How to Assemble a Bicycle Headset

Steering bike

assemble, bicycle, headset

A modern bicycle steering column provides flawless control of your two-wheeled friend while driving. This is a special system of cups, bearings and thrust washers. Their quality and reliability. safe and comfortable riding on road, city, children’s and mountain bikes.

“Steering” bike, device

To understand the structure of a bicycle steering column, you need to start by understanding the steering mechanism of a bicycle, in principle. And the steering mechanism is a whole complex of parts that allows you to direct the movement of the vehicle in the direction the cyclist needs.

  • handlebar (crossbar or some more complex design) with grip points and fixed accessories, grips;
  • stem (pipe) with handlebar and steering tube mountings;
  • a steering tube that connects the stem or handlebars to the crown of the fork and goes into the glass and the steering column;
  • steering column, consisting of two cups, bearings (upper and lower), rings (optional) and allowing the tube to rotate freely in the glass;
  • head tube or part of the frame with chamfers cut to a certain standard, where the bearings of the column and its cups are inserted.

The steering column of the bicycle provides rotation of the fork in the frame tube. Currently, there are two types of speakers (divided by the method of attachment to the plug):

  • threaded,
  • threadless.

The figure on the right shows a disassembled threaded column.

How to choose

Threaded. Considered an outdated type of column, but used in the construction of inexpensive bicycles. Often fitted on road and sport bikes. They are quite simple and easy to adjust.

An example of an Altair bicycle with a threaded column.

Threadless. modern design.

The photo above is an example of a Mercedes bicycle with a threadless column, but there are three types of them:

  • integrated,
  • semi-integrated,
  • non-integrated.

The last type is quite tough. Suitable for mountain bikes and hybrids. Slightly adjustable in height.

Bicycle headset views, more detailed analysis

The market offers many technical solutions for this unit, different in design and weight. The most common headset types are Threaded, Threadless or Aheadset (Threadless), Zero Stack, Integrated System, Campagnolo Hiddenset, Perdido, Columbus and Onepointfive. This text does not cover aspects of reliability, installation and maintenance of steering columns of certain standards. only a brief description, key features and some characteristics of a particular type.

Threaded steering column

A threaded steering column is still one of the most common standards for attaching a fork to a frame. Although this circuit is now largely abandoned on professional road and MTB bikes, due to its unpretentiousness it is still often found on entry-level touring, road and ATB bikes. The word “threaded” comes from the presence of an internal thread on the upper cup and lock nut, due to which the fork actually holds.

The bearing cups are pressed into the steering tube, where the bearing balls from above and below hold the individual rings with rolling grooves. The final strength of the structure is given by the fork, which is attracted to the bearings by means of a locknut. At what moment you set the stem, it doesn’t matter anymore.

By the way, we recommend:

There are several varieties of this mount, sharpened for different diameters of the fork stem. The most common are: 1″, 1-1 / 8″ and 1-¼ inches.

Classic threadless steering column

Most likely you have this type of headset on your bike. Sometimes referred to as Aheadset (History: Aheadset is just one of the first cup makers of this standard, whose name became a household name for this type of headset), this technical solution dominates modern aluminum bicycles in the middle and upper price range. Unlike the previous standard, this mount is not responsible for securing the fork, so there is no thread.

The rest of the standards are similar: upper and lower cups (they also have a rolling groove) holding a cage with balls, or an industrial bearing. The cups are installed on the top and bottom of the bicycle head tube, rings with rolling grooves or anthers cover the balls from dirt. Simple, easy maintenance and reliable design.

Since there are no threads on the fork now, the anchor. a small spacer driven into the fork rod. provides preliminary fixation of the fork-cup combination. The anchor cover you see in the illustration above rests on top of the stem. When pulled to the anchor by the adjusting bolt, it presses on the stem and pulls the entire structure from the crown of the fork to the stem together. The final attachment of the fork stem is done with the stem attachment.

Aheadset is standard for 1-1 / 8 forks”, other options are not common.

Semi-integrated (Zero Stack or “Low Profile”)

A standard that is equally likely to be found on both carbon and modern aluminum bikes. The main difference from the threaded and Aheadset standards is the cups and bearing, which now fit directly into the head tube. Outside, we will see only a rolling groove or a boot.

On budget models, needle bearings or cage bearings are often used. In such cases, the cups not only support but also act as an outer ring with a rolling groove. In expensive models with an industrial bearing, the cup only holds the housing. The most common crimp diameter is 44mm, but other specifications such as height and type of bearing used may vary by manufacturer and model. The main advantage of this standard is the zero height relative to the head tube, which allows you to lower the bicycle handlebars as low as possible.

