How to assemble a rear axle on a bicycle

Drift bikes and their differences

It’s strange that there are still people who have never heard of drift bikes. Even in the last century, such an extreme sport as drifting became very popular. In fact, drifting is a controlled drift. The most accessible transport for a controlled skid is a bicycle. But not a simple bike, but a special trike called the drift trike all over the world. Young people in New Zealand, Europe, America get together to compete in skill, share new tricks, have fun with friends.

A drift bike has three wheels, but it is not a child’s toy. Drift vehicles are very dangerous and require a lot of skills and driving skills.

The relationship of law to fad

Interestingly, in Russian legislation, a drift trike refers to ordinary bicycles. Traffic regulations do not differentiate between tricycles and the more common two-wheeled bicycles. Therefore, no registration and rights to it are needed.

It is worth noting that drifting on a bike is a very dangerous pastime. Often, fans of extreme sports drive on roads with open traffic. While the athletes organize their competitions on previously closed asphalt tracks.

In America, very often drifters on bicycles are chased by the traffic police, as can be seen by watching the first half-minute of the video.

Design features

The main feature of drift trikes is their uniqueness. Very often bicycles for drift are invented and made personally by fans of extreme sports.

Drift vehicles are pretty unusual.

  • As a rule, the front wheel is set with a small diameter. 20 inches, such as on BMX models for trial.
  • The two rear wheels are six times smaller than the front. Their width can be at most twice the diameter. Most importantly, they are made from a hard and smooth material. None of the drifters wear rubber tires on the rear rollers.
  • The rider sits very low in a wide seat. Each athlete personally chooses a comfortable seat for himself. It is comfortable to sit behind the wheel of a homemade bike and on a car tire.
  • For the delivery of legs, supports are placed on the front fork, closer to the wheel axle. As you can understand, through these levers you can also control the steering wheel with your feet.

Homemade drift trike

First, you need to have a bike that you do not mind putting under the saw. In addition, the choice of a bike for disassembly is limited to models with small wheels with a diameter of about 20 inches. Both a children’s bike and a BMX bike for motocross are suitable. For the manufacture of homemade vehicles for drifting, they take as a basis the old, but strong horse “Kama”. This bike has a strong enough center tube to weld a custom rear chassis to it.

The front wheel, the fork together with the steering wheel, the steering bushing, that is, the entire front part, up to the bottom bracket assembly, is used in its original form. Seat tube, upper rear stays are cut at the root. In the simplest version, the chainstays are left in place at the back. A plywood base is laid on them for sitting. Obviously, such a PIT-stop DIY is not very durable.

In an amicable way, the rear axle should have a double safety factor to support your body weight under dynamic loads. To assemble a reliable frame, you will need pipes with a diameter of 18 and 32 mm.

assemble, rear, axle, bicycle

On the Internet, from a variety of different trike designs, you can choose the one that you like the most. A 1: 1 scale drawing will make it easier for you to assemble the frame. According to a drawing laid out on the floor, as in a sketch, it is convenient to assemble individual structural elements. People with a good eye can ignore this point.

It would be nice to have a pipe bender. It makes it easier to assemble an unusual bike with your own hands. You can, of course, not complicate the work, but assemble the rear frame of the buggy from straight pipes. But if there is a pipe bender, then you can bend the pipes for a more perfect frame, for example, make arcs in the corners to strengthen the structure. Of the tools, in any case, you will need a welding machine.

assemble, rear, axle, bicycle

After finishing the welding work, you need to try on two small wheels on the finished frame. They can be taken ready-made, for example, from a cart, or cut from wooden blocks. The dimensions of the wheels are chosen as follows: width. 3.5 inches, diameter is approximately the same. For the rear rollers to glide better, a piece of large-diameter PVC water pipe is put on them.

To support the legs, the easiest way is to screw the pags onto the front wheel axle, or you can weld two pieces of pipe onto the fork stays. All in all, the work is creative and definitely fun.

After assembling the rear chassis, a comfortable seat can be installed, which can be a plastic chair or a small chair. You can also get by with a car tire, as the young inventor from Lipetsk did.

After the test runs, we correct minor errors, more precisely, we adjust the trike for ourselves. If necessary, we grind the welding seams and paint in the final.

No pedals needed

Few people have seen a real three-wheeled trike on the road, so most do not know what it looks like. For this vehicle, pedals are absolutely unnecessary. Drivers get all the pleasure of drifting on the downhill slope. Whereas to climb a hill, it would be wise to use the help of a car. For example, how reckless drivers from an American town got caught in their van.

