In our time, there is a great variety of different vehicles. And every year there are more and more of them. How did it all begin? One of the most common answers to this question is the bicycle. Although this is not entirely correct, but today we will talk about it. By definition, it is a vehicle on wheels that is propelled by the force of a person’s muscles through the pedals.
A long time ago, a person thought about how to make it easier to overcome long distances and with the help of what it can be done. Thus, the prototype of our modern bicycle was born. And it happened in 1817. German scientist Karl Drez invented the first scooter in history. It was very similar to our bike, though without pedals and with a wooden frame. And in 1884, the Englishman John Starley created the bicycle itself in the form that we are used to seeing today, and called it the “Wanderer”. This is how the history of the world’s most widespread environmentally friendly mode of transport began.
Maximum load on the bike
Many manufacturers do not specify the maximum load on their bikes in any way. The implication is that the average adult bike will withstand a margin. Those manufacturers who indicate the maximum weight of a cyclist usually give figures in the range of 105-115 kg. So, if your weight fits into 100 kg, then any quality bike will suit you.
Naturally, you need to understand that jumping on curbs on a road bike is not worth it. That is, the bike must be used in accordance with its intended purpose. If your weight exceeds 100 kg, then it is worth choosing a bike taking into account additional conditions.
What are the most durable bike types? Usually these are either mountain bikes, designed for relatively tough operation on rough terrain, or durable city bikes, which did not save as much on bike weight. It’s better to look for a bicycle for a man of 120 kg on your own.
There are not just bicycles, but super-bicycles, champions in their niche. Let’s tell a little more about them.
Currently, there are more than 30 varieties of “bikes”, as the common people often call them. They are all designed for a wide variety of needs, but they work the same way.
Bicycles are usually divided into several groups:
- by the type of movement: road. for long trips, road. for moving in urban areas, extreme. for sports competitions, mountain hardtails are perfect for road surfaces with different levels of difficulty, cross-country. for moving over rough terrain, etc. ;
- by the level of professionalism: for amateurs and beginners, experienced cyclists and professionals;
- by design features: compact (folding), 2-hanging, 3-hanging, with a female frame.
- by manufacturer brands (Stels, Merida, Stark, Giant, Trek, etc.);
- by age: children’s bicycles, as well as adults and teenagers (bicycles for girls and boys, taking into account age characteristics);
- by material of manufacture: carbon, steel, aluminum, etc.
Big record bikes
Longest bike in the world: According to the Guinness Book of Records, it is longer than the longest limousine car, which is “only” 30.4 meters long. The bike is the creation of a group of enthusiastic cyclists called Mijl Van Mares Werkploeg from the Netherlands. To create it, they used elements of aluminum structures intended for the installation of lighting devices on concert stages. The strength of these structures is sufficient to support their own weight and withstand the loads occurring at such a length with practically no sagging.
The tallest bicycle in the world was created in 2012 by a welder from Cuba, Felix Guirola. His brainchild reaches 5.4 meters in height. He designed and built it himself. In appearance, this design is not much like a bicycle. However, the presence of a seat and pedals with which it moves, as well as a pair of wheels, still confirms this. To get to the seat, there is a special ladder with which the device is equipped. By the way, three assistants who helped Felix climb up, and accelerated the bike at the beginning of the journey, accompanied him all the way, so that in case of a fall, he could pick up the unfortunate one. Passers-by perceived such a spectacle with humor.
The largest wheel size on the planet is the great “Frankensike”, invented in 1989 by the American Dave Moore, who hails from California. The height from the seat to the ground is 3.4 meters and the wheel size is 3.05 meters. Daredevil Steve Gordon made a trip on it without insurance on June 4 of the same year.
The longest two-wheeled bicycle was created by Terry Tessman, a resident of New Zealand. The length of this vehicle is more than 22 meters with a mass of 340 kg. Four people managed to ride it at the same time in the winter of 1988.
Interesting! The bicycle of Australian Neville Patten is considered to be the smallest, the wheel size of which is slightly less than 2 cm. The most amazing thing is that the designer was able to ride it as much as 4 meters. This is a record!
Rear Hub Types
By application, the rear bushings can be used for road bikes, high-speed bikes (mountain, touring and road). Road bikes are usually fitted with single-sprocket hubs and a freewheel mechanism. Also bushings for road workers are equipped with a drum brake, i.e. hub with foot brake. The rear hubs for sports bikes do not have a brake mechanism, but they have a free wheeling system. In addition, the sports rear hubs are divided into cassette and ratchet.
