on the second turn should be returned to their original position, i.e. unscrew one turn. After that, start again from the valve hole and screw in all the nipples half a turn.

READ  How to remove a camera from a bicycle wheel

We install the wheel on the machine and see which unevenness of the rim is greater. vertical (ellipse) or horizontal (figure eight). You always have to rule the biggest one.

Let’s say we start with a figure eight, and the worst part of the rim is offset to the right over the four spokes. Two of them go to the right flange and two to the left. Tighten the left nipples a quarter of a turn, and release the right ones by the same amount, this section of the rim will shift to the left. However, the tension of the spokes does not change, since as many spokes have been loosened as tightened, and, moreover, by the same amount. If the section of the rim is shorter, for example, of three spokes. one left and two right, you can pull the left spoke half a turn, and release each of the right spokes a quarter of a turn. This is the principle of wheel balancing, thanks to which horizontal beating can be eliminated without compromising the vertical.

It may not be enough to completely correct this unevenness, but if there is improvement, you should not try to immediately achieve the final result. Now find the worst rim deflection to the left and tighten it. Thus, we go from one side to the other, we keep the pre-defined umbrella. Do not try to straighten the figure 8 better than 3 mm at this point. This is done during the final alignment after adjusting the umbrella and ellipse.

Find the section of the rim farthest from the hub. By pulling the knitting needles in this place, they bring him closer to her. This increases the rigidity of the entire wheels. The principle of balance described above also applies here. Suppose the plot found has three nipples. two left and one right. If you tighten the two left-hand spokes half a turn each, and the right one one turn, then the rim protrusion will retract without disturbing the uniformity of the tightness. In this way, you can straighten the ellipse without degrading the noteworthy figure eight.

Find the next section of the rim that is farthest from concentricity and pull it out as described. Then the next section, and so on. Each time the wheel will get closer to the circle, the spoke will be pulled tighter.

To what extent should the knitting needles be tightened? The best thing is to be as stiff as possible before the nipple edges start to eat away. the tension on the spokes gives the wheel strength. While riding, at any given moment, the various forces applied to one spokes are added, those applied to the others are subtracted. The spokes must have sufficient tension so that if the forces applied are weakened, the spoke never loses tension. Consecutive cycles of tension and sagging result in fracture.

If the wheel is already round and the spoke tension is insufficient, tighten all the nipples by the same amount (for example, half a turn) and check the wheel for concentricity again.

Straightening an ellipse requires more tightening than a figure eight, and in this case, you can tighten the knitting needles half a turn or even a full turn at a time. For preliminary dressing of figure eight. quarter and half turn, for precise dressing. 1/8 and 1/4 turn.

The rear wheel umbrella must be in a plane halfway between the lugs of the rear hub. Otherwise, the bike will tend to turn to the side.

The easiest way to check the correctness of the umbrella is the distance from the rim to the brake pads. This distance is measured when the wheel is in the normal position and when the right end of the axle is inserted into the left tip (i.e. the wheel is upside down). In both cases, the distance must be the same. However, this method is suitable only if the axis is not bent.

To adjust the umbrella, with the needles fully tensioned, release the nipples on one side by the same amount and tighten the nipples on the other side (usually 1/4 turn). If the spokes are not very tight, you can only tighten the nipples on the side where you want to slide the rim. At the same time, the rigidity of the entire wheel will also increase.

F. Final setup

The final setting consists in sequentially repeating all three processes, straightening the ellipse, figure eight and umbrella. Adjustment of one can affect the rest, so at each given moment you need to work on what is most different from the norm.

G. Final tension

Now you should have a wheel that is no different from the serial factory one: all three parameters are within the normal range, the spokes are sufficiently tight. Many mechanics would consider the job finished. However, when driving, such a wheel will quickly go out of the norm. The fact is that the spoke heads have not yet fully entered the holes of the flanges, and the nipples into the holes of the rim. When driving, they begin to “sit down” more tightly and upset the balance of the wheel.

check, spoke, tension, bicycle

There are several ways to shrink knitting needles. For example: take the wheel in both hands, push hard on the spokes at their intersection, turn the wheel and do the same with the next four spokes, and so on along the entire circumference of the wheel. At the same time, creaks and crackles will be heard, that is, the sound of shrinking spokes. After this procedure, the wheel may become somewhat out of order. Adjust it again and repeat the needle wrench. Continue the whole process until it stops affecting the rim and the sound stops.