By turning the pedals on a tricycle, you can accelerate to a very low speed. no more than 25 km / h. Whereas the most exciting trike tricks are performed at speeds over 60 km / h. Extremists on a highway with busy traffic rotate like a whirligig, fall on their side, famously draw a snake on the roadway.

Reducer of the middle axle KAMAZ 5320 circuit description

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Home »Video» Reducer of the middle axle KAMAZ 5320 schematic description

Malfunctions and their elimination

The gearbox is reliable, rarely fails, provided that timely preventive measures are taken.

Determine the breakdown of the mechanism as follows:

  • At a speed of 20 km / h, extraneous noise appears, when it increases to 80 km / h, it disappears.
  • When driving at a speed of 80 km / h, turn on neutral and turn off the ignition. if noise appears, then the problem is in the gearbox.

In the operation of the Kamaz unit, 3 types of malfunctions are most often encountered:

  • Overheating of the main gear. The reasons may be:
  • lack or excess of oil in the crankcase;
  • increased bearing tension;
  • inaccurate tooth settings.
  • Increased noise. The reasons:
  • bearing wear;
  • improperly adjusted clutch;
  • poor bearing fastening.
  • Oil leakage can result from:
  • wear of the cuffs;
  • breather contamination.
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If problems are identified, technicians perform repairs. Car owners go to the service station or do it themselves.

How the reducer works

The unit rotates constantly. Bearings and toothed gears, which undergo constant friction, are of primary importance in the design of the gearbox. To ensure the normal functioning of parts, a lubricant must be added to the crankcase.

Check the oil level in the gearbox as follows:

All transmission mechanisms are equally assembled, except for the front one in all-wheel drive KamAZ trucks with a 6×6 wheel arrangement. The center element is located in a separate middle axle housing and transmits torque at an angle of 90 ° to the drive wheels. If KamAZ is 2-axle, the middle gearbox is not provided. The assembly units of the rear axle cross-axle differential are presented in the rear gearbox diagram.

For attachment to the propeller shaft, propeller flanges are used. On old models they are square, on new ones they are round with splines at the junction and semi-axial gears (“Euro”) for 20 splines. Many trucks are equipped with a middle or rear axle cross-axle lock; for the front it does not apply.

The KamAZ device also includes an angular gearbox, which provides torque from the propeller shaft and its supply to the steering gear.

  • For modifications 5320, 53205, 5511, 4310:
  • rear axle gearbox weighs 140 kg, volume. 0.097 m³;
  • middle axle. 180 kg, volume. 0.24 m³.
  • For KAMAZ-6520, 6522 models:
  • weight of the unit for the rear axle. 115 kg, volume. 0.09 m³;
  • middle bridge. 220 kg, capacity. 0.158 m³.
  • For KamAZ-4310, 43118, the mass of the front axle gearbox is 132 kg at 0.14 m³.

Diagram of the gearbox of the middle bridge KamAZ 5320

How to remove, disassemble and assemble

Stages of disassembly and assembly of the middle or rear gearbox:

  • Oil draining.
  • Dismantling the drive axle assembly.
  • Disassembling it into its components sequentially:
  • driving and driven gears;
  • crankcase;
  • differential box;
  • satellite axes.
  • Status check:
  • crosses;
  • necks;
  • semi-axial gears;
  • drive.
  • Replacement of worn-out products.
  • Adjustment.
  • Reassemble the bridge in reverse order.
  • Testing the assembled bridge for the absence of grinding, leaks at the joints.

After completing all operations, the assembled mechanism is installed in the working position.

How can you hear a malfunction in KamAZ gearboxes!

Diagram of the gearbox of the rear axle KamAZ 5320

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The scheme of the gearbox of the rear axle KamAZ 5320 was compiled by engineers of the scientific and technical center of PJSC “KamAZ” and is an intellectual property.

Adjustment of the spur (driven) gear wheel of the KamAZ reducer!

Water flask holder

Dehydration can overtake even an experienced cyclist, and beginners are exposed to it every ride. The loss of fluid should be replenished during skiing, in small portions, as needed. A “drinking bowl” with a straw and a supply of water in a backpack is ideal for such purposes, but such systems are troublesome to maintain and interesting where there is no way to stop and just drink water (for example, on a difficult trail or at a competition). Therefore, having a water bottle attached to the frame is a good solution.

As a holder for a flask of water, I chose the products of the same B’TWIN. The construction is made of lightweight and durable plastic and can be installed for both left-handed and right-handed people. The holder uses a removable bottle stop that can be turned over depending on which hand the rider prefers to take the bottle.

