How the rear wheel of a speed bike works

Frame material

The material from which the frame is made is the most important indicator of the bike and determines its cost. Modern bicycles use steel, aluminum and carbon frames.

rear, wheel, speed, bike

Steel is most commonly used for city bikes. The material is highly durable and resistant to mechanical stress. The disadvantages of a steel frame are its weight and poor flexibility. All this is bad for the dynamics of the bike.

Aluminum is a strong, lightweight and flexible material. Aluminum frames, in comparison with steel counterparts, have better dynamics and shock absorption. Their price is also higher.

Carbon is carbon fiber that is used to make expensive bicycle frames. Compared to metal counterparts, carbon frames are particularly strong, durable, shock-resistant, lightweight and maneuverable.


Wheels are an important part of the bike. They hold the frame upright and rotate the bike into motion. The wheel is pretty simple. It consists of a bushing, rim, tube and tire.

The hub is the central part of the wheel, which consists of an axle, bearings and washers. The main task of the bushing is to set and maintain the torque. The rear hub is more complicated internally than the front hub, as it is involved in spinning the wheel. On road models of simple design, a brake mechanism is additionally built into the rear hub. The structure of the rear wheel of a high-speed bicycle differs in that gear shift sprockets are attached to the hub. The planetary hubs also house a hidden gearshift mechanism.

The rim is a ring that is attached to the hub through the spokes. The rim geometry and spoke tension determine the wheel’s resistance to dynamic stress and damage. Bicycle wheel rims are made of aluminum and the spokes are made of light alloys. Heads for adjusting spoke tension are located on the side of the rim.

The tube (tire) is a rubber hollow product that rests on the rim and is inflated with air. A tire is placed on top of the camera. Thus, the only element of the chamber that is in contact with the outside world is the nipple through which the chamber is pumped with air. To prevent tire damage from the spoke head, a rubber flipper is applied to the inside of the rim.

Tire. a shell that protects the tire from mechanical stress and creates traction between the wheel and the road. The tire consists of beads, sidewalls and a tread. Depending on the purpose of the bike, it is equipped with one of four types of tires:

  • Slick and half slick. Used on road bikes, for smooth roads.
  • Road. Has a medium tread pattern. Suitable for both highways and dirt roads.
  • Aggressive. They have a pronounced tread pattern and are intended for mountain roads.
  • Hybrid. Slightly more aggressive than road tires, but not as passable as mountain tires.

For the visibility of the bike in the dark, reflective elements are put on the spokes. orange or red reflectors.


The bike is controlled through the steering unit. It consists of the following elements:

The structure of a bicycle fork is not particularly complex. The fork is an intermediate unit between the front wheel and the handlebar. With the help of a rod, it is installed in the front glass of the frame. The handlebar is inserted inside the fork, and the wheel is attached to it through the ears of the legs (dropouts). In order for the fork to rotate freely during the turn, a steering column is installed in the glass. It includes: top and bottom cups, bearings, and retaining rings. The cups are either pressed in or screwed into the inner thread of the glass. Rings are mounted on a stem that is firmly fixed in the steering column.

The steering wheel consists of two elements: a horizontal tube and a vertical stem (stem). Depending on the bend of the horizontal pipe, there are the following types of bicycle handlebars:

  • Straight.
  • Curved down.
  • Curved up.
  • Ram.

The stem is an intermediate piece between the horizontal rudder tube and the control tube. It determines the distance between the steering wheel and the frame. The longer the stem, the more horizontal the cyclist will be when riding. On bicycles of a simple design, the stem is not placed.


Cushioning refers to the ability of a bicycle to absorb vibrations and cushion shocks. The traditional suspension system is located in the front fork. There are several types of suspension forks:

Fork travel, rebound speed and blocking are controlled by special design elements. Forks that are not equipped with a shock absorption system are called rigid forks. They are used for road and road models. In addition to standard shock absorption, mountain bikes can be equipped with an additional rear shock absorber, which neutralizes frame vibrations when driving over bumps.