There is another reason why the wheel quickly goes out of order. This is the twisting of the knitting needles. When tightened tightly, the rotation of the nipple can initially twist, i.e.

After the wheel is fully balanced, make sure the ends of the spokes do not protrude above the rim. Otherwise, they must be cut down.

Remove any remaining grease that will spoil monotube or chambers!

Take your time when adjusting the wheel. If you are tired, put off work and return to it only with a fresh mind.

The wheel is one of the most important parts of a bicycle. If you take two bikes. one super duper and the other a cheap ten-speed one. and swap wheels, the cheaper one is faster. But finding good wheels is not easy. And the fact that the wheel is balanced at the time of purchase does not at all guarantee that it will remain so during operation.

The very process of wheel alignment requires high qualifications and, as a result, a lot of experience. Many professional riders do almost all of the bike tuning themselves, but the professionals rely on the wheel alignment. Therefore, you must be prepared for the fact that the first time you may not be able to do the alignment well.

To work, you need a special spoke wrench (more precisely, for the spoke nipples). Nipples come in different sizes: 3.22 mm., 3.3 mm., 3.45 mm., 3.96 mm. It is important that the key fits exactly, otherwise it will slip.

This is what the spokes keys look like.

It is desirable, but not necessary, to have a special wheel straightening machine and a tool for measuring the tension force of the spokes. And it’s really great if you have a special tool for centering the rim relative to the hub.

If you do not have a special machine, you can adjust the wheel on the bike using the brake pads of the rim brakes to assess deformations. In this case, it is necessary to especially carefully check how level the wheel is and how the brakes work.

The actions are usually described in steps: the first step, the second, etc. In this case, most of all, some operations will need to be repeated several times. It is quite possible that after straightening the ovoid (radial displacement), the lateral displacement will have to be corrected again, or vice versa.

There are several criteria for evaluating alignment: Lateral offset Radial offset Spoke tension Centering relative to hub

All of these misalignments are corrected by tightening the spoke (turning the nipple clockwise) or loosening the spoke (counterclockwise). In this case, only the nipple rotates, the spoke itself does not rotate.

The spokes on the right pull the rim to the right. Those on the left. to the left. If the spokes are taut on one side, then the rim will be “skewed” at this point. It is worth paying attention to the following important point: the spoke affects not only the section of the rim to which it is attached, but also the neighboring (but to a lesser extent).

One spoke tension acts on adjacent rim sections

Since few people have a wheel straightener, the further description is focused on the option with installing a wheel on a bicycle. Naturally, before adjusting the rim, you need to remove the tire and tube. (There should also be a flipper. such a strip that protects the camera from the spokes, it can be removed immediately).

You can start inspecting the wheel with the tension on the spokes. If there are knitting needles that are not at all taut, you need to tighten them.

You can measure the tension of the spokes using a special tool. Each wheel has its own recommended values. The rear wheel spokes always have a tighter tension than the front spokes.

Analog and digital spoke tension meters

Perhaps experienced mechanics can tell the tension by sound or feel. But it seems to me that this is not the most reliable option.

Many bicycle mechanic specialists do not know how to properly assemble wheels at all, which can be ridden for a long time without adjustment. But even qualified mechanics do not have enough time for thorough work and skip some operations, as a result of which quality and reliability are reduced. Therefore, it is best to understand and assemble the wheels yourself. This is done as follows:

Lubricate the spoke threads and rim with oil where they touch the nipples. Without this, it is impossible to pull the spokes tight enough.

If the holes on the hub flanges are countersunk on one side only, the spoke heads should be on the non-countersunk side. countersink is designed to bend the spoke.

Insert nine spokes into one flange so that there is a free hole between them and so that the heads are on the outside. If it is a rear wheel, start at the right (threaded) side of the hub.

Take the rim, find among the holes offset to the right, the closest to the right of the valve hole.

Insert the first spoke into this hole and turn the nipple two turns. This spoke is called the key.

Count four holes clockwise from the key spoke, insert the next spoke and tighten the nipple.

Check what you have done for the following conditions:

but. The threaded part of the sleeve faces the worker;

b. The spoke closest to the valve hole is to the right of it;

from. Both spokes connect the right side of the rim to the right flange of the hub:

d. Three free holes between the spokes.

If all these conditions are met, secure the remaining seven spokes using every fourth hole in the rim.