Saddle

The choice of a saddle is a matter as religious as the question of which is better than IBM OS / 2 or Sun Solaris. Someone prefers narrow sports seats, someone likes comfortable wide ones, someone cannot ride without a ventilation slot in the saddle, someone from there, on the contrary, blows too much. As with pedals, the choice of saddles on the market is huge, you can choose the most optimal solution for your ass. It is only important that the mount is compatible with the seatpost mount.

My choice fell on a sports narrow saddle, all from the same B’Twin. The saddle was liked not least by the materials used. The upper surface is made of a material with Soft Touch properties, while the insides are moderately soft and elastic. Such a saddle should provide a comfortable ride on the assembled bike.

Some cyclists pay special attention to the material of which the saddle frame is made. Manufacturers can use various metal alloys for its manufacture, ranging from inexpensive to exclusive, plastic can also be used. It is important that the frame does not break at the most crucial moment, I have come across such cases.

Instructions for the use of saddle types depending on the bike

By the way, the manufacturer gives recommendations on the use of its products in terms of the level of inclination of the cyclist. Let me remind you that for mountain bikes, an approximately 30-degree fit is used in order to avoid injury to the spine when riding over obstacles. For city riding, you can use a more straight fit, but the frame here sets the tone, and we have it MTB.

Stickers

Another most important element of any bike, without a shadow of a doubt, can be considered stickers on the frame and forks. The very stickers on which the owner is indicated and the flag of his country is printed. Without such stickers, the owner of the bike will not be taken to any cycle band, and it is simply impossible to gain the maximum speed without them. A bicycle without stickers from its owner, the same as a sports “Zhiguli” without branded Sparco rugs. Will not turn on, let alone compete.

Narrow Wide Star

As I noted at the very beginning of the story, my idea was to assemble a bicycle with a 9: 1 transmission. Accordingly, I have 9 Shimano CS-HG50-9 (32-11T) stars in the cassette. The stars are steel, heavy, but strong and reliable enough. A real solution, time-tested. But in the system, instead of three stars (48-38-28) weighing 374 grams, there will be only one star NOEM ZFC-X0 36T NORM 104BCD from the original Chinese manufacturer EkFan. The NOEM star weighs just 57 grams and is made from 7075-T6 aluminum alloy.

The star is round, not oval. Oval stars in the “world of leather” turned out to be very expensive, but the usual round one cost me only twice as much as it, but on AliExpress. The teeth of the sprocket have an alternating thickness and shape, which is made specifically to eliminate the chain flying from a single sprocket in the absence of a front derailleur frame or a chain damper. The chain on the rear sprockets holds the rear derailleur, but at the front, where there is no derailleur in a one-star system, it is recommended to use NW stars.

Shifters and rear derailleur, chain

Since there is only one derailleur on the assembled bike, it is also serviced by one trigger shifter. By the way, the bicycle shifter in Russian is called the shifter, through the “a”. But why such a distorted name has taken root remains a big question.

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To operate the 1: 1 system switch, you need the appropriate shifters. Aside from the many Asian clones, a SRAM 1: 1 derailleur requires a SRAM 1: 1 derailleur. Unlike the shifter itself, the level of the shifter is not that important. For example, I don’t care if the shifter is 20 grams heavier or lighter. This difference in weight will not play any significant role when driving. So I chose a SRAM X5 coin to operate the SRAM X7 rear derailleur. By the way, this combination has been installed on one of my bicycles for ten years. Switch and lever work perfectly.

For the rear derailleur cable sheath, a white Jagwire LEX-SL product was chosen. Jagwire components are proven to be reliable and inexpensive, and the abundance of colorways allows you to customize the shell to match your design’s frame color.

It didn’t take long to choose a chain. 9: 1 drivetrain and SRAM PC-951 alternatives are generally not. The chain has the required balance between mileage and cost. Supplied in a plastic box, and the Golden link is already included. Therefore, dances with a tambourine and chain squeezing are limited only to shortening the chain (aha, no matter how it is!).

Fork, Steerer, Handlebar, Grips, Stem, Rings and Anchor

The dispute over suspension forks is as old as the sport of the British with the Germans over who first invented the bicycle. When choosing a plug, you should first of all think about the purpose for which the final product will be used. For general asphalt, parks, and very light cross-country rides, you shouldn’t go for a Downhill fork. However, the opposite is no less true. A suspension fork is one of the heaviest components on a modern bicycle. And in general, the same rule applies: the lighter the fork, the more expensive it is. However, in the case of surebets, this rule has one exception.