Integrated systems without cups

Numerous variants and sub-variants of this standard have in common the absence of external headset cups, when the bearings are pressed directly into the head tube, which, of course, requires a compatible frame. Only industrial bearings are used here, since the balls will gradually wear off the rolling groove, and the frame will no longer be suitable for further use.

The most common bearing size has a 41mm outer diameter and a 45 ° bevel (correspondingly, this is the angle inside the frame). There are variations of this standard using a 36 ° bearing and frame bevel.

Otherwise, the fork installation process is similar to the Aheadset standard. it is held in place by the steering column anchor. In general, the name “integrated steering” does not belong to the generally accepted standard. It is applied to the class of steering columns where the bearing is pressed directly into the frame and is typically 41mm in diameter. Sometimes this gives certain difficulties with the search, in the case of replacing bearings on exotic frames.

Campagnolo hiddenset

Campagnolo’s own standard requiring a specially treated head tube.

Basically, this is a standardized modification of the semi-integrated headset, which uses tapered bearings installed in tapered cups recessed into the headset. The standard is in no way compatible with the generally accepted varieties of semi-integrated and integrated steering columns.

The fork is fixed in a manner similar to the Aheadset standard.

Perdido

Another particular variation on the theme of semi-integrated steering columns. The system consists of cups pressed into the head tube and separate industrial bearings.

The main difference from the semi-integrated Zero Stack is the special bearing size and, of course, precision execution. The outer diameter of the Perdido cup is 44.5mm and the required head tube diameter is 44.4mm. As we said earlier, the diameter of the ZeroStack cup is only 44mm, so Perdido is declared as an independent standard, although in principle there is nothing new in it.

In some cases it is possible to re-drill the ZeroStack aluminum frame to the standard 44.4mm Perdido diameter. It should be noted that Perdido cups are more recessed into the frame, therefore, it will be necessary to increase the depth of the seat.

Steering Columbus

This standard is a variation of the threadless Aheadset with its own bearing sizes. The head tube does not have any milled seats inside, the bearings are located outside the frame, in the outer cups. Industrial bearing size 41.5mm.

It can sometimes be wrong to identify this type of headset as the outer cups on some bikes are painted to match the frame color. The fixing of the fork is carried out in a manner similar to the Aheadset standard. Originally, the onepointfive was designed as a variant of the Aheadset for oversized rods, with exactly the same design. As the name implies, forks with a stem 1.5 are used with this standard.”, head tube inner diameter 2 inches (50mm).

Born in 2001 by a collaborative effort between Cane Creek, Race Face, Cannondale, Manitou and Chris King, this open standard was originally intended for use in extreme disciplines. The widespread use of carbon fiber in the production of Hi-End road bikes has led to the introduction of this type of steering wheel on the highway. Larger pipe diameter: higher rigidity!

Road bikes use an integrated and semi-integrated steering type different from the progenitor 1 1/8″ only increased in size. In 2007, this steering wheel is used by such companies as Pinarello, Trek, Specialized, Cannondale.

The text was prepared by Roman Borisov. Published: May 5, 2020. Sources: sportseason.ru, sportzoom.ru. Categories: Choice.

  • Tags:
  • fork
  • grips

Bicycle steering column: device and adjustment

What is a bicycle headset? This element is designed to provide control of the vehicle, and more specifically. to change the position of the front wheel. How is the bicycle headset assembled? What are the dimensions of the presented part? What needs to be done to properly adjust the element? We will talk about this and not only further in the article.

Device

Bicycle steering column. a system containing a set of parts, the functionality of which provides the rider with the ability to change the direction of movement of a two-wheeled vehicle. The steering gear includes the following parts:

  • Crossbar. an element on which brake systems, speed switches, and other accessories are installed.
  • Stem. small pipe with crossbar mountings.
  • Head tube. the part that connects the stem to the fork crown.
  • The head tube is a short tube frame element with internal bevels that are cut to specific standards. All kinds of cups and bearings fit here.

Threaded Bicycle Headset

Elements of this type are considered classic parts that are found in models of budget bicycles. Such systems are rather unpretentious in maintenance. The top bowl of the threaded system has standardized chamfers. The steering tube is fixed here with a control nut.

The advantages of a threaded column include low weight and low cost. Among the shortcomings, it is worth highlighting the relative unreliability, as well as the complexity of the adjustment.

Bicycle headset threadless

Details of this nature are considered the current standard. There is no thread inside such a column. Threadless systems do not take the load from the fork fixing.

Similar parts consist of the lower and upper cups. Both are pressed into the head tube. The inside contains the bicycle headset bearing. A rolling ring is installed on top of the latter. In threaded systems, the stem and spacer rings are first installed. Only then does the steering tube lock.

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Integrated column

Refers to the threadless type of systems. It differs from the rest by the absence of cups. In other words, the bearings fit directly into the head tube of the frame. There are no rolling grooves in the design. The integrated headset of a bicycle may contain exclusively industrial bearings.

Systems of the presented type have the lowest weight and simplicity of design. However, they are quite difficult to recover from damage received. In addition, there is a significant variation in sizes and models.

Semi-integrated column

Semi-integrated columns usually contain combinations of standard and industrial bearings. The cups of such designs completely go into the inner cavity of the head tube. From the outside, only the anthers remain visible.

A semi-integrated bicycle column has a rather complex structure and a high cost. Despite this, the systems of this plan are considered the most convenient, since they make it possible to set the required steering height without any special difficulties.

How to assemble a steering column?

Before proceeding with specific actions, you must carefully wipe with a piece of cloth the chamfers for installing the bearings, removing them from oil and dust. It is also recommended to check the surfaces for chipping, chips, and other damage. If defects are found, you will have to remove and replace the bearing seating rings. If you ignore the problem, soon there will be damage to the bearing balls.

Now let’s go directly to work. First, grease the chamfers for the bearings. It is recommended to use thick material for this. The assembly must be carried out starting with the lowest bearing. The latter is recessed into the seat. In this case, the separator should be in the upper position, and the balls should be laid down.

Next, a dust-free and lubricated steering column counter cup is installed on the bearing. An O-ring is also placed here, which will protect the interior from the penetration of dirt.

Then you need to turn the bike frame. After that, the upper bearing is installed according to the same principle as the lower one. The seat is locked with a boot. Finally, the outer seal and the stop washer are placed. Additional rings are put on the steering column, the number of which depends on the parameters of the frame and the size of the fork tube. The steering wheel is mounted on top of the rings. Then the washer is tightened and secured with a bolt.

Adjustment

Adjusting the steering column of a bicycle involves putting the handlebars in the correct position. To begin with, the rudder bar is placed perpendicular to the wheel. Then the washer is tightened until the backlash is completely eliminated. This action must be performed so that the handlebar tilts freely to one side of the central position while holding the bike in weight. Only then are the bolts tightly tightened directly on the steering wheel.

Dimensions

There are different sizes of bicycle headsets, and more specifically, individual head tube options. Currently, you can find the following types of glasses:

  • Standard. size 30 mm.
  • Integrated. Available in several sizes: 1/8 “(41.1mm), 1/8” Italian Standard (41.95mm), 1/8 “FSA Standard (41.6mm).
  • Semi-integrated. range of sizes from 41.35 mm to 55.9 mm.

Each size has its own tolerances down to the millimeter. However, you should try to select glasses as accurately as possible in order to avoid fork backlash. This assumption will negatively affect the driving experience.

How to check a bike for headset play?

How securely the steering column of a bicycle is fixed can be determined using a simple method. It is enough to put the vehicle on a flat surface and then apply the front brake. As soon as the bike is not able to roll, you need to push it forward. If there is no play in the steering column, there will be no hesitation. With its presence, a noticeable return will become tangible.

How does the problem arise? As noted above, the reason may be the deterioration of the chamfers, where the bearings fit. If play is seen on a new bike, it may mean that a poor adjustment was made during assembly. In this case, unscrew the upper retaining bolt, tighten the washer tightly and reassemble the elements.

As you can see, the steering column. not the simplest element of a bicycle. However, its maintenance can be handled with sufficient knowledge and experience. When assembling the steering column after scheduled maintenance of its elements, it is enough to focus on the sequence of actions described in our material.

Finally, it should be noted that bicycle steering columns fail quite rarely, regardless of their type. Troubleshooting often requires only replacing bearings or tightening the main fixing bolt.

Assembling the bicycle headset

Despite the fact that threaded head 1 “standard has not been used for a long time in current models of bicycles, there is still a need to service them. Whether it’s the old bike of grandfather in the village or the Start-Highway, on which you periodically wind a dozen or two kilometers. We have already described how to maintain and eliminate backlash in this article, however, threaded steering wheels have their own characteristics.

Tool

As always, we need:

  • Hexagon set;
  • Open-ended keys;
  • Rags to remove remnants of old grease;
  • Grease lubrication.

Service algorithm

Step 1

Using a hex wrench, unscrew the stem bolt and loosen the lock nut. Remove the stem from the helm. For convenience, the front wheel can be clamped between the legs, this will prevent the fork from turning and it will be easier for you to unscrew the bolt.

