How to change the bearing on a children’s scooter

DIY electric scooter motor and controller

In this article I will tell you how to make a powerful motor for a scooter or children’s electric car with high efficiency and a simple controller at home.

This is what happened in the end: the engine described in the article below without changes, added a regulated power supply and a gas trigger, a small battery in the bag on the steering wheel 8S1P 2.5 Ah (quickly replaceable, you can take several with you, one such battery is enough for 9-12 km at medium speed)

change, bearing, children, scooter

The battery consumption depends on the speed, I enclose the energy consumption table for my weight of 85 kg:

The controller is now a full bridge of 4 IRFB4110 transistors installed without heatsinks, a regulated power supply delivers a voltage to this bridge from 25 to 70V at 24-33V at the input with an efficiency of more than 93%. The overall system efficiency is 80-85% (including losses on the battery wires to the controller and the engine).

Samsung INR18650-25R = 87 W / h (42V maximum with mid-tap, 2.5 A / h) I have enough full charge for

Initially, 1 hall sensor was used (but I already knew that this was a big loss since I had done such engines before), so the engine at idle consumed 42 W (1 A for each half of the battery, 221 or 142 in total) and heated up in 2 minutes up to 50 degrees (this is no load), the installation of 2 hall sensors reduced the no-load current by 10 times! and it was 100 mA (4.2 W) and it stopped heating. At the maximum load (riding uphill), the current reached 6 amperes (250 W) and the winding warmed up so that it was impossible to drive for more than a couple of minutes, and after installing 2 hall sensors and supplying power to the windings only at the right moments, according to the figure above, it completely solved the problem overheating (significantly increased efficiency) and the current when driving up the same hill fell 2 times (130 W)

And so the magnets with coils are packed in a case, the shaft (a M6 100mm bolt on which nuts with a rim, clamping for wheels, a magnet is fixed through a washer and a rubber gasket) is fixed in non-magnetic steel bearings (this is ideal, but I used ordinary cheap steel bearings, but the force magnetic field such that they spin with difficulty, so it is better to put a stainless steel immediately) and most importantly, how to start it now. I used the simplest option, one coil and one magnet. the cheapest option and fits perfectly for a scooter, of course, since we supply only 90. 120 degrees sector per cycle, then there are empty sectors left and such an engine will start with a jolt, but this is not a fan and the engine for the scooter, pushed off, turned on the engine and drove off, everything is simple. If you need an autostart, then at least you need to do a 2-phase 4-stroke, I put this in a children‘s car.

I associate the phrase “PWM regulation” with losses, you need to power it with direct current to avoid switching losses on the keys and not to heat the diodes in the keys, in general, the controller can work with an efficiency of 97% and higher if you forget about the PWM, and it is better to regulate the speed with the supply voltage (for example, in my scooter it is fixed at 13. 18 km / h, depending on the rider’s weight). Powering the winding in two cycles is possible either with a bridge, but then the losses are always on 2 keys or a half-bridge with power supply with a tap from the midpoint, this option was chosen since it halves the losses on the keys (the coil is always turned on only after 1 key). Another of the advantages of such a half-bridge is that the back emf, when the coil is turned off, is drained through 1 diode into the opposite shoulder and the losses on the diodes are also 2 times less, that is, more energy will return to the capacitor / battery as well from the recuperation from rolling down the hill. As a result, we get a half-bridge driver half-bridge control circuit.

The use of one hollow sensor does not make it possible to control the angle at which the winding is powered, therefore, you need at least 2 sensors located in such a way to get the windings turned on in the desired range, the easiest way is to make an angle of 90 degrees (for this you need to space the sensors 45 degrees from the coil turns in both side) then a pair of sensors will be enough for 4 cycles (we use only 2 of them for single-phase) Each sensor returns 2 positions that mean whether it sees the north or south pole, so when both see the north we turn on one key, when both see the south second, when using microcircuits from the cooler. it is implemented by logic 2 or not, power is supplied to the inputs of two logic elements through resistances at the outputs at the same time 0, the cooler’s microcircuits switch the inputs of the logic elements to zero, when both inputs are at zero at output 1. 1 key is turned on, and so when on the second logical element both inputs are at zero, another key is turned on. It’s simple. When choosing a cooler driver microcircuit (hall sensor), take into account that they are with and without stop protection, for a support motor like mine on a scooter it is better to use it with protection, it will start only at the beginning of the ride, but for an engine that should start itself you need to choose without protection and do it if necessary in another way (overcurrent protection for example).

I didn’t have any logic chips, that’s why I replaced them with transistors. Connection diagram of the mosfet driver by datasheet.

I want to note important points that will save the controller parts from accidental burning. The fact is that the back emf from the coil is a very tricky thing, it can burn all the electronics and the driver and microcircuits with the hall sensor. To prevent such situations, there must be capacitors at the power input into which the back emf from the coil is drained (through protective diodes in mosfets) in case of accidental disconnection of the battery, at least 1000 μF 50V with low esr. Also, in order to prevent high voltage surges from entering the driver output through the reverse capacitance of the mosfet, a zener diode at 13-15V must be in the source gate circuit (which is lower than the permissible gate voltage of 20V but higher than the control voltage from the 12V driver).