Forks on the used working fluid are usually divided into:

  • Rigid. a fork without shock absorption is not the best choice on a bike with an aluminum frame. A rigid frame, devoid of at least some kind of elastic element, will mercilessly beat the unfortunate rider on every bump, every crack and hole. But this is the easiest and usually inexpensive option.
  • Elastomeric. vibrations are damped by an elastic polymer element. These forks are cheap, relatively lightweight, and are not recognized as working by experienced cyclists. However, this is the most widespread type of forks and the vast majority of people who have at least some kind of depreciation ride on them (and do not know grief).
  • Oil-based. a special oil is used, which flows from one chamber to another provides a damping effect, the same principle is used in most shock absorbers for passenger cars. Oil forks can be as simple as they are super sophisticated with many settings and internal valves. over, “oil” is the main component for “heavy” cycling disciplines. According to the cycling community, oil forks are already what you need.
  • Air. compressed air is used as an elastic element. “Air” differs from “elastomeric” and “oil” in that instead of a metal spring, air is used here, which is pumped by a special high-pressure pump for the needs of a particular rider. The main advantage of an air fork is its low weight, because air, unlike oil and metal springs, weighs almost nothing, even when compressed. Air forks are usually used in Cross country, as their performance is no longer sufficient for heavier disciplines.

Of course, there are all sorts of combinations of technologies in one fork, for example, “air” can be used as a “spring”, and “oil” as a damper.

Since I collect the bike not for participation in competitions, but more for trips in the form of a light XC (Cross country), there is not much choice. There is either “oil” or “air”. Air forks are more expensive than oil forks, which is why I had to opt for something that uses spring for damping and oil for damping. Surprisingly, there is not a large selection of forks in the “world of leather”. All vendors have roughly the same set of components. Only differ. After a long and painful choice between RockShox XC32 and RockShox XC28, I had to opt for the latter. It is cheaper and lighter than the more powerful XC32. XC28 / XC32 model is far from new, time-tested and many users. According to the assurances of naturalists, starting with the XC28, the forks finally work. Yes, one of my hardtails has an XC32 installed. No complaints have been identified over the years of operation.

I took the RockShox XC28 of medium hardness, since the future rider has not yet grown to my kilograms, but no longer a skinny child with the weight of a shepherd. There is a compression lock mechanism on the fork if you suddenly need to quickly drive up a long climb and do not want to lose pedaling energy, as well as preload and rebound adjustment in case you suddenly want to adjust it exactly to your riding style (in practice, such desires do not arise). The working travel of the fork is 100 mm, which is quite enough for comfortable use of the fork in urban conditions.

Since the frame purchased on AliExpress was supplied by the seller without installed steering bearings, in order to install the fork, you must first install the steering one. The Dorcus frame is built to the latest frame construction standards and has a variable head tube diameter. I had to select the steering wheel on the frame directly from the sellers, and at the same time select an adapter for installing an already obsolete fork with a 1⅛ inch stem. There were no problems with the presence of many sellers in the selection, although the seller himself had to run. It is not recommended to install a press-fit (and there are no others) steering wheel yourself. Installation requires a special, expensive, tool and it is better to entrust the operation to a bicycle master. Otherwise, the fragile head tube may crack and you will have to buy a new frame. The anchor, by the way, came with my helmsman, which, according to the seller’s assurances, was designed on industrial bearings. In principle, industrial bearings are a very good thing, especially for such loaded parts as a bottom bracket, steering wheel or wheel hubs. Although in the latter case it is possible to argue, citing such an argument as “rolls better on tapered ball bearings”.

The stem for attaching the handlebars I chose the usual, rootless, short and with a slight rise. Sellers praised it as an exhibition sample, and so, they say, they are sold twice as expensive. In appearance, it is a little angular, and does not quite match the smooth shapes of the steering wheel and frame, but a black and white bike needs more than just color contrast. At the same time, three spacer rings were purchased in order to select the fork stem. The handlebars are from the same manufacturer as the seatpost. In terms of weight and shape, it did not differ from more expensive steering wheels, but in terms of cost it significantly won.

Wheel dimension

Often, in order to just ride a bike, there is no need to know exactly how to make the spokes of the wheel and how many inches it has, how to change the sprockets and what parts the bicycle fork consists of, as well as in which places the play is especially dangerous. Most bike owners only need to know how to change or inflate a tire and hang a loose chain on sprockets.

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However, if a person is going to know a little more about his iron horse, or is even going to assemble his own bicycle on his own, he must have sufficient knowledge in this area in order to know well what parts it consists of, how it can be assembled and disassembled, how to produce repairing a tire, straightening a figure eight, spacing a wheel or, for example, changing an asterisk, and not just being able to pump a deflated tube.