Flip the wheel. Now it is facing you with its left side. Next, you need to connect to the rim nine spokes inserted from the outside into the left flange.

Find the key needle. It is located to the left of the valve hole or through one nipple hole.

The tenth spoke should be next to the key to the right (left. in the original) of the valve hole. In this case, the tenth spoke should not cross the key spoke.

After installing the tenth spoke, the remaining eight spokes of the left flange are dialed in the above sequence.

Now half of the knitting needles have been dialed. In the case of the rear wheel, these spokes are called drive spokes. Their heads should be on the outside of the 2 flange. If you look at the rim, pairs of free holes and pairs of holes with nipples should be interspersed along the entire circumference. The nipples should only be screwed in a few turns.

We turn to the tension spokes, the heads of which should be on the inside of the flange. We pass one tensioning needle through the hole in the flange and twist the sleeve so that the already dialed needles receive a direction as close as possible to the tangent to the flanges. For a rear wheel, grasp the threaded part of the hub and turn it clockwise. The first idler spokes intersect the three pre-assembled drive spokes (counting only those belonging to the same flange). Each tension spoke should run outside of the first two spokes it crosses and inward under the third crossed.

When assembling the first nine idler spokes, be sure to insert them into the corresponding holes in the rim, i.e. in those that are offset to their flange.

The rest of the tension needles are recruited in the same way. In this case, it may turn out that the ends of some of the spokes do not reach the nipple holes. This is usually caused by one or more of the nipples snagging on the rim with their tips and not going into the holes. If this is not the reason, then you have turned the nipples too far, which, until all the needles have been dialed, should turn no more than two turns.

B. Pre-tension

Before tightening the knitting needles, screw all the nipples to the same depth. For example, with long knitting needles so that their ends come out flush with the splines of the nipples. If the spokes are short for this, it is sufficient that the same number of threads are visible on all spokes. Uniform screwing of the nipples is very important because greatly facilitates the entire further process. In this case, the spokes should not be taut yet.

In the case of the rear wheel, now is the time to tackle the umbrella. The right knitting needles should have a higher tension than the left knitting needles. For most bushings, it is sufficient as a first approximation to tighten all right nipples an additional 3.5 turns.

We proceed to even tension of the knitting needles. Starting from the valve hole, turn each nipple one turn. If there is a lot of slack in the knitting needles, add one turn at a time. In this case, after passing three-quarters of the rim, it may become difficult to turn the nipples. This means that the second turn is excessive and all nipples tightened on the second turn should be returned to their original position, i.e. unscrew one turn. After that, we start again from the valve hole and screw all the nipples half a turn.

We install the wheel on the machine and see which unevenness of the rim is greater. vertical (ellipse) or horizontal (figure eight). You always have to rule the biggest one.

Let’s say we start with a figure eight, and the worst part of the rim is offset to the right over the four spokes. Two of them go to the right flange and two to the left. Tighten the left nipples a quarter of a turn, and release the right ones by the same amount, this section of the rim will shift to the left. However, the tension of the spokes does not change, since as many spokes have been loosened as tightened, and, moreover, by the same amount. If the section of the rim is shorter, for example, of three spokes. one left and two right, you can pull the left spoke half a turn, and release each of the right spokes a quarter of a turn. This is the principle of wheel balancing, thanks to which horizontal beating can be eliminated without compromising the vertical.

READ  How to remove the bearing from the rear wheel of a bicycle

It may not be enough to completely correct this unevenness, but if there is improvement, you should not try to immediately achieve the final result. Now find the worst rim deflection to the left and tighten it. Thus, we go from one side to the other, we keep the pre-defined umbrella. Do not try to straighten the figure 8 better than 3 mm at this point. This is done during the final alignment after adjusting the umbrella and ellipse.

Find the section of the rim farthest from the hub. By pulling the knitting needles in this place, they bring him closer to her. This increases the rigidity of the entire wheels. The principle of balance described above also applies here. Suppose the plot found has three nipples. two left and one right. If you tighten the two left-hand spokes half a turn each, and the right one one turn, then the rim protrusion will retract without disturbing the uniformity of the tightness. In this way, you can straighten the ellipse without degrading the noteworthy figure eight.

Find the next section of the rim that is farthest from concentricity and pull it out as described. Then the next section, and so on. Each time the wheel will get closer to the circle, the spoke will be pulled tighter.