When turning on for the first time, it is better to connect the winding through a resistance limiting the maximum current (10-50 Ohm), by turning the hall sensors over, we achieve rotation in the desired direction. Also, by moving the sensors, you can find positions where idle consumption will be minimal and engine operation is quiet. It is not worthwhile to greatly reduce the feeding angle (Samsung INR18650-25R = 38

In total, the electrification of the scooter cost

  • the motor rotates without any resistance, which does not interfere with the ride on the scooter as on a normal scooter when the power is off
  • light weight
  • price
  • high efficiency
  • it is impossible to install such a motor near magnetic materials (it will lead to sticking of the rotor, the use of iron bolts in the body is also unacceptable, only stainless steel or glue)
  • cannot be installed very close to massive conductive materials (eddy current braking, ideally use a frame made of plastic, wood, carbon, then you can put it anywhere)
  • come up with and write in the comments (low speed does not roll, you can raise the voltage, I am satisfied with the speed for driving on footpaths)

Pinching the belt for more grip on the cogwheel

First turns on (with 1 more hall sensor and reduced supply voltage 2x8V) maximum speed 3-5 km / h

Adjusting the position of the sensors (we ride, measure consumption, re-glue the hall sensor, looking for the best option) in the photo is the optimal

How to install a new bearing

After removing the bearing from the scooter, you will need to start working on the new moving element. It is important to understand that a specific bearing size is appropriate for each model. Next comes the installation. To do this, fix the previously used bolt by using washers.

After that, place the bearing against the hole located in the center of the wheel, and very carefully drive it into the bushing with light pushes in the center of the bolt. To eliminate the possibility of damage to the part, it is better to use a hammer made of wood. To ensure better passage of the bearing through the bore, it is possible to use machine oil. When the bearing is still in the center of the wheel, you have to remove the bolt, and then reinstall the wheel on the vehicle.

How to replace wheels and bearings

Even the highest quality and most reliable city and stunt scooters will need to perform replacement of rotating elements during intensive use. Therefore, let’s take a closer look at the procedure.

Selecting a new part

Before proceeding directly with the installation work, you should correctly select new parts. The quality of repair and durability will depend on how responsibly you approach this task.

It should be clarified that bearings are often used that are of the sealed and shielded types. It is important to choose elements that fully correspond to the parameters of the previous ones. Since the shielded type prevents dirt and dust from entering the asphalt surface, they provide a longer service life, because friction of the parts is minimized. The use of sealed elements provides excellent maneuverability while riding. In this case, riders will have to choose based on their wishes and needs.

In addition, there is a specific industry standard classifier. It indicates the maximum load that is allowed for the part. The higher the level according to the presented classification, the higher the quality characteristics of the driving elements will be. It is important to understand that the place in the classifier will also depend on the cost of the parts. Therefore, you should look closely at more reliable and durable vehicles if you use a vehicle daily and quite intensively. If you ride a scooter a couple of times a season, there is no point in overpaying.

How to change wheels and bearings on a scooter

If you are an active user of the city scooter. rolling out on this vehicle several kilometers daily, after a certain time you have to find that the wheels begin to wedge, and they rotate rather poorly. The reason for such a problem may be the need to replace bearings that have become unusable. If we are not talking about a children‘s scooter. which is not equipped with complex structural elements, then repairs will be required.

Bearing extraction features

If the elements are in a special sleeve made of metal, extraction can be quite difficult. Such problems are most often eliminated by completely dismantling the wheel and installing a new one. However, it is possible, thanks to the use of a T-shaped hex wrench and a clamping bolt, to still remove the bearing.

  • Initially, it is necessary to arm yourself with a T-shaped wrench to remove the bearings, which allows you to push out the gaskets that close the rollers from the possibility of dirt and all kinds of debris. This will make it possible to get to the edge of the spacer, where the bearing is located.
  • When the edge of the locking cylinder is open in front of you, where the main ring is located, you can easily use a spacer that will allow you to remove the bearings.
  • Next, put the part that was removed on a flat surface, and the other edge must be positioned so that it is on a small hill of 3-5 cm.To do this, you can use a wooden bar.
  • Next, you need to insert the key into the hole of the element, ensuring it engages with the gasket.
  • After that, you will need to fix the hex head on the holder, which will push the bearing out of the scooter wheel. With a little effort, you have to squeeze out the part that is fixed on the key. Together with her, it is assumed that the gasket will fly out.

It should be emphasized that after completing the procedure, it is better to apply fuel oil to the scooter’s axle. Due to this, the speed of rotation of the wheel and its free wheeling will increase significantly. It is also important not to forget that the lower the resistance of materials in moving parts, the faster you can move along the streets of your city, while not making great efforts. In order for the unit to serve as long as possible, it is recommended to carry out maintenance from time to time, lubricating the parts and cleaning them from the dirt accumulated during the period of operation. Then you will have to face much less often all kinds of malfunctions in its work.

How to remove the bearing?

Removing the ball bearings from the metal cores of a miniature wheel on a modern scooter can be very challenging, especially if these are support bearings in a metal sleeve. It is even more difficult to remove a damaged part if it is “soldered” into the plastic base of the wheel. Typically, these issues are fixed by completely replacing the wheel, but we have one rather useful trick for you that can help make the process of removing ball bearings much easier.

How to remove the bearing from the wheel of a scooter, and what do you need for this? All you need to perform the procedure for replacing a damaged part is a T-shaped hex wrench, a hammer (medium metal and small wood), a clamping bolt with several nuts and washers (you can use a small piece of a spoke with a thread of a suitable diameter) and, the actual wheel of the scooter from which you want to remove the mini-bearings.

How to change the bearing on a scooter. a practical guide with a photo

If you actively use your scooter, rolling out several kilometers a day on it, after a while you will find that the wheels began to spin poorly or even get stuck. The cause of such a breakdown is a bearing that has become unusable and requires replacement.

Even the best scooters for children and adults, over time and with intensive use, need to replace the rotating elements of the wheel. In this article we will tell you how to change the bearing on a scooter if it breaks down or stops rotating completely.

Bearing types

Before removing the old bearing from the scooter wheel, you need to pick up a new one. Scooter wheels are one of the most important parts for driving. In modern scooters, as a rule, only a few types of the most common bearings are used, designed for 100 mm (less often 98 mm) wheels, namely: Flashrider 360, Proto Gripper, Slamm, BlackVoice V2.