Step 2

Remove the retaining nut, spacers and retaining nut from the steering. Remember the location of all the boots and spacers so you can reassemble the steering wheel. If you are worried, it helps to take a banal photo of the assembled steering.

Step 3

Remove the bearings from the steering wheel. If they are “bulk”, then you can use a small magnet.

Step 4

Having dealt with the top of the steering head, go to the bottom. When removing the fork from the head tube, be extremely careful, bulk bearings may run in different directions.

Step 5

Clean all parts of old grease and check for wear. If there are noticeable traces of wear on the bearings, then they must be replaced. If there is already wear on the steering cups themselves, replacing the bearings is not enough. We’ll have to change everything. Also, we recommend changing the bulk bearings to cage counterparts, this will allow you not to bother during the assembly of the steering.

Step 6

Liberally apply heavy grease to the lower fork seat and reinstall the bearings. The grease will hold the bearings in place and you can easily fit the fork onto your bike.

Step 7

Put the plug back in place.

Step 8

With plenty of grease on the top cup, install the bearings.

Step 9

Re-assemble the steering wheel after liberally lubricating the remaining parts. If you forgot in what order it is going, check the photo taken in step 2.

Step 10

After installing the stem, remove the backlash with the lower nut and tighten the upper locknut. Excess grease can be removed with a cloth.

Service of a threaded steering column is not something complicated and out of the ordinary. The main thing is not to let the bearings scatter around the room. Just 20 minutes and your old bike will continue to delight you!

Velo-shop.ru store, in this photo essay will tell you how to assemble a bike out of the box

Introduction

From my experience in the company, I can say that most often we send bicycles in boxes to other cities, using the services of transport companies. In order to find out the cost of delivery, you will need to know the dimensions of the box.

Approximate dimensions for an adult bicycle box:

Volume: 0.2 cm 3. Length: 140 cm, Height: 70 cm, Width: 20 cm.

We warn you that in order to guarantee the integrity of the kit and the filling of the warranty card, the boxes are opened and sealed again before shipment..

Training

So you got your new bike sealed in a box.

Be careful when opening the box, do not hurt yourself on the staples

Our manager Alexander is ready to start assembling.

Bicycle kit:

  • Frame with rear wheel and attachments
  • Steering wheel
  • Front wheel
  • Box or bag with the necessary components and spare parts.
  • Instructions
  • This bike kit includes fenders, they will be sealed in a separate bag. (The bike can be equipped without fenders)

Do not throw away the wing bag or tear it, on the bag you will find instructions for assembling the wings.

Contents of the box with accessories and spare parts

  • Instruction manual with warranty card
  • Set of reflectors
  • Mounts for installing reflectors
  • Cam for front wheel
  • Seat post
  • Saddle
  • Pedals

Assembly keys are not included with the bike. You can purchase everything you need on our website, or use your own tool.

Bicycle assembly tool kit.

  • Nippers
  • Hexagon set
  • Knife
  • Phillips screwdriver
  • Slotted screwdriver (flat)
  • Key 15
  • Lubrication (The bike will come treated with factory lubrication. But when using it, you will definitely need it. For example, to process the chain after riding)

Remove the packing material and clamps from the bike.

Be careful not to hurt shift cable and brakes

Installing the steering wheel

For convenience, we recommend driving first. A 5 hexagon will help you with this.

Installing the steering wheel on a threaded steering column

If the handlebar is mounted on a threaded steering column, then simply insert the stem into the hole in the frame. And tighten the bolt from above with a hexagon to 6

After installation, check the steering column for play. It shouldn’t be!

Installing the front wheel

Pick up the eccentric that you took out in a separate bag / box.

If there is no eccentric, this means that the wheel on your bike is secured with nuts. Then you need a key or a 15 head, or a pedal key.

Insert the eccentric into the bushing as shown in Fig2. The eccentric lever must be on the left side of the wheel in the direction of travel (in the photo the eccentric lever is specially shown from the other side, for clarity). Then place the wheel on the seats in the fork.

For owners of bicycles with disc brakes: look carefully at the brake disc, it should fit exactly between the pads

Then screw the cam clockwise and tighten so that it is parallel to the fork. Fig 4

Seat installation

Take the seatpost, 6-point hex and the saddle in your hand. Loosen the fasteners on the pin with a hex wrench, without unscrewing the bolt completely.

Place on the frames located under the saddle, fastening the pin as shown below.

how to assemble a saddle

Pull it back into the seat tube hole in the frame. Adjust the tilt and tighten fully. important Important! The correct position is when the saddle surface is parallel to the ground.

Installation of fenders

The rear fender attaches to the bike seat post. An option is possible when the wings can be installed directly on the frame.