To what extent should the knitting needles be tightened? The best thing is to be as stiff as possible before the nipple edges start to eat away. the tension on the spokes gives the wheel strength. While riding, at any given moment, the various forces applied to one spokes are added, those applied to the others are subtracted. The spokes must have sufficient tension so that if the forces applied are weakened, the spoke never loses tension. Consecutive cycles of tension and sagging result in fracture.

If the wheel is already round and the spoke tension is insufficient, tighten all the nipples by the same amount (for example, half a turn) and check the wheel for concentricity again.

Straightening an ellipse requires more tightening than a figure eight, and in this case, you can tighten the knitting needles half a turn or even a full turn at a time. For preliminary dressing of figure eight. quarter and half turn, for precise dressing. 1/8 and 1/4 turn.

The rear wheel umbrella must be in a plane halfway between the lugs of the rear hub. Otherwise, the bike will tend to turn to the side.

The easiest way to check the correctness of the umbrella is the distance from the rim to the brake pads. This distance is measured when the wheel is in the normal position and when the right end of the axle is inserted into the left tip (i.e. the wheel is upside down). In both cases, the distance must be the same. However, this method is suitable only if the axis is not bent.

To adjust the umbrella, with the needles fully tensioned, release the nipples on one side by the same amount and tighten the nipples on the other side (usually 1/4 turn). If the spokes are not very tight, you can only tighten the nipples on the side where you want to slide the rim. At the same time, the rigidity of the entire wheel will also increase.

F. Final setup

The final setting consists in sequentially repeating all three processes, straightening the ellipse, figure eight and umbrella. Adjustment of one can affect the rest, so at each given moment you need to work on what is most different from the norm.

G. Final tension

Now you should have a wheel that is no different from the serial factory one: all three parameters are within the normal range, the spokes are sufficiently tight. Many mechanics would consider the job finished. However, when driving, such a wheel will quickly go out of the norm. The fact is that the spoke heads have not yet fully entered the holes of the flanges, and the nipples into the holes of the rim. When driving, they begin to “sit down” more tightly and upset the balance of the wheel.

There are several ways to shrink knitting needles. For example: take the wheel in both hands, push hard on the spokes at their intersection, turn the wheel and do the same with the next four spokes, and so on along the entire circumference of the wheel. At the same time, creaks and crackles will be heard, that is, the sound of shrinking spokes. After this procedure, the wheel may become somewhat out of order. Adjust it again and repeat the needle wrench. Continue the whole process until it stops affecting the rim and the sound stops.

There is another reason why the wheel quickly goes out of order. This is the twisting of the knitting needles. When tightened tightly, the rotation of the nipple can initially twist, i.e. turn the spoke instead of pulling it up the thread. For example, suppose you want to tighten a knitting needle a quarter turn. In this case, the following happens not so rarely: first, at one eighth of a turn, the spoke itself rotates together with the nipple, then the thread is fed and pulls the spoke for the remaining 1/8 of a turn. After a while, the twisted spoke gives back and unwinds the tightening in the nipple. The easiest way to get rid of this is to tighten the nipple 3/8 of a turn and then loosen it 1/8 so that a clean 1/4 turn pull-up is obtained without twisting. With some experience, you will feel when the spoke begins to curl. A beginner can, before stretching, apply marks on all the needles with a felt-tip pen, which will rotate when twisted.

After the wheel is fully balanced, make sure the ends of the spokes do not protrude above the rim. Otherwise, they must be cut down.

Remove any remaining grease that will spoil monotube or chambers!

Take your time when adjusting the wheel. If you are tired, put off work and return to it only with a fresh mind.

Wheel assembly steps

After completing all the above steps, you need to relieve tension from the newly assembled wheel. There are two ways:

  • Squeeze the spokes in your hand in groups of 4 at their intersection along the entire circumference of the wheel. At the same time, you may hear a slight creak or a small crackle. do not be alarmed: this means that the spokes have “shrunk” in the aluminum rims. The process is repeated until the sound stops;
  • Press down on the wheel rim. Thanks to this, the nipples will firmly take their position in the rim.

The wheel is one of the most important parts of a bicycle. If you take two bikes. one super duper and the other a cheap ten-speed one. and swap wheels, the cheaper one is faster. But finding good wheels is not easy. And the fact that the wheel is balanced at the time of purchase does not at all guarantee that it will remain so during operation.

The very process of wheel alignment requires high qualifications and, as a result, a lot of experience. Many professional riders do almost all of the bike tuning themselves, but the professionals rely on the wheel alignment. Therefore, you must be prepared for the fact that the first time you may not be able to do the alignment well.

To work, you need a special spoke wrench (more precisely, for the spoke nipples). Nipples come in different sizes: 3.22 mm., 3.3 mm., 3.45 mm., 3.96 mm. It is important that the key fits exactly, otherwise it will slip.

This is what the spokes keys look like.

It is desirable, but not necessary, to have a special wheel straightening machine and a tool for measuring the tension force of the spokes. And it’s really great if you have a special tool for centering the rim relative to the hub.

If you do not have a special machine, you can adjust the wheel on the bike using the brake pads of the rim brakes to assess deformations. In this case, it is necessary to especially carefully check how level the wheel is and how the brakes work.

The actions are usually described in steps: the first step, the second, etc. In this case, most of all, some operations will need to be repeated several times. It is quite possible that after straightening the ovoid (radial displacement), the lateral displacement will have to be corrected again, or vice versa.

There are several criteria for evaluating alignment: Lateral misalignment Radial misalignment Spoke tension Alignment to hub

All of these misalignments are corrected by tightening the spoke (turning the nipple clockwise) or loosening the spoke (counterclockwise). In this case, only the nipple rotates, the spoke itself does not rotate.

The spokes on the right pull the rim to the right. Those on the left. to the left. If the spokes are taut on one side, then the rim will be “skewed” at this point. It is worth paying attention to the following important point: the spoke affects not only the section of the rim to which it is attached, but also the neighboring (but to a lesser extent).

One spoke tension acts on adjacent rim sections

Since few people have a wheel straightener, the further description is focused on the option with installing a wheel on a bicycle. Naturally, before adjusting the rim, you need to remove the tire and tube. (There should also be a flipper. such a strip that protects the camera from the spokes, it can be removed immediately).

You can start inspecting the wheel with the tension on the spokes. If there are knitting needles that are not at all taut, you need to tighten them.

You can measure the tension of the spokes using a special tool. Each wheel has its own recommended values. The rear wheel spokes always have a tighter tension than the front spokes.

Analog and digital spoke tension meters

Perhaps experienced mechanics can tell the tension by sound or feel. But it seems to me that this is not the most reliable option.

Many bicycle mechanic specialists do not know how to properly assemble wheels at all, which can be ridden for a long time without adjustment. But even qualified mechanics do not have enough time for thorough work and skip some operations, as a result of which quality and reliability are reduced. Therefore, it is best to understand and assemble the wheels yourself. This is done as follows:

Lubricate the spoke threads and rim with oil where they touch the nipples. Without this, it is impossible to pull the spokes tight enough.

If the holes on the hub flanges are countersunk on one side only, the spoke heads should be on the non-countersunk side. countersink is designed to bend the spoke.

Insert nine spokes into one flange so that there is a free hole between them and so that the heads are on the outside. If it is a rear wheel, start at the right (threaded) side of the hub.

how to wheel spoke tension check using a phone app!! free!! venzo road bike, mavic, parktool, truing

Take the rim, find among the holes offset to the right, the closest to the right of the valve hole.

Insert the first spoke into this hole and turn the nipple two turns. This spoke is called the key.

Count four holes clockwise from the key spoke, insert the next spoke and tighten the nipple.

Check what you have done for the following conditions:

but. The threaded part of the sleeve faces the worker;

b. The spoke closest to the valve hole is to the right of it;

from. Both spokes connect the right side of the rim to the right flange of the hub:

d. Three free holes between the spokes.

If all these conditions are met, secure the remaining seven spokes using every fourth hole in the rim.

Flip the wheel. Now it is facing you with its left side. Next, you need to connect to the rim nine spokes inserted from the outside into the left flange.

Find the key needle. It is located to the left of the valve hole or through one nipple hole.

The tenth spoke should be next to the key to the right (left. in the original) of the valve hole. In this case, the tenth spoke should not cross the key spoke.

After installing the tenth spoke, the remaining eight spokes of the left flange are dialed in the above sequence.

Now half of the knitting needles have been dialed. In the case of the rear wheel, these spokes are called drive spokes. Their heads should be on the outside of the 2 flange. If you look at the rim, pairs of free holes and pairs of holes with nipples should be interspersed along the entire circumference. The nipples should only be screwed in a few turns.