Full size and foldable

Bicycles can be full size and foldable. The difference between the latter is expressed by the presence of at least one joint along which the frame can be folded. Consequently, they are easier to transport by public or private transport. To place a regular bicycle, for example, in the luggage compartment of a passenger car, it will have to be disassembled. Folding bikes are great for transportation, but they are inferior to full-size bikes in terms of ride quality and reliability. As a rule, these are amateur city bicycles, which do not have high requirements for speed and strength. The folding stealth bike is especially popular with amateur cyclists. In fairness, it should be noted that a modern bicycle can be disassembled for transportation in a car in a few minutes. The collection will take a couple of minutes more. Therefore, folding bicycles are bought much less often.


The transmission refers to the elements without which the bike will not run. The structure of this node, in comparison with others, is distinguished by its complexity and a large number of mechanisms. The latter include:

  • Carriage.
  • Leading Stars.
  • Connecting rods.
  • Pedals.
  • Chain.
  • Led stars.
  • Speed ​​switches.
  • Coins.

The carriage assembly is located in the lower glass of the frame. The structure of the bicycle carriage is simple. It serves as a connecting point between chainrings and crankset. Due to the fixed bearings on which the thru-axle is mounted, the carriage provides stable pedaling without turning. There are two types of carriages: cartridge and open bearing.

The connecting rods are designed to connect the carriage to the pedals. They can be mounted on a square or slotted mount. The connecting rods come with a front sprocket (or sprockets), which is attached to one of them (right).

Pedals are leg rests that transfer mechanical energy to the carriage through the cranks. Depending on the area of ​​application, pedals are of the following types:

  • Classic. Installed on amateur bicycles. The engagement of the shoe is purely due to the friction force.
  • Contact. Have special inserts for contact with cycling shoes.
  • Extreme. They are characterized by a wide surface and inserts-clips.
  • With strap.
  • Mini pedals.

Transmission rear sprockets are attached to the rear hub. Several rear stars fall on one front chainring. Small stars are responsible for high gears, and large stars are responsible for low.

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The chain acts as a link between the front (leading) and rear (driven) stars. The structure of a high-speed bike differs in that it has several stars in the front and rear. With the help of switches, the chain is thrown from one star to another. The switches are controlled by coins located on the steering wheel. The contact between the coins and the switches is via the drive cables. There are few types of speed switches on a bicycle: coins can be lever and drum. On a bike with one gear, there are no derailleurs, and there is a single sprocket at the front and rear.


This is the simplest element, but a bicycle cannot be imagined without it. The saddle structure is almost identical across different types of bikes. Differences can be in shape, width, length and softness. On sports bikes, the saddles are narrow, oblong and firm. And on amateurs, such as the folding stealth bike, for example, they are wide and soft. Some models are additionally spring-loaded from the bottom. The saddle is mounted on the seatpost, which goes into the tube of the same name and is clamped by a special mechanism. The position of the pin in the tube determines the height of the fit.

Preparatory step before removing tires

Immediately, as soon as you notice that the wheel is flat, get off the bike. Further long-term movement on an iron horse in this form will damage its moving parts even more. It is better to repair a wheel in a special room. It does not rain on you there, if it has gone, and there is all the necessary tool.

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What a cyclist should always have in stock:

Ideally, there should always be a repair kit, a spare chamber, a pump. Taken together, this makes up an impressive weight and takes up a lot of space. For a small bike, this is inconvenient, but it is not always possible to limit yourself to ordinary gluing. What you definitely can’t do without:

All of the above will help to dismantle the damaged wheel and install a new one, with the installation of the camera.

When to remove the rear wheel

It is unlikely that the idea of ​​unscrewing the chassis from the bicycle frame would just come to mind, unless, of course, a person specializes in bicycle dismantling. But this is a completely different case. Dismantling the rear wheel will be required if the following problems are observed:

  • noticeable damage to the rim;
  • complete wear when a wheel needs to be replaced;
  • a flat tire or a burst tire;
  • bulkhead bushing.

This includes the planned replacement of the rear sprocket system and chain.

Before removing the bike, turn it over and place it on the saddle and handlebars. It is better to remove awnings in the form of a mirror, bell and lantern in advance so as not to damage them under the weight of the frame. V-brakes are first released and disassembled, otherwise they will not allow the wheel to be pulled out freely. With disc models, everything is easier. you can immediately remove the wheel.