There are basically two types of bearings, which are classified as sealed and shielded. Shielded roller bearings keep dust, sand and dirt out of the way, while sealed ball bearings provide excellent protection against many hazards and greatly increase maneuverability on roads and sidewalks. In addition, there are three other types of shielded bearings.

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Sealed ball bearings are rubber or Teflon sealed, making them impervious to dust or moisture. Their service life is quite long without any additional maintenance.

All bearings are classified according to ABEC industry standards. This classifier indicates how much load the inner and outer shell can withstand. The higher the level according to the classifier, the higher the quality of the driving element.

Installing a new bearing

After removing the bearing from the wheel of the scooter, you need to take care of the new moving element. It is very important to know where you can get the correct (preferably branded) spare parts for your scooter, so that the ride becomes even more pleasant and comfortable after replacement. After all, only one ball bearing size is suitable for each scooter model.

If you already have a new part, then we will proceed to the process of installing it into the wheel.

    Fix the previously used bolt with washers on the new element.

Place the ball bearing against the hole in the center of the wheel and with light blows in the center of the bolt begin to hammer it into the bushing.

  • It is best to use a wooden mallet at this stage to avoid damaging the scooter and its parts.
  • For better passage of the bearing through the bore, it can be slightly lubricated with machine oil.
  • When the bearing is in the center of the wheel, remove the bolt and return the wheel to its original position in the scooter.
  • How to change the bearing on a scooter wheel

    • The first step to removing the bearings from the wheel of your professional scooter is to use a special T-wrench (such as an Allen T-handle) to push out the spacers that protect the rollers / balls from dirt and debris to get to the edge of the spacer, in which the ball bearing is fixed.
    • Once you can see the edge of the locking cylinder that holds the main ring, you can easily use a spacer to pull one or more bearings out of the bushing.
    • Lay the dismantled part on a flat surface on one side, and place the other edge on a small elevation of 3-5 cm. The other edge can be supported on a small wooden beam. The main thing is that the wheel does not lie in a horizontal plane, but is located at a slight angle relative to the surface.
    • Insert a special T-handle wrench, the tip of which should be sized for the axle bolt, into the bore of the ball bearing to engage the gasket.

    Then fix the hex head on the holder, which should subsequently push out the scooter wheel bearing. Apply force (by your own weight) and squeeze out the part fixed to the key. Together with it, the gasket should fly out.

  • If it is not possible to remove the bearing with the key, then we take the bolt, pass it through the hole, and fix it by clamping the bearing between two washers. Now we take a hammer and knock out the part.
  • Do not be afraid to damage or completely break your old bearing. Such elements are never used twice, only replacement with a new one is always performed.

    After the work on replacing the bearing has been completed in full, and before mounting the wheel on the scooter axle, it is necessary to lubricate it with fuel oil. This will greatly increase the rotation speed and free wheel travel. Remember, the lower the resistance of materials in the moving parts of your scooter, the faster you can move without significant effort.

    How to remove a wheel

    To get to the very nut that secures the fork to the front wheel, sometimes you have to remove the decorative covers. The pads are usually attached to screws that are tightly screwed in, which can actually be unscrewed with a sized hexagon. Only after that we will get to the nut. it can be unscrewed without any problems with a wrench of 18 or slightly smaller. Unscrew the nut on both sides of the wheel and dismantle it.

    With the rear wheel it is much easier. it is held not by nuts, but by screws.

    It’s time to remove the tire. For this, it is highly undesirable to use tools or any other hard objects, since there is a risk of damaging the delicate rubber of the tire when replacing the camera on the wheel of the scooter. It is important to bleed as much air as possible from the wheel before starting work. then it will be much easier to replace it.

    DIY scooter repair. is it possible

    Whether it is possible to carry out repairs on your own depends on how the scooter broke down. There is no definite answer to this question. Some faults can be easily eliminated even by inexperienced owners. Repairing other breakdowns requires experience and special skills. Sometimes even specialists cannot carry out repairs, sports equipment has to be thrown away, replaced with new ones. At home, you can also make preventive repairs aimed at strengthening problem areas, preventing breakdowns.

    An easy action that you can do yourself is to replace the handles for the scooter, grips. On many models, they install quickly wearing and not very comfortable foam rubber. You can replace them immediately, without waiting for a breakdown, to softer or harder ones (depending on personal preferences).

    It is easy to fix by yourself and the steering wheel is scrolling. To do this, you must first establish the cause, and then eliminate it. If the steering collar is loose, the bolts will need to be tightened. A similar malfunction is often observed on new products. In cases where the front wheel fork is scrolling, it is better not to carry out repairs yourself, contact a specialist; it may be necessary to replace the adapter or fixing bolt, you will have to disassemble the entire steering part.

    When a backlash appears, the repair is easily carried out on its own: you just need to tighten the loose locking mechanism.

    How to replace

    In place of the old camera, we install a new one, trying to distribute it evenly along the inner side of the rim. Then we return the tire to its place. for this we use the paddles. We fix the wheel with nuts and screws. We inflate the tire to 4 atm and check for transmission. If the wheel can support your weight, and the vehicle runs vigorously, then the process was successful.

    How to fix a scooter depends on what kind of damage is observed. It is possible to cope with some malfunctions on your own at home, others will require the involvement of specialists from the service center. Beforehand, you should carefully inspect the product: if it is not possible to identify a breakdown, you need to give the transport to the master, temporarily refrain from riding.

    Folding mechanism repair

    How to fix a wheel on a scooter

    Each of us, seeing a happy child rushing on a scooter with glowing wheels, involuntarily has a smile on his face and a feeling of joy from this beauty. The glowing wheels look especially impressive in the dark. But, in addition to visual beauty, vehicles with luminous wheels (and scooters are a full-fledged small vehicle) carry not only external beauty, but also a small part of the child’s safety, because thanks to the glowing bulbs in the wheels, your child is on a scooter or bicycle will be seen from afar, especially in the dark.

