How the rear hub of a bicycle works

Axis standards

In addition to the above listed types, there are differences in bushings in terms of axle parameters. Let’s list the main ones currently used:

  • 10 × 135mm used on budget two-wheelers.
  • 12 × 135mm.
  • 12 × 142mm.
  • 12 × 150mm.
  • 12 × 157mm.
  • 12 × 148mm one of the most modern standards. Used primarily in hard disciplines such as Trail, Enduro, Downhill, Allmountain.

Typically, rear hubs are asymmetrical as the drivetrain is located on the right side. Therefore, the right flange is offset to the center of the axle to distribute the load and increase the rigidity of the wheel.

Since the level of pollution is high, it is characterized by its place of travel, the most affected will be mountain, than highway or road. For a mountain bike, in addition to the oil seals connected to the cones, rubber anthers are installed. This element will protect the driving mechanism from small debris, dust and dirt. But the additional mechanism increases the weight, which is critical on a road bike.

What is a bike rear hub and how does it work

Usually, when riding a bike, no one thinks about what allows the wheel to rotate while remaining on one mowing line and what exactly it is “what” it consists. The main part that allows the wheels on a bicycle to rotate freely, excluding turns and all kinds of sliding, is the hub. Since the bike has two wheels, there will be two bushings, respectively: the rear and the front. The rear device is different from the front and has a more complex design. Let’s take a look at what the rear hub of a bicycle is and how it works, as well as what maintenance may be needed for the proper functioning of this mechanism.

Modifications

In addition, the main functions have their own types (modifications):

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  • has a built-in foot brake and free play;
  • non-braking mechanism and free running;
  • non-braking system with no free wheeling;
  • planetary.

internal gear hub principle

The essence of the first is that braking is possible when pedaling in the opposite direction. The device is assembled in such a way that when braking, the drum and pads react to the movement of the star in the opposite direction and stop the bike. But there is another kind of braking mechanism. The so-called worm bushing. This method is not effective, since it only slows down the rear

wheel. The advantage of this type is unpretentious maintenance that does not require a lot of resources. Free play allows the pedals to keep moving even when force is applied.

Non-brake gear without freewheel. so-called fixed-gear. This is a lighter version, more compact and easier to maintain. It has one fixed gear and when driving, the pedals rotate with the wheel. Narrow directional system, used in children’s bicycles and in some track disciplines.

The free-wheeling free-wheeling mechanism is the most common modern version used on all high-speed bicycles and in most cycling disciplines.

The planetary hub stands apart from all of the above and has a sophisticated gear system built into it. The principle of operation is similar to a car gearbox and allows you to save the bicycle transmission from the usual gear shifters, from the cassette and be limited to one star on the carriage and one star on the rear axle of the bicycle.

Necessary service

Each ride puts stress on the rear hub and contaminates it. Therefore it is recommended to carry out maintenance of the components once a season. But the frequency of the service depends on the cycling regime and discipline. During the inspection, the housing is tightened, the bearings are cleaned, lubricated or replaced (if bulk bearings are installed), the internal parts of the mechanism are lubricated, the shoe arrangement is adjusted.

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rear, bicycle, works

However, no matter how careful maintenance is, replacement or repair may be necessary. First of all, it is necessary to determine the signs when this or that procedure for resuscitation of a bicycle wheel is required.

  • when rolling, a rumble or other uncharacteristic sound is created, emanating from the rear hub;
  • in the process of driving, wheel play is felt. It wobbles a little, perhaps the soundtrack indicated in the first paragraph;
  • besides the above, a crunch in the bearings is possible;
  • cycling has become significantly worse, that is, the roll-forward efficiency has decreased and, as a result, reduced pedaling efficiency.

Sounds can come from poorly tightened nuts or, on the contrary, overtightened. This also applies to backlash. Crackling in bearings or other parts may indicate poor lubrication or the end of the life of the bearing or other parts.

Various types and standards

There is the following division of the rear bicycle hubs. This division is arbitrary, but worth getting to know.