Rear hub materials and manufacturing technologies
The rear hubs do not differ from the front hubs in manufacturing methods and materials. Bushings are produced by casting, turning or stamping. Cast bushings are the cheapest to manufacture, but also the least durable and heaviest. The most optimal metal for the bushings is an aluminum alloy. Bushings for the simplest and cheapest bicycles are made from steel. The lightest and strongest hubs are made from titanium alloy, but they are so expensive that they are used only in professional sports bikes.
Bicycle Rear Wheel Hub
The rear wheel hub of a bicycle is one of the most complex and expensive mechanisms on a bicycle. It is the rear hub that raises the most questions for novice cyclists. And its repair or maintenance is generally like a bad dream.
The quality of the bushings determines how much effort you will spend to overcome a certain distance, in other words, the “rolling” of the bike. The rear hub is subjected to much more stress than the front, which dictates the need to make it more massive. In addition, if the front hub has only one function (free wheel rotation), then the rear hub is additionally assigned functions. torque transmission, pedal-free travel, braking functions, and even sometimes internal gear shifting systems (planetary hubs).
There are a lot of companies that produce bicycle hubs and it makes no sense to list them all. It is worth noting Shimano rear hubs, in Russia these are the most common hubs, due to their high quality and wide price range.
Like the front hubs, the rear hubs may differ in materials of manufacture, purpose, production technology, weight and strength. But the rear hubs have their own differences inherent only in them. Which ones will be discussed below.
Speed bike rear hub device
Rear hub device for sport and mountain bikes
The hub device of the rear wheel of a high-speed bicycle provides for a set of driven stars through which torque is transmitted to the wheel. There are two types of chainring set. cassette and ratchet. If the hub is designed for a ratchet, then the drum (nut) is located outside the hub and integrated into the set of stars. The ratchet itself is attached to the fork with a special thread. If the sleeve is for the cassette, then the drum is located on the sleeve itself and is attached to it using a special hollow bolt (see diagram). The cassette, in turn, is attached to the drum through a spline connection and secured with a special nut.
Rear ratchet thread hub
Splined and threaded hubs, cassette and ratchet
It is worth adding about the mounting of the disc brake rotor. Here, like the front hubs, there are two standards. CenterLock and 6 Bolt. The CL standard provides for spline fastening and tightening with a special nut. This standard is patented by Shimano. The six-bolt mount is more popular and is used by all rear hub and brake manufacturers.
Rear hub for six-bolt rotor mounting
Rear hub with CenterLock for rotor
6-bolt rotor with CL mount
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Rear hubs with brake
Most single-speed bikes, whether road or kids, have a rear hub with built-in brakes and free-wheeling pedals. These bushings perform several of the following functions:
- Transfer of torque from the driving sprocket of the connecting rods to the driven sprocket of the rear hub and, accordingly, to the wheel itself.
- Free wheeling relative to the driven sprocket. As soon as the driven sprocket stops, the wheel continues to rotate, regardless of the bicycle pedals.
- The built-in braking mechanism allows braking by pedaling in the opposite direction. The essence is the same as in car drum brakes with inner pads.
The most common brake bushings are of the Torpedo type. These bushings were found on most Soviet bicycles and are still used today in the road bike industry. The oldest Soviet and some imported bicycles of the beginning of the last century were equipped with Go-type bushings. Also in Soviet times, domestic bushings with the self-explanatory name “Rodina” were developed. The last two types are almost never found at the present time. Therefore, let us consider in more detail the device of only Torpedo bushings.
Diagram of the rear brake hub type Torpedo
Based on the above diagram, consider how the processes occur inside the rear hub.
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- Working stroke. while turning the pedals, the drive cone, rotating with its protrusions, shifts the drive rollers up, thereby wedging the hub body, thereby rotating the wheel.
- Free play. as soon as the drive cone stops rotating, the body squeezes the drive rollers into the grooves between the lugs, thanks to this process, the connection between the drive cone and the body is lost. Loss of communication allows the wheel to rotate freely relative to the pedals.
- Braking. when the cyclist starts to push the pedal back, the drive cone begins to rotate in the opposite direction and with oblique lugs rotates the brake cone due to friction. The brake rollers engage in the brake drum grooves and the brake cone is pushed into the drum. The drum expands with cones on both sides, presses against the hub body and brakes the wheel.
Torpedo type provides the best braking option. The stronger the effort on the pedal, the stronger the braking. this ensures smooth braking.
Rear wheel hub repair. Step-by-step instruction
How to Assemble the Rear Bicycle Hub?