We turn to the tension spokes, the heads of which should be on the inside of the flange. We pass one tensioning needle through the hole in the flange and twist the sleeve so that the already dialed needles receive a direction as close as possible to the tangent to the flanges. For a rear wheel, grasp the threaded part of the hub and turn it clockwise. The first idler spokes intersect the three pre-assembled drive spokes (counting only those belonging to the same flange). Each tension spoke should run outside of the first two spokes it crosses and inward under the third crossed.

When assembling the first nine idler spokes, be sure to insert them into the corresponding holes in the rim, i.e. in those that are offset to their flange.

The rest of the tension needles are recruited in the same way. In this case, it may turn out that the ends of some of the spokes do not reach the nipple holes. This is usually caused by one or more of the nipples snagging on the rim with their tips and not going into the holes. If this is not the reason, then you have turned the nipples too far, which, until all the needles have been dialed, should turn no more than two turns.

Before tightening the knitting needles, screw all the nipples to the same depth. For example, with long knitting needles so that their ends come out flush with the splines of the nipples. If the spokes are short for this, it is sufficient that the same number of threads are visible on all spokes. Uniform screwing of the nipples is very important because greatly facilitates the entire further process. In this case, the spokes should not be taut yet.

In the case of the rear wheel, now is the time to tackle the umbrella. The right knitting needles should have a higher tension than the left knitting needles. For most bushings, it is sufficient as a first approximation to tighten all right nipples an additional 3.5 turns.

READ  How to Hang a Bicycle in the Garage

We proceed to even tension of the knitting needles. Starting from the valve hole, turn each nipple one turn. If there is a lot of slack in the knitting needles, add one turn at a time. In this case, after passing three-quarters of the rim, it may become difficult to turn the nipples. This means that the second turn is excessive and all nipples tightened on the second turn should be returned to their original position, i.e. unscrew one turn. After that, we start again from the valve hole and screw all the nipples half a turn.

We install the wheel on the machine and see which unevenness of the rim is greater. vertical (ellipse) or horizontal (figure eight). You always have to rule the biggest one.

Let’s say we start with a figure eight, and the worst part of the rim is offset to the right over the four spokes. Two of them go to the right flange and two to the left. Tighten the left nipples a quarter of a turn, and release the right ones by the same amount, this section of the rim will shift to the left. However, the tension of the spokes does not change, since as many spokes have been loosened as tightened, and, moreover, by the same amount. If the section of the rim is shorter, for example, of three spokes. one left and two right, you can pull the left spoke half a turn, and release each of the right spokes a quarter of a turn. This is the principle of wheel balancing, thanks to which horizontal beating can be eliminated without compromising the vertical.

It may not be enough to completely correct this unevenness, but if there is improvement, you should not try to immediately achieve the final result. Now find the worst rim deflection to the left and tighten it. Thus, we go from one side to the other, we keep the pre-defined umbrella. Do not try to straighten the figure 8 better than 3 mm at this point. This is done during the final alignment after adjusting the umbrella and ellipse.

Find the section of the rim farthest from the hub. By pulling the knitting needles in this place, they bring him closer to her. This increases the rigidity of the entire wheels. The principle of balance described above also applies here. Suppose the plot found has three nipples. two left and one right. If you tighten the two left-hand spokes half a turn each, and the right one one turn, then the rim protrusion will retract without disturbing the uniformity of the tightness. In this way, you can straighten the ellipse without degrading the noteworthy figure eight.

Find the next section of the rim that is farthest from concentricity and pull it out as described. Then the next section, and so on. Each time the wheel will get closer to the circle, the spoke will be pulled tighter.

To what extent should the knitting needles be tightened? The best thing is to be as stiff as possible before the nipple edges start to eat away. the tension on the spokes gives the wheel strength. While riding, at any given moment, the various forces applied to one spokes are added, those applied to the others are subtracted. The spokes must have sufficient tension so that if the forces applied are weakened, the spoke never loses tension. Consecutive cycles of tension and sagging result in fracture.

If the wheel is already round and the spoke tension is insufficient, tighten all the nipples by the same amount (for example, half a turn) and check the wheel for concentricity again.

Straightening an ellipse requires more tightening than a figure eight, and in this case, you can tighten the knitting needles half a turn or even a full turn at a time. For preliminary dressing of figure eight. quarter and half turn, for precise dressing. 1/8 and 1/4 turn.

The rear wheel umbrella must be in a plane halfway between the lugs of the rear hub. Otherwise, the bike will tend to turn to the side.

The easiest way to check the correctness of the umbrella is the distance from the rim to the brake pads. This distance is measured when the wheel is in the normal position and when the right end of the axle is inserted into the left tip (i.e. the wheel is upside down). In both cases, the distance must be the same. However, this method is suitable only if the axis is not bent.

To adjust the umbrella, with the needles fully tensioned, release the nipples on one side by the same amount and tighten the nipples on the other side (usually 1/4 turn). If the spokes are not very tight, you can only tighten the nipples on the side where you want to slide the rim. At the same time, the rigidity of the entire wheel will also increase.

The final setting consists in sequentially repeating all three processes, straightening the ellipse, figure eight and umbrella. Adjustment of one can affect the rest, so at each given moment you need to work on what is most different from the norm.

Now you should have a wheel that is no different from the serial factory one: all three parameters are within the normal range, the spokes are sufficiently tight. Many mechanics would consider the job finished. However, when driving, such a wheel will quickly go out of the norm. The fact is that the spoke heads have not yet fully entered the holes of the flanges, and the nipples into the holes of the rim. When driving, they begin to “sit down” more tightly and upset the balance of the wheel.

There are several ways to shrink knitting needles. For example: take the wheel in both hands, push hard on the spokes at their intersection, turn the wheel and do the same with the next four spokes, and so on along the entire circumference of the wheel. At the same time, creaks and crackles will be heard, that is, the sound of shrinking spokes. After this procedure, the wheel may become somewhat out of order. Adjust it again and repeat the needle wrench. Continue the whole process until it stops affecting the rim and the sound stops.

There is another reason why the wheel quickly goes out of order. This is the twisting of the knitting needles. When tightened tightly, the rotation of the nipple can initially twist, i.e. turn the spoke instead of pulling it up the thread. For example, suppose you want to tighten a knitting needle a quarter turn. In this case, the following happens not so rarely: first, at one eighth of a turn, the spoke itself rotates together with the nipple, then the thread is fed and pulls the spoke for the remaining 1/8 of a turn. After a while, the twisted spoke gives back and unwinds the tightening in the nipple. The easiest way to get rid of this is to tighten the nipple 3/8 of a turn and then loosen it 1/8 so that a clean 1/4 turn pull-up is obtained without twisting. With some experience, you will feel when the spoke begins to curl. A beginner can, before stretching, apply marks on all the needles with a felt-tip pen, which will rotate when twisted.

After the wheel is fully balanced, make sure the ends of the spokes do not protrude above the rim. Otherwise, they must be cut down.

Remove any remaining grease that will spoil monotube or chambers!

Take your time when adjusting the wheel. If you are tired, put off work and return to it only with a fresh mind.

Everything’s possible. Collecting a wheel is time consuming and requires certain skills. Usually, an experienced mechanic spends less than an hour collecting a wheel, but at one time he also spent much more time on it. Collecting wheels is not an impossible task, you just need a little patience and a sequence of actions. There are many types of wheel spokes, the main ones are “radial” and “cross”. We will look at the knitting pattern. 3 crosses. This means that each spoke will be crossed three times. This is the most common time-tested lacing.

Let’s split the complete collection of the wheel into several stages:. Preparation;. Installation of spokes or wheel padding;. Adjustment and tension of the spokes;

First stage is to determine the desired length of the needles. If the front wheel has spokes on both sides of the same length, then the rear wheel is more complex. Due to the presence of speeds and the requirement for the wheel to be centered, the spokes will have a different angle of inclination, and therefore different lengths. To determine the length of the knitting needles, you can use calculators that are not difficult to find on the Internet. As one of the options will do. The calculator will prompt you to make some measurements of the hub and rim and will automatically calculate the spokes based on this. The calculator has illustrations showing what to measure.

On the second stage we need:. Rim;.;.;. Screwdriver and spoke wrench;

The rim has spoke holes that are slightly tilted / offset to the left and right. This is worth paying attention to. The spokes from the right flange of the bushing should be inserted into the holes offset to the right side, from the left flange. to the left. The spokes are divided into 4 groups: half of the spokes of the right flange and the second half of the left flange. Each flange, in turn, has half the “leading” spokes and half the “tail”.