The front wing is also secured in two ways:

  • installation under the fork (rests against the walls of the fork stem),
  • traverse (gorilla) forks.
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As I mentioned above, you shouldn’t break the package. It briefly, but quite understandably, provides information on assembling the wings.

First, divide the kit. Let’s start with the front wing.

Cut the rubber bands. These rubber bands will be attached to the fork stem, resting against the walls. They will not let the wing jump off its seat.

Pick up the large diameter rubber bands (4) and (5), the mounting bracket (3) and the long one (6). We put on the elastic bands and fix them with a nut (7) as shown in the figure below. Elastic bands with a smaller diameter are included in the package of this wing, for installation in nets of a smaller diameter. You can just postpone them or throw them away.

We get an almost finished structure. We fix the wings on the mounting bracket.

Installing the finished front fender on the bike.

Now proceed to the assembly of the rear wing. The rear wing is much easier to assemble. We act in the same way. We lay out everything in order. In the photo it is quite clear what and where is attached.

The rear wing attaches to the seat post. Remember to fit the rubber pad between the mudguard mount and the seat post.

Wing tilt adjustable with plastic nuts

Loosen the nut completely in order to find the correct angle. The attachment requires gentle handling, so if the wing does not go down or go up, it is not worth putting in a lot of effort, otherwise you may break it.

Installing the pedals

The bike comes with two pedals. Each pedal has an indication of which one is left and which is right. Most often you will see letters on the pedal axis: L-left and R-right.

The pedals have different threads. The right pedal is screwed clockwise, the left pedal counterclockwise

To fully secure the pedals, you will definitely need a 15.

Wheel pumping. Pump up the cameras. The working pressure is marked on the tires. For mountain bikes, typically 2.8-4.5 Bar. If the pump does not have a pressure gauge, then inflate the wheels to suit your weight so that when you sit on the bike, the tire does not fall by more than 20% of the height.

A) Your safety depends on the correct level of pressure in the chamber b) The ease of movement of the bike c) The durability of the wheels

Device

Bicycle steering column. a system containing a set of parts, the functionality of which provides the rider with the ability to change the direction of movement of a two-wheeled vehicle. The steering gear includes the following parts:

  • Crossbar. an element on which brake systems, speed switches, and other accessories are installed.
  • Stem. small pipe with crossbar mountings.
  • Head tube. the part that connects the stem to the fork crown.
  • The head tube is a short tube frame element with internal bevels that are cut to specific standards. All kinds of cups and bearings fit here.

Threaded Bicycle Headset

Elements of this type are considered classic parts that are found in models of budget bicycles. Such systems are rather unpretentious in maintenance. The top bowl of the threaded system has standardized chamfers. The steering tube is fixed here with a control nut.

The advantages of a threaded column include low weight and low cost. Among the shortcomings, it is worth highlighting the relative unreliability, as well as the complexity of the adjustment.

Bicycle headset threadless

Details of this nature are considered the current standard. There is no thread inside such a column. Threadless systems do not take the load from the fork fixing.

Similar parts consist of the lower and upper cups. Both are pressed into the head tube. The inside contains the bicycle headset bearing. A rolling ring is installed on top of the latter. In threaded systems, the stem and spacer rings are first installed. Only then does the steering tube lock.

Integrated column

Refers to the threadless type of systems. It differs from the rest by the absence of cups. In other words, the bearings fit directly into the head tube of the frame. There are no rolling grooves in the design. The integrated headset of a bicycle may contain exclusively industrial bearings.

Systems of the presented type have the lowest weight and simplicity of design. However, they are quite difficult to recover from damage received. In addition, there is a significant variation in sizes and models.

Semi-integrated column

Semi-integrated columns usually contain combinations of standard and industrial bearings. The cups of such designs completely go into the inner cavity of the head tube. From the outside, only the anthers remain visible.

A semi-integrated bicycle column has a rather complex structure and a high cost. Despite this, the systems of this plan are considered the most convenient, since they make it possible to set the required steering height without any special difficulties.

How to assemble a steering column?

Before proceeding with specific actions, you must carefully wipe with a piece of cloth the chamfers for installing the bearings, removing them from oil and dust. It is also recommended to check the surfaces for chipping, chips, and other damage. If defects are found, you will have to remove and replace the bearing seating rings. If you ignore the problem, soon there will be damage to the bearing balls.

Now let’s go directly to work. First, grease the chamfers for the bearings. It is recommended to use thick material for this. The assembly must be carried out starting with the lowest bearing. The latter is recessed into the seat. In this case, the separator should be in the upper position, and the balls should be laid down.

Next, a dust-free and lubricated steering column counter cup is installed on the bearing. An O-ring is also placed here, which will protect the interior from the penetration of dirt.