I must say that the removal process itself consists only in unscrewing the eccentric or unscrewing the fastening nuts from the axis of the bushing, who has something. If the mount is an eccentric, simply unscrew the handles and twist the wheel. The nut fastening is loosened with one or two wrenches.

Usually one wrench of the appropriate size is enough, with which the nuts are removed one by one. If the hub axle turns, then the nuts are unrolled simultaneously in different directions. It is recommended to use open-end wrenches or box wrenches. The adjustable version is undesirable, as its thick horns eat up the corners of the nut due to a loose fit and sliding.

Understanding the question of how to replace the bicycle wheel camera

There are more and more people who like to ride with the breeze on a two-wheeled iron friend. The number of those who are faced with the everyday problem of punctured wheels is also increasing. Changing them is not the most difficult thing, but skills are needed here and there are some rules. This article will help you figure it out.

The first stage of the repair work is completed, we are proceeding with the installation of the wheel

  • Make sure the rim, tire and tube are free of sharp, foreign particles and protruding parts (such as spokes).
  • Pump up a little camera.
  • Check the spool, insert it into the rim hole.
  • Place the camera carefully in the tire cavity.
  • Using a special tool, or another suitable tool that does not have sharp edges, tuck the edges of the tire into the rim. If you can do it only with your hands, then the tool is optional.
  • Pump up the wheel, knead the tire. The camera should unfold freely, creases are not allowed.
  • Place the wheel on the bike and secure with the screw.
  • Inflate the chamber fully and screw the caps on the nipple.

The wheel repair process is over and you can move on.

Step-by-step instruction

Before removing the wheels from the bike, you need to understand the features of the brake system installed on it. High-speed bikes are produced with different types of devices that differ in the principle of operation. The easiest dismantling. if there is a disc brake, complex and more time-consuming. if there is a rim system. If you do not pay attention to this, but immediately get down to work, there is a high probability that the system will be blocked so that the wheel will be fixed forever and it will become impossible to remove it.

Disc brake Rim brake system

What are the wheels?

Before you know what a standard bicycle wheel layout includes, it is worth familiarizing yourself with general information about this important part.

  • 14 inches. size for the smallest cyclists under the age of four.
  • 16 inches. for older riders: 4.5 to 6.5 years.
  • 20 inches is chosen by children 8-11 years old.
  • 24 inches. option for teenagers and those who practice jumping on a bike.
  • 26 inches. “standard” for adult mountain bike.
  • 28 inches in diameter most commonly found on adult road and hybrid bikes.

Bicycle wheel structure: about every detail in detail

Cycling, especially off-roading, carries the risk of breakage. Therefore, in order to understand the cause of the malfunction, it will not be superfluous to know what a bicycle wheel consists of. It does not include too many details that even a beginner will easily remember a list of: hub, rim, spokes and tire. In this article you can find a detailed description of each part of a bicycle wheel.

The bushing is a small component that performs a very important mission. It is with its help that the bicycle wheel is fastened to the frame. The hub consists of an axle and a pair of bearings, connected to the rim thanks to the spokes.

Hubs are very diverse depending on the position, fastening, material from which they are made and the structural features of the bike itself.

  • The position of the sleeve directly affects its function. The front hub only secures the wheel of the same name and ensures its rotation. The device of the rear wheel of a bicycle provides for additional work for the corresponding hub. to carry a cassette or a ratchet (and what it is, you can read here). By the way, the bushing for the cassette is superior in strength to that for the ratchet.
  • The bushing can be secured with two nuts or an eccentric. And if in the first case you cannot do without a wrench, then in the second the wheels are removed easily and quickly without the use of additional tools.
  • Depending on the type of brake system (V-brake or disc), the hub either provides special mountings for the disc brake, or not.
  • Depending on the material used for the manufacture, this part of the bicycle wheel can also be of two types: aluminum or steel. The first option is preferable. it is lighter in weight and less susceptible to corrosion, but it will also cost more in terms of cost.
  • The number of spokes also affects the type of hub: there are options for 32 or 36 spokes. Based on this number, you need to choose a suitable rim.
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The device of a bicycle wheel is not complete without such an important part as the rim.