In order for the bike to be well suited to its owner, it was comfortable to ride on it, and also in order for it to be as convenient and functional as possible, it is necessary to choose the right size. Most often, attention is paid to the size of the frame and wheels. Their size is considered to be the outer diameter, which is the outer side of the tire.

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To find out the dimension, you just need to measure the diameter with a tape measure. As a rule, the value is measured in inches, so after that you will have to translate your measurements into this number system.

How to remove a wheel?

The main parts that make up a bicycle wheel are the rim, hub, spokes, tube and tire. Its dimension, for the most part, depends on the size of the rim and the length of the spokes, which practically reaches the radius of the wheel. In order to change any of the parts, it is necessary to remove the entire wheel. Most often, changing a wheel means replacing a bicycle camera, which has a habit of bursting, or when, for example, you need to edit a figure eight, but these cases are rare. This is usually not difficult to do. First you need to set the bike upside down. Then it just remains to remove the wheels.

Removing the front wheel is extremely easy. To do this, you need to unscrew the fasteners on which it is held. As a rule, these are either nuts, or a small lever called an eccentric, it must be rotated 180 degrees. Once these elements are unscrewed, the entire structure can be easily removed from the fork. The main thing is not to forget that before that you need to remove the rim brakes, if any.

The rear wheel is removed in much the same way as the front, except that sometimes you have to remove the chain, while it is better to switch the speed to the smallest sprocket. In this case, the stars themselves can not be removed. Then the nuts or eccentric are also unscrewed, after which you can safely remove everything else.

After everything is dismantled, you can safely remove the tires and pull out the camera. Then you need to install a new camera and after that you need to rebuild everything. When installing the rear wheel, you need to pay attention to the chain. it can twist, so in order to avoid such a problem, you should carefully put everything in its place.

At the moment when it is already necessary to assemble the bike, it is worth paying attention to the fact that there should be no backlash at the place where the bicycle wheel is attached. Everything should fit snugly, but at the same time, the nuts and eccentric should not be overtightened.

When assembling the bike, you should pay attention to the fact that both the rear and front wheels must spin forward.

After everything is assembled, you can completely pump the chamber with a pump.

  • It is best to slowly inflate the chamber with a pump when it is not yet completely covered by the tire. In this way, twisting can be avoided, which in turn eliminates the sudden rupture of the camera.

It is very important to inflate the tires correctly. If they are too soft or, conversely, too hard, they will burst very quickly. Each tire has special markings that indicate to what extent they can be inflated. There is no need to frequently inflate the cameras, especially if they are new. You can ride with these for a couple of months without thinking about the fact that they need to be pumped up.

For adult bicycles

Bicycles for adults tend to be of almost the same dimension. There are minor differences depending on the type of bike.

Most often they prefer to choose a diameter of 26 inches. This size is very convenient to use and transport, and it also takes up relatively little space, which is very practical when stored in an apartment. For those who prefer high speed, the 27-inch version will do. Most often, this dimension is found on road, high-speed bicycles.

For people with a height of 180 cm or more, you can purchase 29-inch wheels, so it will be much more convenient to ride.

For children’s bicycles

For children’s bicycles, it is important that the big is not too large or too small, so there are many tables with the ratio of the child’s height to the diameter of the wheels. Thus, choosing a bike suitable for the age and height of the child is now not difficult. The main thing is to carefully study the parameters of the bike.

How to install a rear bike axle

Wheel sizes for children’s bicycles range from 12 to 24 inches. Thus, you can pick up a children’s bike for absolutely any height.

Basically, the rear and front wheels of a child’s bike are the same size, however, on some tricycles, the two rear wheels can be reduced.

Starting at 24 inches, it is considered that the wheel is already suitable for a teenage bike. A larger diameter of 26 inches may already be suitable for an adult. Children’s bike wheels are usually cast, so they cannot be inflated. In case of damage, in most cases, you have to buy a new one.

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How to remove play in the wheel

Backlash is a small gap in the parts of the bike. Its presence can lead to rapid damage to the bike.

If there is any play in the front wheel, the first step is to tighten all the nuts. The main thing in this business is to make sure that they are not overtightened, otherwise they will break. If this does not help, it is worth checking the bearings to see if they are intact. In this case, some cyclists advise to completely replace the wheel.

If backlash is found in the rear wheel, then it is also worth tightening all possible reasons for the weakening of parts. If this does not help and the backlash remains, most likely the case is in the bushing, and it will either have to be sorted out or changed completely. As a last resort, I have all the rear wheel.