Leading spokes. spokes directed along the direction of rotation of the wheel. Indicated by shades of blue.Tail spokes. spokes directed against the direction of rotation of the wheel. Indicated by shades of red.

We will fasten the spokes to the rim in groups.

On the aesthetic side, professionals align the sleeve markings so that it is visible through the camera nipple hole. If you hold the wheel with the right side towards you (if this is a rear wheel, then the drum for the stars towards you) and the hole for the chamber nipple (spool) for 12 o’clock, then it is enough to turn the bushing so that the marking looks at 9 o’clock and the lacing starts from the upper hole of the flange bushings.

The first spoke we install will be called key This knitting needle must be in place. The key spoke is the tail spoke and will run inside the flange (the head is on the outside). The spoke is inserted from the outside of the right flange and is guided into the rim hole next to the spool hole (clockwise), which is offset to the right. If the first hole is displaced to the left, then we insert into the next, it must be exactly displaced to the right. We twist the nipple a few turns so that the spoke does not fall out. Then we pass the next knitting needle through one hole of the same flange and direct it to the hole next 3 after the key. This should be continued until all the needles of the first group are in place. For a 32-spoke rim, each group consists of 8 spokes.

Now turn the wheel over so that the left flange of the hub is directed towards us. The holes on the right and left flange are not aligned. This can be checked with a knitting needle. Let’s move on to installing the second group of knitting needles. These needles will also be tail needles and will run inside the flange (inserted from the outside). Turn the rim so that the spool is on top. The key spoke is now to the left of the spool If the key spoke is in the first hole after the spool, then the first spoke of the left flange should be located to the left of the key spoke and go into the hole in the rim to the left of the key spoke If the key spoke is in the second hole after the spool, then the first spoke of the left flange should be located to the right of the key spoke and go into the hole in the rim to the right of the key spoke (between the spool and the key). If done correctly, the key spoke does not intersect with the spoke you just installed. Install the rest of the needles of the second group according to the same rules.

When finished, we have all the tail spokes installed. Rim filled according to the 2-spoke 2-hole rule.

Now let’s move on to installing the leading spokes. We turn the wheels over with the right flange towards us. The spokes will now be installed from the inside of the flange. the spokes are on the outside, the head is inside. We insert a knitting needle into any hole. Turn the bushing clockwise so that the leading spoke crosses the 3 tail spoke. over, it crosses the first two from the outside, and the third from the inside. You will have to bend the leading spoke a little so that it goes under the tail spoke. On the rim we have two free holes, we also insert this spoke into the hole in the rim corresponding to the side of the flange (right). Install the rest of the leading knitting needles.

If something does not work out, then it is worth checking the correct position of the spokes. After all the spokes are installed, you should check the position of the spokes again so that the spokes on the rim go in turn to the right, then to the left flange.

This is followed by an initial adjustment based on uniform tightening of the nipples. We twist all the nipples by the same number of turns (you can start with 2-3 turns) so that the spokes have approximately the same tension. But they shouldn’t be too tight. Leading spokes are usually curved near the flange. Before starting to tighten the spokes, bend them by hand, pressing each spoke a few centimeters from the flange so that they better press against the flange.

Removing the wheels from the frame is part of a mandatory bicycle maintenance procedure. Sooner or later, the wheel of even the most advanced bike will present surprises in the form of deformation of the rim, damage to the spokes, a burst tube or even the entire tire, as well as wear of the sprocket system for the rear wheel.

Experienced cyclists welcome self-repairing wheels, and it is no coincidence: it’s cheaper, and you will gain skills. You can also go to a good workshop, where the problem will be solved, perhaps faster, but not free of charge. over, the service is hardly located under the windows of the house, so the bike will have to be dragged, which is not very pleasant. To avoid this, it is better to tinker a little yourself, especially since there is nothing complicated about the wheels. Today we’ll talk about how to remove the rear wheel from the bike, repair it and assemble it correctly.

How to assemble a bicycle wheel: the assembly process

We will tell you about the process of assembling the rear wheel, since in most cases cyclists have problems with it.

To assemble the rear wheel, you need the following tools:

  • small flat screwdriver;
  • machine for wheels;
  • umbrella meter;
  • spoke key;
  • a device that measures the tension of the wheel spokes;
  • electric screwdriver.