Then you need to turn the bike frame. After that, the upper bearing is installed according to the same principle as the lower one. The seat is locked with a boot. Finally, the outer seal and the stop washer are placed. Additional rings are put on the steering column, the number of which depends on the parameters of the frame and the size of the fork tube. The steering wheel is mounted on top of the rings. Then the washer is tightened and secured with a bolt.

Adjustment

Adjusting the steering column of a bicycle involves putting the handlebars in the correct position. To begin with, the rudder bar is placed perpendicular to the wheel. Then the washer is tightened until the backlash is completely eliminated. This action must be performed so that the handlebar tilts freely to one side of the central position while holding the bike in weight. Only then are the bolts tightly tightened directly on the steering wheel.

Dimensions

There are different sizes of bicycle headsets, and more specifically, individual head tube options. Currently, you can find the following types of glasses:

  • Standard. size 30 mm.
  • Integrated. Available in several sizes: 1/8 “(41.1mm), 1/8” Italian Standard (41.95mm), 1/8 “FSA Standard (41.6mm).
  • Semi-integrated. range of sizes from 41.35 mm to 55.9 mm.

Each size has its own tolerances down to the millimeter. However, you should try to select glasses as accurately as possible in order to avoid fork backlash. This assumption will negatively affect the driving experience.

How to check a bike for headset play?

How securely the steering column of a bicycle is fixed can be determined using a simple method. It is enough to put the vehicle on a flat surface and then apply the front brake. As soon as the bike is not able to roll, you need to push it forward. If there is no play in the steering column, there will be no hesitation. With its presence, a noticeable return will become tangible.

How does the problem arise? As noted above, the reason may be the deterioration of the chamfers, where the bearings fit. If play is seen on a new bike, it may mean that a poor adjustment was made during assembly. In this case, unscrew the upper retaining bolt, tighten the washer tightly and reassemble the elements.

As you can see, the steering column is not the easiest element of the bicycle design. However, its maintenance can be handled with sufficient knowledge and experience. When assembling the steering column after scheduled maintenance of its elements, it is enough to focus on the sequence of actions described in our material.

Finally, it should be noted that bicycle steering columns fail quite rarely, regardless of their type. Troubleshooting often requires only replacing bearings or tightening the main fixing bolt.

Steering gear

The steering gear is a device that contains the whole complex of parts that allow you to control the direction of the bicycle. It includes the following elements:

  • The handlebar is a crossbar or more complex structure on which the grip points are located. In a primitive version, it is a straight pipe on which accessories and grips are attached.
  • Stem. short tube with two bolts for handlebar and head tube.
  • Bicycle head tube. The tube that connects the stem (or the handlebar itself) to the crown of the bicycle fork. Goes into the steering column and glass.
  • The steering column of a bicycle is a set of two cups, upper and lower bearings, optionally several rings, allowing the steering tube to rotate freely in the head tube. An anchor appears in the upper part of the pipe for expansion under the stem mount.
  • Head tube. part of the frame, which is a short tube with chamfers cut inside according to a certain standard, into which the cups and column bearings are inserted.

So, the structure is not as simple as it seems at first glance. In addition, there are a number of standards that are incompatible with each other. You should treat them as carefully as possible.

Loudspeakers

Threaded

A little about the types of columns.

First of all, you should consider the “classics”. the threaded column, which is now found on budget bicycles. Very unpretentious, lightweight and inexpensive, it has been used for several decades. The disadvantages include less reliability and complexity of configuration.

In this design, a thread is cut on the upper cup of the column, and the head tube is fixed in it with a lock nut.

Threadless

The modern standard, also called Aheadset, after the brand of the company that first introduced it. This design does not bear the load of fixing the fork, and there is no thread in it.

The column consists of upper and lower cups, each of which is pressed into the head tube, and a bearing is already installed in it, which is closed by a rolling ring. In this design, the installation rings and the stem are first installed, and then the steering tube is already fixed.

The standard layout is also called “non-integrated”. What does the integrated and other speakers look like??

Semi-integrated

The semi-integrated column contains bearings (usually both industrial, in other versions there are combinations) and cups that completely go into the inside of the glass, only anthers can be seen from the outside. Despite the slightly greater complexity of the device and the cost, the combination is considered one of the best, since it does not protrude beyond the glass and allows you to set an arbitrary steering wheel height.

Integrated

A number of standards for integrated threadless columns differ from others by the complete absence of cups. Those. bearings are directly pressed into the frame. Accordingly, there are no rolling grooves, only industrial bearings can be used. Along with simplicity and lightness, models of this type are difficult to repair (especially outside the workshop) and a huge range of sizes.