    But, as soon as the wheels or one wheel stop glowing, everyone falls into despair: the child’s mood deteriorates, mothers and fathers do not know where the battery is in the wheel, new wheels are very expensive.

    At one time, when I myself first encountered a similar problem for the first time, I could not find a single article on the Internet that would tell in detail about the structure of the luminous wheel. That is why I decided to write this “manual” about the structure of the luminous wheel. Enjoy reading.

    I’ll start right away with the fact that there are no batteries in the glowing wheels on children‘s scooters, do not waste time looking for the place where the battery should be in the wheel

    In the middle of the wheel there is a through hole into which the axle is inserted (bolt, screw).

    On each side of the wheel, a bearing is put on the axle, a magnetic sleeve is put on the axle between the bearings. In ordinary wheels without LEDs, instead of a magnetic sleeve, an ordinary steel sleeve (spacer) can be inserted, or nothing is installed. There is a coil inside the wheel hub, from which there are wires to the LEDs. The LEDs themselves are usually located inside the polyurethane part of the wheel. The LEDs and the coil are wired together. Typically this type of wheel uses a parallel connection.

    Below is a schematic drawing of the above wheel parts.

    As soon as the wheels of the scooter are set in motion, the built-in reel begins to rotate together with the wheel, while the axle (and with it the installed magnet) remains stationary. If we do not immerse ourselves too much in the laws of physics, then we get the following picture: the coil spins around a stationary magnet, as a result of which an electric current is generated that flows to the LED bulbs and they begin to burn.

    Below we will consider typical situations with unlit lamps in the wheel:

    If one or some of the light bulbs on one wheel stop burning (there is at least one lit light bulb), then in this case either the LED light bulb (bulbs) itself has burned out, or the contact between the coil and the LED (LEDs) has disappeared. In any of these cases, a complete replacement of the wheel is required, since both the LEDs and the coil are “sealed” inside the wheel in production, you cannot pull them out without damaging the wheel.

    If, however, all the bulbs in the wheel stopped burning at once, then, with a high probability, the problem is in the absence of current supplied to the lamps. This, in turn, may be for the following reasons:

    Therefore, if the light bulbs on the wheel have ceased to burn, then the recommended sequence of actions is as follows:

    Tighten the wheel harder with hex keys, it is possible that during the operation of the scooter the fastening is loose and the magnetic sleeve rotates together with the wheel.

    If point 1 did not help you, then remove the bearings and pull out the magnetic sleeve. Examine it carefully, if it has significant damage, then its replacement is definitely necessary. There are times when the bushings simply fall apart due to improper operation. If it is intact, then it may be heavily contaminated, which negatively affects its performance. Clean it and the inside of the wheel and install the wheel. Perhaps after that the LEDs will be on.

    If neither point 1 nor point 2 helped you, then in this case the problem is with the coil or the LEDs themselves. Here, only a complete wheel replacement is necessary, since both the LEDs and the coil cannot be changed in any way.

    And this is how the magnetic sleeve itself looks like:

    And a couple of tips to extend the light in your wheels:

    do not ride in mud, do not make strong jumps on the wheels with LEDs, and in no case exceed the maximum permissible load on the scooter, as this may destroy the magnet.

    BUY MAGNETIC BUSHING HERE

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    The scooter on inflatable wheels is qualitatively different from its “silicone” counterparts. It drives where the others slow down. over rough terrain, puddles, sand and gravel. By the way, all adult high-speed sports models are produced exclusively on inflatable wheels of various diameters. In addition to the high cross-country ability, these scooters have excellent shock absorption, which contributes to the comfort of the driver. But the vehicle also has its drawbacks. this is the need for regular pumping of the wheels and the possibility of a puncture. If the first problem is quickly solved with a pump, then the second will require more time.

    Gluing or replacing the camera on the wheel of a scooter is a laborious process and is not always in the teeth of a beginner. Let’s find out how to do it. First, remove the “wounded” wheel.

    Strengthening the fork and changing wheels

    The rider should know how to repair the wheels: they often wear out, wear out quickly (especially with frequent training, improper care, riding in unsuitable conditions). You need to learn not only about replacing the wheels themselves: bearings deteriorate much more often, so they have to be changed more often.

    It is possible to change wheels not only in those situations when the old ones are broken: if an athlete decides to change his riding style, he can supply products of a different stiffness. In case of squeaks, wobbling, replacement is mandatory: ignoring these signs can lead to a fall, make riding dangerous. The rider will begin to feel the vibration of the board, after a while the wheel will completely deform and become unusable.

    The procedure is not difficult: using a hex screwdriver, the wheel is unscrewed from the scooter. If you only need to change the bearing, first remove the old one: for this, insert a screwdriver into the middle and push it sideways, while the part itself is easily separated. Then put on a new bearing. It is important not to forget to insert the sleeve when doing this. After that, you just need to screw the wheel back into place. It is possible to reduce the risk of such a malfunction by refusing to ride through puddles: since moisture washes away the lubricant, scooters who like to drive into the water break down faster.

    Improving the deck

    The deck is also an important part of this vehicle. Its condition is especially important for those riders who ride regularly for a long time. To ensure good grip with the sole, the risk of falling was not too great, the platform is covered with a special sandpaper, otherwise known as grip. It is recommended to install the part yourself if it is missing on the purchased scooter: this will make the ride safer. The material will gradually wear out, so it will need to be replaced periodically.

    Aluminum tubes are also used to strengthen the deck. These metal products are attached to the bottom with bolts. This method of prevention will reduce the risk of breakage and extend the life of the scooter.

    The main symptoms of bicycle brake malfunctions

    If you have studied the information on how to adjust the brakes on a bicycle, you should also additionally understand the signs indicating a breakdown of its brake system.