It is its shape that determines how the wheel looks as a whole. The rim is the outside of the wheel, protected from the outside by the tire.

Rims are made of steel, aluminum, magnesium. The preferred option is the aluminum rim: this material is lightweight, durable and resistant to corrosion. Steel is more susceptible to it, and magnesium is not as strong.

Depending on the type of brakes provided by the design of the bicycle wheel, there may or may not be a plane on the rim for pressing the brake pads. It is needed if a V-brake is used.

The high rim is better protected from bending outward or inward from the center (such a malfunction is called “egg”), and wide. from curvature to the right or left of the direction of travel (a problem with the name “eight”).

In terms of strength, the rim can be single, double, triple, reinforced. If your budget allows, choose at least a double rim!

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In order to prevent the spoke from sticking into the chamber during impact, there is a special protection. rim tape. The part will help to avoid more substantial repair costs.

Spokes are an important part of the mechanism of both the rear and front wheels of a bicycle. They perform several functions at once: they provide fastening of the hub to the rim, center the wheel, evenly distribute the loads, and affect damping. Spokes are steel, aluminum, bronze, titanium.

By varieties, they are divided into rolled, drawn and flat. The first option is the simplest and cheapest, optimal for beginners, the second will cost more due to superiority in lightness, and the third is the most expensive due to its excellent aerodynamic characteristics.

The device of the front wheel of a bicycle, as well as the rear one, necessarily includes a tire. It consists of a tube and a tire.

The camera is necessary so that minor irregularities on the road become invisible. It consists of a rubber tube in the form of a ring and a nipple through which it is filled with air.

The tire is needed to protect the camera from sharp objects that can meet on the road, and to grip the wheel with its surface.

When choosing a tire tread pattern, be guided by the conditions in which you have to ride: suitable for mud, sand, snow “toothy” tread, smooth is preferable for a smooth road.

Here are the main parts, the presence of which provides for the layout of the rear and front wheels of the bike Although it is generally the same for each of them, there are still differences between the wheels. What are?

How a bicycle wheel works: useful for every rider to know

The main Bicycle structure How a bicycle wheel works: it is useful to know for every rider

In order for the mechanism to work without interruption, every detail is important. But there are those among them that bear the greatest loads during operation. Of all the components of a bicycle, of course, the wheels get the most. they have to take on both the bulk of the cyclist’s weight and shock, which cannot be avoided on uneven roads.

How the rear wheel of a high-speed bike works: compare with the front

The front bicycle wheel and the rear wheel differ from each other not only in design features, but also in the load that each of them takes. Most. over half of the cyclist’s weight. comes from the rear wheel. Therefore, the design of the rear wheel of a bicycle provides for all these nuances: for example, the hub that attaches it to the frame is much stronger than its partner in front.

The functions of these seemingly identical parts are also different: stability is ensured by the front wheel, and traction is provided by the rear.

Is the rear wheel arrangement of a high-speed bicycle (road, mountain, children’s, stealth) different from the usual one? The main parts (tire, spokes, hub and rim) are available in any of these varieties of our iron friend, so the general scheme of the rear wheel of a high-speed bike is no different from the rest. But each specific node may already have some differences depending on the selected type.

There are many options for all these details, and it is impossible to talk about each of them in one article. Therefore, when purchasing certain spare parts for the rear wheel of a bicycle, be guided by its model and characteristics.

Bicycle wheel spoke

A very vulnerable element. In addition to the weight of the cyclist, it is subject to impacts on uneven roads. The nipple is used to fix the spoke in the rim. The most common knitting needles are made from steel or aluminum.

The steel spokes must be chromed. Stainless steel spokes have proven themselves well. They are durable and resistant to corrosion.

The spoke consists of four parts:

  • Head The head is fixed to the bushing.
  • Body.
  • Thread. A nipple is screwed onto the thread.
  • Nipple. The nipple secures the spoke to the rim.