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Manufacturers standards

There are many vendor-specific standards. Sometimes this is an attempt to protect their models from modifications, sometimes. indeed, innovative innovations that just have not yet become generally accepted, and quite rarely it is an integrated speaker. usually one of the classic options.

  • Campagnolo is a semi-integrated standard, but its bearing and cup are tapered. Requires special frame processing.
  • Perdido. 4 mm different from the standard semi-integrated ZeroStack semi-integrated kit.
  • Columbus. the classic Aheadset for its own unique diameter.
  • Onepointfive Standard is a non-graded wide head tube standard created by a consortium of extreme bike manufacturers.

Glasses

Each of the listed columns has its own head tube, and none of the types are interchangeable. So, what types of glasses can be found:

  • integrated. inwardly concave glass surface, truncated chamfers. There are four sizes: 1 “(26.35 mm), 1 and 1/8” (41.1 mm), 1 and 1/8 “Italian (41.95 mm), 1 and 1.8” FSA Standard (41.6 mm);
  • semi-integrated. absolutely straight pipe without convexities and concavities, straight chamfer at 90 degrees with a depth of at least 15 mm. The range of sizes is slightly less, and there is no confusion with manufacturers by fractions of an inch: 1 “(41.35 mm), 1 and 1/8” (43.95 mm), 1.5 “(55.9 mm);
  • standard. similar to semi-integrated dimensions and shape, but usually even narrower and smaller. The standards are the same, but the dimensions are different: 1 “(30.05 mm), 1 and 1/8” (33.9 mm), 1.5 inches (49.57 mm).

All sizes have tolerances from half a millimeter to a millimeter, but these should be avoided to avoid fork play, which has a very negative impact on ride quality. It is clear that we are talking about these standards in the event that the column is threadless.

Assembly and repair

Due to its simplicity and low overall load on the steering gear, it does not often require repair or maintenance. Nevertheless, some operations can and should be done by hand:

  • Regular maintenance. at least once a season, disassemble the steering unit and check the condition of the bearings, clean it if it appears by abrasive from the rolling grooves, lubrication may be useful. Change parts in a timely manner if required.
  • Height Adjustment. If spacer rings are needed for threadless options, even handlebar extensions are used on threaded steering columns. about this in the article on how the steering wheel is adjusted and how to remove it.

There is nothing difficult in independent work with the steering column. The main thing is to clearly follow the assembly sequence, because the circuit is quite simple, and not to allow distortions during pressing. There is a special tool for this, but it is quite rare, and almost everyone uses simple hammers and mallets, although an unbalanced blow can not only damage the cup or bearing, but also crack the frame.

As a result, after each session of working with the steering mechanism, you should check the integrity of all parts and the absence of backlash on the wheel, because it is quite simple to disassemble and fix them.

The steering column is the most complex component of mountain bike steering, but it can be easily “mastered” if you have sufficient knowledge and the desire to understand the structure of the bicycle. Installing and replacing any part of the steering device is simple enough so that you do not worry about possible damage. Sometimes for “repair” you just need to tighten a single bolt. Even major changes are possible, such as raising the steering wheel. Accessories such as an extension cord will help with this.

Installing the bicycle steering column

The bicycle is one of the first technical inventions of mankind for independent movement. The device of the bicycle is quite simple, but in order for the device to serve for a long time, not to pose a threat to life, it must be carefully monitored, and important parts must be replaced and repaired in a timely manner.

How to assemble a bicycle steering column?

To ensure that the steering column is assembled correctly, and the parts are not deformed, you only need to use professional tools. To install a threadless bicycle headset:

  • First you need to prepare the tools that you may need in the process of work;
  • The cups are installed in pre-lubricated places. One on top and the other on the bottom. The cups are pressed into the glass. If the necessary tool is not at hand, a hammer is suitable for this purpose. Only you need to work with it carefully so as not to damage the parts;
  • Put a crown on the fork and press the crown in a circle;
  • install the bearing on the crown;
  • put the glass on the fork and install the upper bearing;
  • install a compression ring;
  • install the stem;
  • install steering wheel

Steering gear

One of the most important parts of a bicycle is the steering gear. The steering gear ensures the bike’s reliability and maneuverability. It consists of a head tube, a steering column, a stem and the steering wheel itself. The serviceability of this unit is of great importance to the cyclist. As even minor faults can lead to accidents. In this article, we will talk about the steering column. The steering column consists of two support cups, two bearings, regardless of the type, compression rings. The steering column of the bicycle allows the head tube to make turns and makes the bicycle maneuverable.