Internal structure, principle of operation

Consider the process of operation of an outdated, but very indicative system, with a foot brake and free wheeling, using the example of a Torpedo bushing. It is based on three principles of operation:

  • working stroke, during pedaling, the drive cone rotates and due to its “bulges” hooks the rollers, forcing them to move up. The wheel rotates as a result of the body looping;
  • free stroke. at the end of the rotation of the cone, the body begins to push the drive rollers into the pits between the protrusions. With this “sinking” there is a loss of connection between the body and the cone. It is characterized by the free movement of the bicycle wheel;
  • braking mechanism. occurs in the opposite way. The cone rotates in the opposite direction and, due to the oblique lugs, drives the brake cone. The brake rollers enter the brake drum grooves and the brake cone slides into the drum. On both sides, the drum is moved apart by cones. After which he presses against the body and the wheel begins to brake.

What kind of beast is this

The functional difference between the front and rear hubs is the complexity of the design and overall purpose. If the front one only rotates the front wheel, then the rear one interacts in one way or another with the transmission of the bike, allowing you to determine the speed and roll of the wheel. Correct operation of the rear hub will affect the riding efficiency of the bike.

Rear hubs vary by device, material used, weight, size, and manufacturing option. At the heart of each of them will be a basic kit:

  • the outer case must provide protection for the entire mechanism, therefore it is made by casting or stamping. But the latter is distinguished by a higher strength indicator. It must be remembered that on a small bicycle hub, in comparison with the whole bicycle, it turns out that 1/3 of the pressure of the bicycle;
  • flanges, a protrusion on the side, which allows the entire mechanism to be connected to the spokes of the wheel. They differ for the usual type of knitting needles and for straight knitting;
  • inside the rear hub is the wheel axle. Varies in length, diameter and axle type: QR (quick release, budget bikes), Thru-axle (hollow axle, modern axle type with increased rigidity) and Boost Thru-axle (the newest standard for extreme disciplines, with an extended distance between the flanges ). If necessary, measure the length from one nut to another;
  • bearings and its components ensure the operation of the entire hub mechanism of a bicycle, and are the main source of backlash. They are distinguished by: bulk bearings. easily adjustable and provide the ability to eliminate backlash on their own and industrial. have high efficiency, non-separable. Cannot be repaired, but completely changed. Most often installed on road bikes.

Brake rotor mounting types

Also, the hubs are divided depending on the compatibility with the rear brake. Among all known bicycle brake systems (disc, rim, roller), the most complex is disc. At what it can be used for the rim brake, but the use of the opposite is unacceptable.

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Disc rotors are attached to the hub in two ways:

  • Centerlock (spline);
  • 6Bolt (six bolts).

Brake rotor mounting types

Also, the hubs are divided depending on the compatibility with the rear brake. Among all known bicycle brake systems (disc, rim, roller), the most complex is disc. At what it can be used for the rim brake, but the use of the opposite is unacceptable.

Disc rotors are attached to the hub in two ways:

  • Centerlock (spline);
  • 6Bolt (six bolts).

Various types and standards

There is the following division of the rear bicycle hubs. This division is arbitrary, but worth getting to know.

Necessary service

Each ride puts stress on the rear hub and contaminates it. Therefore, it is recommended to carry out maintenance of the components once a season. But the frequency of the service depends on the cycling regime and discipline. During the inspection, the housing is tightened, the bearings are cleaned, lubricated or replaced (if bulk bearings are installed), the internal parts of the mechanism are lubricated, the shoe arrangement is adjusted.

However, no matter how careful maintenance is, replacement or repair may be necessary. First of all, it is necessary to determine the signs when this or that procedure for resuscitation of a bicycle wheel is required.

  • while riding, a rumble or other uncharacteristic sound is created, emanating from the rear hub;
  • in the process of driving, wheel play is felt. It wobbles a little, perhaps the soundtrack indicated in the first paragraph;
  • besides the above, a crunch in the bearings is possible;
  • cycling has become significantly worse, that is, the roll-forward efficiency has decreased and, as a result, reduced pedaling efficiency.

Sounds can come from poorly tightened nuts or, on the contrary, overtightened. This also applies to backlash. Crackling in bearings or other parts may indicate poor lubrication or the end of the life of the bearing or other parts.

What is a bike rear hub and how does it work

Usually, when riding a bike, no one thinks about what allows the wheel to rotate while remaining on one mowing line and what exactly it is “what” it consists. The main part that allows the wheels on a bicycle to rotate freely, excluding turns and all kinds of sliding, is the hub. Since the bike has two wheels, there will be two bushings, respectively: the rear and the front. The rear device is different from the front and has a more complex design. Let’s take a look at what the rear hub of a bicycle is and how it works, as well as what maintenance may be needed for the proper functioning of this mechanism.