The nipple must be of the same material as the spoke. Otherwise, due to electrochemical corrosion, it is difficult to tighten and replace the spoke. The spokes are tightened only with a spoke wrench, in no case with pliers or other tools at hand.

  • Rolled knitting needle. budget option.
  • The pulled spoke is lighter in weight but more expensive.
  • Flat spoke. the most expensive, significantly superior to other types both in weight and in resistance to oncoming air flow.

How the bike works

A two-wheeled bicycle is a comfortable, practical and useful vehicle that has firmly established itself both in the city and in the countryside. In addition to its direct use, velik is widely used in various sports. The overall design is identical when compared to a simple city bike, road bike, or XC. The simple design of a bicycle, however, is not limited to the description of the wheel, handlebar, saddle, pedals and includes a number of subtleties. In this article, we will dwell on the components of the bike and explain the purpose of each of them.

Drivetrain and bicycle brakes

The drivetrain is something a bike won’t run without. A fairly complex unit, it includes most of the mechanisms:

  • carriage;
  • leading stars;
  • connecting rods and pedals;
  • chain;
  • rear stars;
  • speed switches and coins.

The carriage assembly is located in the lower frame glass and serves as a connecting unit for the connecting rod pair and chainrings. The carriage provides free rotation without turning due to the fixed bearings and the through axis on them. It is divided into two types: with open bearings and cartridge, where the entire mechanism is hidden inside the case.

Connecting rods. parts for connecting the carriage to the pedals. They can have two mounting options: slotted and square. Two-piece, or twin, connecting rods come with a chainring (stars on high-speed models) attached to the right connecting rod.

Pedals are leg supports through which forces are transmitted to the cranks, carriage and chainrings. Depending on the scope of application, several types are distinguished:

  • classic, or platforms. put on entry-level bicycles, you can use any shoes, engaging on the pedals due to friction forces;
  • contact. with special inserts, designed only for cycling shoes, improved grip of surfaces;
  • extreme. for a sports bike, wide surface, thickness, fixing inserts;
  • pedals with straps;
  • pedals-mini.

The speed bike rear transmission chainrings attach to the rear wheel hub. There are 2-3 rear sprockets per one chainring. Small stars are responsible for high gears, and large stars are responsible for low gears.

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The connecting link between the front and rear sprockets is a chain: the Gall block model is used on the bike. The chain transfer is carried out using switches, which are controlled by shifters on the handlebars. Shifters are divided into two types. drum and lever. Driving cables connect them to the switches.

There are no derailleurs on the singlespeed, the front and rear sprocket in a single copy, the chain is shorter.

Brakes are the most important system, without which it is strictly forbidden to roll out the bike. Modern brake systems for bicycles of various classes:

  • rim. pliers, V-brake;
  • disk;
  • drum-sleeve.

Rim brakes are clamping devices with pads that act on the rims of the wheels, slowing down their rotation. Plier models have one fastening, due to the movement of the lever, the staples come closer together, and when they are loosened, they move back. Pliers are placed in place of the wing attachment. Used as additional brakes on singlespeeds and road bikes.

V-brake works on the same principle, but the calipers are in a fixed state: to the fork for the front brake, to the stays for the rear brake. V-brakes have more precision and braking force than crimped.

The disc brake consists of a disc (brake surface) fixed to the hub, a caliper and a drive. a lever and a cable. The brake pads are attached to the calipers, which are pressed against the disc when the handle is pressed. The disc accuracy is higher than that of the V-brake due to the larger braking surface, less pad travel and independence from the rim geometry. By the type of drive, disc brakes are divided into mechanical and hydraulic.

Drum-hub brakes are outdated, but they continue to be actively installed on road models. The drum is hidden in the rear hub and is brought into contact with the pads by depressing the pedals backward. To prevent the sleeve from spinning, a special locking mechanism is built in. Braking efficiency is low in comparison with rim and disc counterparts, but for single-speed road workers there is no better option.

We work with the inner space of the bushing

After the axle has been removed, you need to carefully inspect it. As a rule, this part of a bicycle wears out very rarely, but in any case, you will need to thoroughly wipe it off from dirt and dust. This is done with a dry cloth, but in some cases (if heavily soiled) you can use gasoline. So, we wipe the left cone and examine the right one for fastening strength. Only after the axle walls are completely dry (if gasoline was used for processing), can new grease be applied to it.