    Adjustment of the brake systems of bicycles is carried out in the event that you have purchased a new bike, as well as after the expiry of its running-in period.

    • The appearance of unusual sounds during movement, namely knocks, whistles, squeaks. This indicates that the car has problems with the pads or with the brake itself.
    • Poor response of bicycle brakes to the force applied by the cyclist to the brake lever. In this case, you can diagnose a malfunction of the hydraulic system or the bicycle brake cable.
    • The presence of visually detectable mechanical damage, namely traces of impact after a fall. In this case, the brakes will work, but they will have to be additionally adjusted.
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    Attention! Adjustment of the brake systems of bicycles is carried out in the event that you have purchased a new bike, as well as after the expiry of its running-in period.

    This procedure will need to be carried out even when you have not used the car for more than a month, especially in the cold season.

    During the adjustment of the brakes, preventive maintenance of other systems and mechanisms of the bike is carried out

    How To Remove And Install Scooter Bearings Part 1 (Hammer)

    In order to understand how to adjust the brakes on a bicycle, you need to know the basic operations that are performed while doing this. Usually, the adjustment of all types of brakes requires the following operations:

    • Selecting the best way to position the pads in relation to the wheel rim, or adjusting the disc or drum in the same way.
    • Debugging their work planes.
    • Selection of the optimal force on the working bodies located on the steering wheel. Usually this is a brake handle, with the help of which force is transmitted to the working bodies of the brake system. This force can be transmitted to the rear brake via the bicycle pedals.

    When adjusting the brakes, preventive maintenance of other systems and mechanisms of the bike is carried out, for example, it will be imperative to check the correct geometry of the wheel rim. If you identify the presence of an eight on it, it will need to be corrected so that the last does not erase the rim.

    When setting up your brakes, always remember that knowing how to adjust the rear brakes on a bicycle is far from the same as knowing how to adjust the front brakes on a bicycle. Usually, the braking systems located in front and behind the bike are quite different from each other, so you need to have a different approach to them.

    Braking system characteristics

    The following terms are used to qualitatively describe the operation of rim brakes:

    • impact force;
    • efficiency;
    • wear resistance;
    • modulation;
    • service requirements;
    • comparative features.

    The force of impact, or braking, is a parameter that shows how much the brake can clamp the rim so that the bike cannot be moved. Maximum effort is required only to completely stop and lock in place. On the road, the effort is not fully used to adjust the speed. The range of action on the wheel rim by pressing the knob is called modulation, or accuracy, of the brakes.

    An active cyclist uses his vehicle not only in dry and cloudless weather. Rain, mud, sand. everyone who rolls out their bike on long trips will have to face this. The effectiveness of brakes allows you to describe their behavior in a wide variety of conditions.

    Durability is a measure of durability, taking into account the prescriptions for the use of the bicycle as a whole. Timely maintenance can increase the service life of the braking system. Service Requirements provide guidance on how to properly install and adjust the machine, how often to do this, and guidance on how to replace parts.

    Adjusting disc brakes

    Since disc brakes are rarely used on modern bicycles, you will only need to adjust them when you need to learn how to adjust the brakes on a mountain bike, that is, when you start cycling at least semi-professionally. At the same time, there are many types of brake disc systems, but we will consider maintenance work with rotary brakes.

    Before proceeding directly with the process of adjusting the brake system of a bicycle, you will need, if you do not have experience in carrying out such work, study the materials on how to set up disc brakes on a bicycle and watch about this video. In addition, before adjusting disc brakes, you must:

    • Check the position of the brake lever.
    • Inspect the disc or rotor for mechanical damage. If it has chips and dents, it will need to be replaced.
    • Check the condition of the brake cable and pads located in the brake shoe.

    Adjusting bicycle disc brakes

    Attention! Since the quality of the brake system directly depends on the correct setting of the angle of pressing the pads, it is necessary in the process of adjusting it to correctly set the angle of its pressing.

    To do this, it will have to be installed strictly parallel to the disc or rotor. If you install a block crookedly, this will greatly shorten its service life.

    The disc brakes themselves are directly adjusted on the caliper according to the following scheme:

    • We fix the wheel exactly in the position in which it will be while driving. This is very important for determining the location of the rotor and hub.
    • We slightly loosen the fastening of the caliper so that it does not fall, but at the same time it can move.
    • Clamp the brake lever to install the caliper in place.
    • Moving the brake machine or tightening the bolts.
    • Working with the bolts one by one, we finally put the car in place.

    In addition to performing the adjustment procedure, disc brakes require periodic rotor dressing. A simple adjustable wrench is usually used to repair minor damage to this assembly. In the event that it is badly damaged, it makes sense to replace it.

    HOW TO CHANGE SCOOTER BEARINGS | EASIEST WAY! 2018

    If you are adjusting disc brakes, try not to touch them with your hands, as they are very bad for getting fat into the system, even from your hands. Therefore, before starting work, it is necessary to carry out the procedure for degreasing them with gasoline.

    After learning the process of how to set up disc brakes on a bicycle, you can then make repairs in any conditions, for example, when you are on a hike or on a country road.

    How to install and adjust the V-brake yourself

    • Attach the levers to the bike frame.
    • Insert the drive cable into the brake lever.
    • Install the handle on the steering wheel, insert the cable into the grooves on the frame (if any).
    • Connect the cable with the levers and put the spring.

    After installation, you will definitely need to adjust the brakes.

    The accuracy of the mechanism depends largely on its settings. So, even an expensive system will not work well without proper adjustment, and conversely, a mid-range V-brake can outperform a disc brake in terms of efficiency. What needs to be done to adjust the brakes?

    Adjust the cable tension. After adjusting, the brake should instantly respond to the squeeze of the handle and rebound when it is released. If the pads do not move away from the rims, this indicates insufficient tension. On the overtightened cable, the handle will be hard to press, and the sheath may burst.

    The tension is adjusted with a bolt on the side of the levers. The setup looks like this:

    • Reset Springs.
    • Loosen the cable fixing bolt.
    • Adjust the tension so that in the fully clamped position, the distance from the handle to the handlebar corresponds to the thickness of the finger.

    If damage is noticed on the cable sheath, it is recommended to immediately install a new set.

    Clearance adjustment. The optimal distance is 2. 3 mm from the edge of the pad to the rim. Determination of brake pad wear: cannot be used when the diverter grooves are completely erased (the whole surface is flat).

    How do I fit new pads? The location relative to the rim affects the size of the contact area of ​​the pads with it, the braking force and the life of the material. For brake pads with soft rubber surfaces, install them with the leading edge closer to the rim. Brake pads made of rigid material are placed strictly parallel to the surface of rotation of the wheel.

    If your bike has cartridge pads, you only need to change the pads. Their position is set with a cotter pin; before removing the old surface, it is removed from the body. Similarly, in the reverse order, insert a new pad and fix it with a cotter pin.

    Adjustment of the position and displacement of the shoe housings are carried out by means of a bolt and washers. For accurate fixation, you need to squeeze the brake and set the position of the pads strictly on the surface of the rim.

    The last step will be to test the operation of the system in practice, that is, in real driving conditions. As a rule, the V-brake setting is obtained immediately. However, if braking is delayed or the handle does not fully return to its original position, the brakes must be readjusted.

    Adjusting the rim brakes

    Mountain bikes use a v-brake braking system. by its example, we will consider the principles of tuning, as it is also available on other bicycles with rim brakes. The difference can only consist in a different arrangement of bolts and screws that will need to be tightened / tightened.

    Note: it is important to observe three main rules:

    • the pads should be parallel to the rim;
    • the gap between the rim and the block should not be more or less than 1 mm;
    • the pads should be symmetrical with respect to each other.

    How to achieve these guidelines when adjusting rim brakes on a bicycle:

    • You need to find a hex nut. it fixes the pads. To loosen it and set the brake pads in the desired position, you need to press the brake lever and watch how the shoe touches the rim. By releasing the brake lever, the shoe can be set to the desired position. it moves up, down and at an angle.
    • The distance between the block and the rim of the wheel should not be more than 1 mm, although in some models of bicycles there are also 2-3 mm. exact information about a specific vehicle can be obtained either from the instructions for it, or on the Internet for technical characteristics. It should be for Honor that the wheel should be braked even with the smallest pressure on the brake lever. That is, if the wheel stops only when the brake lever is fully pressed “all the way”, then this is incorrect.

    After carrying out all the specified work, it is imperative to check the operation of the brake system. First, this is done at idle speed. lift the front wheel up, spin it up and press the handle sharply, then do the same with the rear wheel. The next step is to check the operation of the brake system “in action”. get on the bike and ride 3-5 meters, braking sharply. If the bike stops even when the brake lever is pressed slightly, then the system has been serviced correctly.

    How to set up rim brakes on a bike

    The braking system is one of the most important technical components of a bicycle. The safety of both the cyclist and other road users directly depends on its condition. Good brakes are essential in any situation, from riding in parks to tough cycling.

    In the modern classical sense, a bicycle brake is a pressure mechanism that acts on the wheel rim. In fact, there are several types of brakes, however v-brake (rim) is the most common option on bicycles of various classes.

    Varieties of rim brakes

    Rim brakes are divided into several types:

    • tick-borne;
    • cantilevers;
    • V-brake (vector mechanical);
    • hydraulically driven.

    Caliper brakes. previously popular modifications, are now rare on the market. They are a classic model of rim brakes with attachment to the fork or stays of the bicycle frame. Design features and operating principle:

    • Consist of a handle, a drive cable, two movable bows and brake pads.
    • The handle is attached to the handlebars of the bicycle, a cable is pulled from it and fixed on the clamping side of the arches. The body itself is attached strictly above the wheel, pads are screwed to the lower mounts of the arcs.
    • Through the cable, the force is directly transmitted to the clamping part of the arcs, due to which they are compressed, and the pads are in contact with the rim.
    • Responsible for unclamping is an elastic metal insert or spring built between the levers.

    The levers have a single axis of rotation and move towards each other like pliers pincers. Hence the name. tick-borne. Advantages. ease of installation, simple setup. Cons. weak braking force, low modulation, high abrasion of the pads, require frequent debugging. Fits on road racing bikes and optionally as a front rim brake on road models.

    Cantilevers belong to the second type of disappearing brakes. The principle of their work is to extend the levers under the action of a taut leash. The principle of operation of the cantilever brake:

    • Through the main cable, the force is transmitted to the jumper.
    • The cable pulls the jumper up, the leash attached to it is pulled.
    • The leash connects both levers, which are rigidly attached to the frame.
    • Due to the convergence of the levers, the pads approach the rim.

    The cantilevers are dirt resistant, will not bump the tire and are easy to install. Significant disadvantages include:

    • decrease in braking force as the leash is pulled;
    • you need to create a high effort to stop the bike completely;
    • difficulty of adjustment.

    In justification of the latter, it should be noted that the position of the pads can be adjusted within wide limits.

    V-brake is a common type of rim brake on high-speed bicycles. Compared to cantilevers, it has a higher precision and longer shoe longevity. They are also easy to remove and repair yourself.

    The vectors are partially similar in design to cantilevers: the front brake levers are bolted to the fork, the rear brake levers are attached to the upper stays. The legs are connected to each other by a pulling cable. The drive cable is brought to one side, but due to the straight shape of the “tie” forces are equally transmitted to both levers.

    Hydraulic bicycle rim brakes are a more advanced mechanical design. The drive system consists of a control cylinder, a hydraulic line and power cylinders. The forces from the handle are transmitted to the master cylinder, which, through the oil, acts on the power cylinders. Those, in turn, move the pads towards each other.

    Advantages. high compression force and efficiency, excellent modulation. Disadvantages. deterioration of work with a blockage of the hydraulic line, complex repairs. Used a similar type of brakes for freeride and trial.

    Rim-type brakes have low brake pad travel, which means they wear less during operation. A significant disadvantage of this approach is the inability to be used on wheels, even with minor rim curvatures. Sensitive brakes will rub against the wheel on the fly, causing reduced speed and increased pad wear.

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    Material

    The most popular is polyurethane, it is characterized by reliability, lack of excess noise and a long service life. Wheels made of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) are cheaper, but their performance is slightly worse.

    Rubber ones are rare, they are well cushioned, have excellent adhesion qualities, but they do not tolerate temperature changes and have a small resource. Plastic ones are inexpensive and beckon with an abundance of flowers, but they have weak shock absorption and a lot of rolling noise. Silicone. soft and quiet, but have a small resource and are mainly used in children’s models.

    Basic parameters and classification

    People of different ages ride stunt scooters. In addition, the tricks vary in complexity. The operating conditions for scooters are also different. All this predetermines the variety of sizes, materials, designs and characteristics.

    Tire drawing

    The speeds developed on the scooter are usually insignificant, and it rides mainly on flat and dry surfaces. Therefore, the tires can even be smooth. The choice of pattern depends on the aesthetic preferences of the owner.

    Hub material

    The wheel core is made of nylon or aluminum. Nylon is cheaper, but it tolerates loads much worse and is suitable only for novice riders.

    Aluminum is much stronger and tougher, it is better suited for frequent use.

    Tire type

    Tires are solid and pneumatic (inflatable). For a stunt scooter, the tire must be solid.

    Service and replacement

    Wheels wear out during operation, they can change shape and start spinning worse. In the first case, they must be replaced; in the latter, one can restrict ourselves to only replacing the bearing. In any case, the wheels must be removed.

    There is nothing difficult in disassembling. First you need to remove the pegs (if you know what it is, then there will definitely be no problems with dismantling). Then you need to unscrew the bolt with a hexagon on one side of the frame or fork, pull out the axle and simply remove the wheel. It is worth making sure that 2 wide washers are not lost, which are placed on 2 sides of the wheel (in some models they may not be present).

    The next step is to carefully inspect the bearings. First of all, you need to check the play and ease of rolling. If the bearing wobbles, it must be replaced. A new one is pressed or hammered into the hub with a hammer. The hammer should be made of wood or hit through the board. Hitting with an iron hammer will surely ruin the new bearing.

    If the wheels are badly worn, they are replaced with new ones. Wheels are not always supplied with bearings, then you will have to install the latter yourself, as indicated above.

    The wheel is installed in the reverse order. First, the axle is inserted into one eyelet, then one of the 2 washers (if any) and the wheel itself. Another washer and axle is inserted into the other lug. Next, tighten the screw or nut. It is necessary to tighten strongly so that nothing falls off during the ride, and at the end put pegs.

    Design

    Wheels are solid and with spokes. Solid ones are stiffer, but also heavier, they are mainly used by experienced riders. Spokes are softer, lighter and more comfortable to ride, but less durable. In addition, the different design of the knitting needles provides a beautiful appearance and design differences. These wheels will be the best choice for beginner riders and not too difficult tricks. Also, all wheels must be with bearings.

    How to properly lubricate bearings?

    • Before lubricating the scooter bearings, they must be partially disassembled. To do this, you need to remove the anthers. the plates that hide the inside. It is enough to pick them out with a screwdriver.
    • Do not use Liquid Key, WD-40 and other similar products as a lubricant.
    • Before lubricating, it is necessary to wash the bearings in gasoline. it perfectly removes not only traces of old lubricant, but also removes dust, sand and dirt that interfere with normal driving.
    • It is not recommended to use liquid greases for bearings of accuracy classes ABEC 1 and 3. For such elements, it is optimal to use lithium-based greases. they do not steal a resource.

    Accuracy classes for bearing manufacturing

    There are different classes of scooter bearings, but the most common system is ABEC. According to this classification, the accuracy class is displayed in numbers. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9. The higher the number, the better the bearing is processed, the higher the speed can be developed by the wheels on such elements. Unfortunately, with an increase in the accuracy class, the fragility of the bearings also increases, so it is better not to use fast parts for trick riding. for example, ABEC 9 can break even with a small jump.

    For trick riding, the best choice is ABEC grades 1.3 and 5, with Grade 5 being a good compromise between speed and strength. For high-speed riding, it is better to install ABEC 7 or 9. If your scooter does not pick up speed well, it is possible that there are “slow” bearings inside its wheels. In this case, the problem is solved by replacing with faster.

    Razor scooters are usually sold with ABEC 5 and ABEC 7 precision bearings. a good choice for people who prefer a fast ride and are not prepared to face constant bearing failures.

    Why does the scooter go slowly??

    Have you tried riding a scooter but noticed that it is not going fast enough? Do you want to develop the maximum possible speed on the scooter, but something is getting in the way? In most cases, the reason lies only in the bearings. it is these parts that are responsible for the smooth rotation of the wheels, the maximum speed and convenience of acceleration on a scooter largely depend on their characteristics. Let’s figure out what to do if the scooter cannot please you with a high speed, than lubricate the bearings of the scooter, and also what they are.

    How to replace faulty bearings?

    Sometimes the speed on the scooter does not pick up due to the fact that the bearing life has already been used up, or they are completely broken. In this case, the question arises of how to change the bearings. It is easy to do this:

    • Unscrew the nut on the wheel axle with a suitable wrench, then remove the wheel.
    • Remove the bearing from the wheel by prying it with a screwdriver, knife or other flat object.
    • Insert a new bearing inside the wheel, thread it onto the axle and tighten securely. Repeat with everyone.