Advantages of threadless steering columns in comparison

The most common type of steering column is the threaded column. This is the type of headset used on budget bike options. Its cost is not very high, it weighs little and has a simple design. The head tube enters the threaded column with a thread on the top cup and is secured with a lock nut. A threaded steering column is considered not very reliable due to the connections and potentially dangerous.

The standard unthreaded steering column (fig. 1) is a kind of unthreaded steering column that’s why it got its name. Modern, more advanced steering column models that are used by well-known bicycle manufacturers. Both cups of such a headset are pressed into the head tube. They have bearings that are essentially located outside. A threadless bicycle headset is considered more reliable than a threaded one.

The semi-integrated headset has bearings and cups in the middle of the head tube.

In steering columns with integrated systems, the bearings are located directly in the head tube. She has no steering cup at all.

This fixing method securely holds the steering column in place.

Steering column dimensions

Steering Column Fitting Standards Headtubes vary in size. You need to select these parts as accurately as possible, because this is fraught with backlash during driving. In terms of size, the steering columns are divided into: standard integrated and semi-integrated. Each of these categories has its own parameters. The standard columns are 30 mm, the integrated speakers are available in 41.1 mm, 41.95 mm and 41.6 mm, the integrated steering columns are available in a variety of sizes from 41.35 mm to 55.9 mm.

Plug standards

Bicycle forks have the following fit standards. Bicycle suspension fork is a complex part.

The main function of the bicycle fork is the function of holding the front wheel, thanks to the steering column and the fork, the steering is rotated using the handlebars, which allows you to correct the direction of movement of the moving bicycle.

The main parts of a bicycle fork: legs, pants, dropouts, “gorilla” (Fig. 2).

There are the following types of forks:

  • Spring forks. Affordable, fitted on budget bikes. They use a spring, the shock absorption of such forks is of poor quality.
  • Elastomer forks in the base have a steel spring with an elastomer thanks to the elastomer insert, the shock absorption process is improved, but their quality is not high.
  • bicycle forks based on a spring. oil system. They use a cartridge filled with oil. This type of forks significantly improves the shock absorption of the bike. The price for such models fluctuates in the middle and high range.
  • Oil-air plugs are also popular with professionals. Their work is based on the interaction of the air chamber and the oil cartridge, which significantly improves the shock absorption effect.

The more complex a bicycle fork is, the more maintenance it requires. complex models such as elastomer and spring-oil fork require special technological professional care. If repairs become necessary, it is best to contact a bicycle workshop.

Tilt angle and extension

For a comfortable ride, the bike needs to be adjusted to suit the rider. The steering wheel should be in such a position that a person moving on a bicycle feels comfortable, there is no unnecessary resistance in the headwind, and, if necessary, the speed limit is observed. There is an optimal handlebar height for each type of bike, which can be adjusted using the steering column and stem. The stem can be adjusted or fixed without adjustment. For track, racing and mountain bikes, the handlebar height can be low, which can be adjusted using the stem. A low handlebar position increases body streamlining and aerodynamics, which is extremely important during competition to increase speed. But in such cases, training is needed, since riding in a bent position causes tension and pain in the muscles of the back. It’s hard for an unprepared person. For leisurely walks around the city or country trips, this function is not needed. It will be enough such a height of the steering wheel, at which the person will feel you comfortably, and his back will not hurt.

During the adjustment process, the following options are distinguished:

  • Adjustment at the same level with the saddle of the bicycle, this position is also called zero. It is suitable for driving at moderate speeds and for long journeys;
  • Adjusting the handlebars below the saddle. This adjustment is suitable when you need to create a streamlined shape and increase the aerodynamic properties of the bike;
  • High position. the handlebars are above the saddle.

The steering wheel must be centered, that is, set it so that it is perpendicular to the front wheel. It is necessary to adjust the position of the stem, steering column and the steering wheel itself in those cases when the bike has not been used for a long time, at the beginning of the season, after long trips and high dynamic loads, as well as after falls and collisions.

The steering mechanism and all its components ensure the maneuverability of the bike, and their serviceability guarantees the safety of the bike rider. In order not to expose yourself to unnecessary danger, you need to timely inspect your vehicle. It is especially important to check the vital parts and components of the bike, on which the life and health of its owner directly depends. The steering gear also belongs to such units. If your bike is equipped with an adjustable threaded headset, be sure to check that the mountings are tight and that all parts are secure. Carry out lubrication and preventive inspection of the transmission unit in time, check the condition of the wheels, the manufacturer of the steering mechanism adjustment. For troubleshooting and minor repairs, always carry a set of necessary tools, a repair kit for repairing bicycle tires, etc. Taking care of your bike takes care of your health.