What kind of beast is this

The functional difference between the front and rear hubs is the complexity of the design and overall purpose. If the front one only rotates the front wheel, then the rear one interacts in one way or another with the transmission of the bike, allowing you to determine the speed and roll of the wheel. Correct operation of the rear hub will affect the riding efficiency of the bike.

Rear hubs vary by device, material used, weight, size, and manufacturing option. At the heart of each of them will be a basic kit:

  • the outer case must provide protection for the entire mechanism, therefore it is made by casting or stamping. But the latter is distinguished by a higher strength indicator. It must be remembered that on a small bicycle hub, in comparison with the whole bicycle, it turns out that 1/3 of the pressure of the bicycle;
  • flanges, a protrusion on the side, which allows the entire mechanism to be connected to the spokes of the wheel. They differ for the usual type of knitting needles and for straight knitting;
  • inside the rear hub is the wheel axle. Varies in length, diameter and axle type: QR (quick release, budget bikes), Thru-axle (hollow axle, modern axle type with increased rigidity) and Boost Thru-axle (the newest standard for extreme disciplines, with an extended distance between the flanges ). If necessary, measure the length from one nut to another;
  • bearings and its components ensure the operation of the entire hub mechanism of a bicycle, and are the main source of backlash. They are distinguished by: bulk bearings. easily adjustable and provide the ability to eliminate backlash on their own and industrial. have high efficiency, non-separable. Cannot be repaired, but completely changed. Most often installed on road bikes.
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Internal structure, principle of operation

Consider the process of operation of an outdated, but very indicative system, with a foot brake and free wheeling, using the example of a Torpedo bushing. It is based on three principles of operation:

  • working stroke, during pedaling, the drive cone rotates and due to its “bulges” hooks the rollers, forcing them to move up. The wheel rotates as a result of the body looping;
  • free stroke. at the end of the rotation of the cone, the body begins to push the drive rollers into the pits between the protrusions. With this “sinking” there is a loss of connection between the body and the cone. It is characterized by the free movement of the bicycle wheel;
  • braking mechanism. occurs in the opposite way. The cone rotates in the opposite direction and, due to the oblique lugs, drives the brake cone. The brake rollers enter the brake drum grooves and the brake cone slides into the drum. On both sides, the drum is moved apart by cones. After which he presses against the body and the wheel begins to brake.

Axis standards

In addition to the above listed types, there are differences in bushings in terms of axle parameters. Let’s list the main ones currently used:

  • 10 × 135mm used on budget two-wheelers.
  • 12 × 135mm.
  • 12 × 142mm.
  • 12 × 150mm.
  • 12 × 157mm.
  • 12 × 148mm one of the most modern standards. Used primarily in hard disciplines such as Trail, Enduro, Downhill, Allmountain.

Typically, rear hubs are asymmetrical as the drivetrain is located on the right side. Therefore, the right flange is offset to the center of the axle to distribute the load and increase the rigidity of the wheel.

Since the level of pollution is high, it is characterized by its place of travel, the most affected will be mountain, than highway or road. For a mountain bike, in addition to the oil seals connected to the cones, rubber anthers are installed. This element will protect the driving mechanism from small debris, dust and dirt. But the additional mechanism increases the weight, which is critical on a road bike.

Modifications

In addition, the main functions have their own types (modifications):

  • has a built-in foot brake and free play;
  • non-braking mechanism and free running;
  • non-braking system with no free wheeling;
  • planetary.

The essence of the first is that braking is possible when pedaling in the opposite direction. The device is assembled in such a way that when braking, the drum and pads react to the movement of the star in the opposite direction and stop the bike. But there is another kind of braking mechanism. The so-called worm bushing. This method is not effective, since it only slows down the rear

wheel. The advantage of this type is unpretentious maintenance that does not require a lot of resources. Free play allows the pedals to keep moving even when force is applied.

Non-brake gear without freewheel. so-called fixed-gear. This is a lighter version, more compact and easier to maintain. It has one fixed gear and when driving, the pedals rotate with the wheel. Narrow directional system, used in children’s bicycles and in some track disciplines.

The free-wheeling free-wheeling mechanism is the most common modern version used on all high-speed bicycles and in most cycling disciplines.

The planetary hub stands apart from all of the above and has a sophisticated gear system built into it. The principle of operation is similar to a car gearbox and allows you to save the bicycle transmission from the usual gear shifters, from the cassette and be limited to one star on the carriage and one star on the rear axle of the bicycle.