After lubricating every part, reassemble the bushing. For proper assembly, the following professional guidelines should be strictly adhered to:
- The axle is exposed in such a position in which it is impossible to confuse its right side, which is tightly tightened. Adjust the axle using its left taper.
- Push the left cone onto the axle until it stops.
- Put on washers.
- Tighten the lock nut.
- Adjust the bearings.
Housing disassembly, cleaning and lubrication
It is necessary to disassemble the case only after the workplace has been put in complete order. It is extremely important to carry out all intermediate operations with a high degree of care and accuracy.
First of all, the cassette is removed from its axis. For the convenience of work, it is necessary to use a whip and a puller. Open the circlip, remove the bearings with washers. Remember the original positions of the bearings and washers. In the future, this will allow you not to get confused during assembly. Examine every detail carefully.
Noticing the slightest chips, scratches, damage, it is better to replace the parts without regret. Remove the axle, clean the bushing housing from dust, dirt, rust with a dry soft cloth. Lubricate each part with grease. This process is carried out as the elements are installed in their regular places.
Varieties of rear bicycle hubs, how they differ from each other
The division of the rear hubs into varieties allows them to be classified according to the possibility of braking and stopping the bike. Depending on their design, the rear hubs are divided into:
- Without brake.
- With built-in brakes.
Conversely, bushings that do not have a braking mechanism also fall into two categories:
- Without freewheel.
- Free running.
The bushings, which have a built-in foot brake mechanism, are structurally made according to the second category. The main feature of the hub with a brake mechanism is that at the moment of braking and stopping the vehicle, press the pedals in the opposite direction.
The bushings are fixed to the frame with two nuts. This method is inexpensive. The second mounting option is with the help of an eccentric, which is much more expensive, but more convenient. So the nuts do not need to be unscrewed with a wrench; to remove the eccentric wheel, you just need to squeeze its handle. Removal procedure takes only a few seconds.
The bushing material is of great importance for efficient operation. Bushings are:
- Aluminum. They are not subject to decay, corrosion, lightweight, comfortable.
- Steel. Extremely strong, but heavy, corrosive.
The hubs also vary in size. The standards regulate several dimensions. from 9 mm to 15 mm. The weight of the bushing is the greater, the larger is its cross section.
If the cause of the breakdown is a malfunction or breakdown of any part, then you should simply replace it using the following recommendations:
- After removing the workplace, dismantle the retaining ring.
- We take out the hub axle. Disconnect the elements located on the side opposite to the asterisks first.
- We check the condition of every detail.
- We carry out replacement of worn-out parts.
- Assembling the assembly, tightening the flare nuts and locknut.
Most often, the repair of the rear wheel hub is necessary either with backlash or when tightening the cone. So, step by step instructions:
- Clear the place of operations from all unnecessary items, things, unnecessary tools.
- Loosen the lock nut with a key.
- Loosen or tighten the cone nut.
- Tighten the locknut in its original place.
Instructions on how to lubricate the rear bicycle hub
The bicycle is recognized worldwide as the most healthy, lightweight and practical means of transportation. But its owner should definitely learn how to eliminate at least elementary malfunctions, especially if you are traveling on a difficult and long cycle route. Otherwise, your two-wheeled friend will cost you a tidy sum.
You can master shallow recovery with patience and observation. These qualities are extremely necessary when disassembling units, lubricating, replacing worn parts. Often you have to service the wheels along with the rear hubs.
How to apply lubricant
The goal is to lubricate balls, cones and cups. This can be done as quickly and efficiently as possible using the following technology:
- Lubricate the cup with your finger.
- Put the balls into the cup using medical tweezers, observing the intended purpose of the groups sorted during disassembly.
- Apply a thin layer of lubricant over the balls.
- Repeat steps 1-3 for the second side.
- Put the boot on the locked cone located on the side of the cassette (relevant only for the rear bushings).
- Apply a thin layer of grease to the beveled surface of both cone nuts.
There should not be a lot of lubricant at the contact points. This statement is relevant only because the excess grease is squeezed out through the anthers, and it intensively begins to collect dust. You can estimate the sufficient filling level from the photo. There are usually no problems with the installation of balls. They adhere well to the lubricant, which is already in the cup according to paragraph 1 of the technological instructions.
It is customary to lightly coat the thread on the axle and the ends of the nuts with a compound that was used to treat rubbing surfaces. This activity is designed to minimize oxidation of metals and the formation of rust at the interface of detachable parts.