    Replacing the bearings does not cause any problems. It is recommended for high-speed riding to immediately install ABEC-7 or ABEC-9 bearings, if you do not plan to engage in extreme and stunt riding. Good luck!

    Compression system

    If the compression is loose, there is a backlash of the steering wheel with all the consequences. In this case, before each ride, it is recommended to check the tightness of the handlebar on the fork, and, if necessary, tighten the bolts. Thanks to this, your vehicle will last much longer, and you will no longer be bothered by unpleasant soundtracks.

    Securing the steering wheel

    On the bottom of the steering wheel there is a plastic triangular button that you need to press. After that, you should install the steering wheel on the platform, while holding the button. As a result, a click should be heard, indicating a correctly fixed steering wheel.

    Why does the scooter do it?

    Fans of riding a child or scooter for adults after long-term use often face the need for maintenance, as the vehicle begins to crack, go to the side or in some other way demonstrate improper driving. Let’s take a closer look at the main causes of these failures and how to troubleshoot them.

    Brakes

    Modern scooters are equipped with silent brakes, but there are still units that rattle heavily during braking. Here you will either have to accept or think about buying a new scooter.

    Steering bearings

    If a clicking sound is heard during turning, it is likely that the bearing has become unusable for subsequent operation. Its replacement is not always required. In certain situations, it will be enough for you to clean it with a napkin and lubricate it, after which it can still serve.

    Replacing bearings

    It is often impossible to pick up speed due to the fact that the working life of the elements has come to an end. Here the question of replacement already arises. To do this, you need to unscrew the nut located on the axle of the wheel, and then remove it. Then you just need to remove the bearing and install a new one in its place. After stringing on the axle, you will need to tighten it tightly. After this procedure, you will be able to ride much faster.

    The scooter is moving slowly

    Often times, riders are faced with the problem of slow scooter driving. Often the reason lies in the bearings, which are somewhat worn out. It is these elements that are responsible for acceleration and developed speed during skiing.

    Glowing wheels: the device and why the bulbs are not lit

    Each of us, seeing a happy child rushing on a scooter with glowing wheels, involuntarily has a smile on his face and a feeling of joy from this beauty. The glowing wheels look especially impressive in the dark. But, in addition to visual beauty, vehicles with luminous wheels (and scooters are a full-fledged small vehicle) carry not only external beauty, but also a small part of the child’s safety, because thanks to the glowing bulbs in the wheels, your child is on a scooter or bicycle will be seen from afar, especially in the dark.

    But, as soon as the wheels or one wheel stop glowing, everyone falls into despair: the child’s mood deteriorates, mothers and fathers do not know where the battery is in the wheel, new wheels are very expensive.

    At one time, when I myself first encountered a similar problem for the first time, I could not find a single article on the Internet that would tell in detail about the structure of the luminous wheel. That is why I decided to write this “manual” about the structure of the luminous wheel. Enjoy reading.

    I’ll start right away with the fact that there are no batteries in the glowing wheels on children‘s scooters, do not waste time looking for the place where the battery should be in the wheel

    In the middle of the wheel there is a through hole into which the axle is inserted (bolt, screw).

    On each side of the wheel, a bearing is put on the axle, a magnetic sleeve is put on the axle between the bearings. In ordinary wheels without LEDs, instead of a magnetic sleeve, an ordinary steel sleeve (spacer) can be inserted, or nothing is installed. There is a coil inside the wheel hub, from which there are wires to the LEDs. The LEDs themselves are usually located inside the polyurethane part of the wheel. The LEDs and the coil are wired together. Typically this type of wheel uses a parallel connection.

    Below is a schematic drawing of the above wheel parts.

    As soon as the wheels of the scooter are set in motion, the built-in reel begins to rotate together with the wheel, while the axle (and with it the installed magnet) remains stationary. If we do not immerse ourselves too much in the laws of physics, then we get the following picture: the coil spins around a stationary magnet, as a result of which an electric current is generated that flows to the LED bulbs and they begin to burn.

    Below we will consider typical situations with unlit lamps in the wheel:

    If one or some of the light bulbs on one wheel stop burning (there is at least one lit light bulb), then in this case either the LED light bulb (bulbs) itself has burned out, or the contact between the coil and the LED (LEDs) has disappeared. In any of these cases, a complete replacement of the wheel is required, since both the LEDs and the coil are “sealed” inside the wheel in production, you cannot pull them out without damaging the wheel.

    If, however, all the bulbs in the wheel stopped burning at once, then, with a high probability, the problem is in the absence of current supplied to the lamps. This, in turn, may be for the following reasons:

    Therefore, if the light bulbs on the wheel have ceased to burn, then the recommended sequence of actions is as follows:

    Tighten the wheel harder with hex keys, it is possible that during the operation of the scooter the fastening is loose and the magnetic sleeve rotates together with the wheel.

    If point 1 did not help you, then remove the bearings and pull out the magnetic sleeve. Examine it carefully, if it has significant damage, then its replacement is definitely necessary. There are times when the bushings simply fall apart due to improper operation. If it is intact, then it may be heavily contaminated, which negatively affects its performance. Clean it and the inside of the wheel and install the wheel. Perhaps after that the LEDs will be on.

    If neither point 1 nor point 2 helped you, then in this case the problem is with the coil or the LEDs themselves. Here, only a complete wheel replacement is necessary, since both the LEDs and the coil cannot be changed in any way.

    And this is how the magnetic sleeve itself looks like:

    And a couple of tips to extend the light in your wheels:

    do not ride in mud, do not make strong jumps on the wheels with LEDs, and in no case exceed the maximum permissible load on the scooter, as this may destroy the magnet.

    BUY MAGNETIC BUSHING HERE

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