Note: in no case should you use chain lubricant or some other lubricant for the rear hub of the bicycle. you will need to purchase a special tool. Bearings are often used for bearings. this lubricant will be the most suitable. Too thick a layer of grease should not be applied. during the operation of the bike, it will be squeezed out and actively absorb dirt, which leads to rapid wear of the part.

A bicycle is a fairly extensive mechanism, and consists of a large number of components. During operation, an important indicator is the good condition of each of them. Now that we know how a bicycle works, we can diagnose, repair and service spare parts.

How to properly disassemble, clean and lubricate the rear hub

Immediately remember one truth: any service is recommended to be carried out with a snagged sleeve. Otherwise, the chances of assembling the wheel correctly and quickly are unlikely to work. this can only be done by a person who is already experienced in servicing bicycles.

Step-by-step instructions for maintaining the rear bicycle hub:

  • Remove the cassette from the axle using a whip and a puller.
  • Opening the retaining ring.
  • We remove all bearings and washers. Note:the sleeve can be on industrial bearings and bulk bearings, but in any case, it is very important to remember their original location in the sleeve. This rule must be observed when removing the washers.
  • We carry out a careful inspection of the bearings. if they are damaged, this means the need to replace them with new parts.
  • We take out the axle. it does not understand.
  • We clean the body of the rear hub of the bicycle from dirt. All internal cavities must be wiped with a dry cloth.
  • When installing back, each part is thoroughly lubricated, special attention should be paid to the bearings during this process.
  • The last step is to install the stopper and tighten the fastening nut. It is not necessary to apply great efforts to tighten, as this can result in a problem of free wheel rotation.

Of course, everything looks quite easy and simple, but there are a lot of nuances in servicing the rear hub of a bicycle. they must be known and taken into account in the process of work:

  • First, the direct disassembly of the bushing should be started only after the cassette has been removed. over, the sleeve is disassembled from the opposite side and, as a rule, it is on the left. The locknut, if any, is unscrewed with a 15 mm wrench, then the stopper is removed (again, if any).
  • Secondly, you need to be extremely careful when removing the washers and rings. they will need to be laid out on a pre-prepared sheet of paper in the exact order, if this moment is overlooked, the assembly of the rear bicycle hub after cleaning and lubricating it can turn into a real torment.
  • Thirdly, after twisting the housing of the rear hub, its axis will begin to give in. just at this moment the bearings will appear. And again, you need to be extremely careful when removing the bearings. the parts are small and easy to lose. We remove each bearing with a knitting needle or tweezers, carefully wipe it with a cloth soaked in kerosene or gasoline, and put it aside. Just in the process of wiping, the bearings must be carefully inspected for damage, and if there are any, then the part must be replaced.

Note: in the articles and instructions for servicing the rear hub of a bicycle, you can find a recommendation to use acetone to wipe bearings. this is permissible, but it should be borne in mind that the aroma from such a product will not be the most pleasant, and acetone can corrode the skin on the fingers. And one more thing. many kulibins, in order not to lose small bearings, use a magnet. in no case should this be done! The fact is that the bearing is magnetized and during the operation of the bicycle, iron dust is attracted to these small parts. the fact that the hub will soon become unusable can be predicted with confidence.

It is highly undesirable to confuse the left and right parts when disassembling / assembling the rear hub of a bicycle. this can lead to wheel play. If at least one ball is lost, then you will have to carry out a full replacement of the bearings. Sometimes, when opening the bushing, iron dust can be observed near the axle. this means that the bearings are completely worn out, they must be completely replaced.

How a bicycle wheel works: useful for every rider to know

The main Bicycle structure How a bicycle wheel works: it is useful to know for every rider

In order for the mechanism to work without interruption, every detail is important. But there are those among them that bear the greatest loads during operation. Of all the components of a bicycle, of course, the wheels get the most. they have to take on both the bulk of the cyclist’s weight and shock, which cannot be avoided on uneven roads.