How to lubricate
The ideal option is a Teflon compound. For example, Finish Line Premium Grease: very slippery and viscous. However, Teflon can be replaced with the usual Litol-24 or the consistency for the CV joints of the car.
What definitely doesn’t work is any liquid mixture:
- Bicycle chain maintenance compound.
- Car engine or transmission oil.
Industrial bearing bushing
Many people dislike bushings on flare nuts because of the difficulties associated with adjusting them after assembly. In this regard, the worn out support is often changed to the version with “slips”.
The advantages of the industrial bearing design include easy maintenance. There is no need to adjust anything here: the bearing fits snugly in the cup and on the axle, there are no flare nuts. In theory, such a wheel should not have any backlash, which is demonstrated by expensive specimens. In cheaper models, low-grade rolling bearings are used, in which the clearance is observed even from the packaging.
For your information. Backlash in the bushings due to “slip” is eliminated only by replacing the bearings. The latter are difficult to remove, therefore, when critical gaps appear, the mechanism is replaced as an assembly.
How to loop through the rear and front hubs on a speed bike
Bulkhead bushing, whether it be rear or front, is an event that can be either forced, due to water entering the bushing, or routine. Its purpose is mostly preventive. to change the lubricant and, if necessary, replace some components. If we are talking about a classic cone bike, then it can be a worn ball or a cone. However, on high-speed bicycles, there is another type of support that also needs maintenance.
Cleaning and lubrication
It is necessary to clean the balls and cups in contact with them, cone-nuts, axle. In a sleeve with good dust protection, the lubricant is usually clean, so cleaning can be carried out without chemicals. with an ordinary clean rag. If dirt is present, use one of the degresers we have recommended for cleaning the chain in the material, how to clean old bicycle chain grease at home.
The procedure for assembling and adjusting the hub cones using the example of the rear wheel
All actions in the assembly process are performed in the reverse order of disassembly. So, the first row of anthers is immediately installed. In the example, there is one such elastic band and is located on the side opposite to the cassette drum. In front of these elements there are two. one per side. If we are dealing with a rear bushing, then the dust protection on the locked cone must be installed even before lubricating it in accordance with paragraph 5 of the technological instructions.
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Next, you need to carefully insert the axis. Remember to enter it from the side of the cassette. That is, the untouched cone nut should be on the opposite side of the disc brake rotor. After inserting and tightening the cone nut and locknut on the left side, proceed with the adjustment:
- Screw in the previously unlocked cone by hand until it stops.
- Loosen the tightening by turning the flare nut in the opposite direction. It is enough to unscrew it about half a turn, and then make sure by staggering the axle in different directions if there is any backlash. If there are none, then it is necessary to loosen up again and check the beat again. The purpose of this stage is to catch a slight play, slightly perceptible with your fingers.
- Tighten the cone nut slightly. This can be any angle within 1/4 of a turn from the position found in the previous paragraph. Backlash must go away.
- Lift the wheel and check its free play by twisting the structure by the spokes or drum. There is no specific criterion for assessing the smoothness of rotation: someone looks to see if the rim turns under the weight of a nipple or reflector, someone relies on experience, examining the nature of the free wheeling by eye. If the stroke is tight, the nut must be slightly loosened.
- When the wheel rotates freely, the cone can be countered. To do this, fix the flare nut with a thin wrench, and tighten the lock nut tightly with a union tool.
- Make sure there are no backlashes.
At the end of the assembly process, a second row of anthers is put on and an eccentric is installed. In this case, it is important to check the tightness of the seating of these rubber bands. So, the situation depicted in the photo is not allowed. When replacing the cassette, align the thinnest spline with the smallest groove on the sprocket set. It is advisable to lubricate the end of the lock nut with the same grease that was used to treat the bearings. No whip needed during assembly.
After installing the wheel on the bike and fixing the eccentric, check that there is no play in various positions (rotate a small angle and check). A slight runout is allowed only in one of the investigated wheel positions. If the backlash is noticeable in any position, do not rush to repeat the procedure for adjusting the cones. tighten the eccentric. This helps to select a slight backlash.
Types and arrangement of the rear / front hub of a mountain bike
In the MTB class, only two types of sleeve mechanisms are common: axle-cone-ball bearing and axle-industrial bearing. By the name of the classes, it is clear that the difference between them lies in the structure of the supports.
The most common type. Particularly in the Shimano range, you will not see a knot on the “slip”. The company explains this by the fact that the design based on cone-nuts has better reel. The configuration elements of such a product are shown in the figure: