Bicycle transmission, selectable number of speeds: 8, 9, 10
Once upon a time, not very long ago, in the days of our fathers’ youth, it was difficult to imagine that a bicycle could be multi-speed. Although bicycles with speed shifters have long been used in Western countries at the same time, the first such bicycle was created by the Bianchi company, however, the bicycle we are used to, with gears in front and rear, was created only in 1950 by the Italian cyclist Tullio Campagnolo. Over time, the number of gears has grown and today, modern sports bikes satisfy the demands of serious riders, with as many as 11 cassette sprockets. The number of leading stars on a road bike is two, on mountain bikes, usually three, but recently, doubles on cranks have begun to be actively produced.
Road bikes always have a narrower cassette range than MTBs. This is explained by the fact that a road bike is less likely to find itself in a situation where it is necessary to change gears. Usually, asphalt is less variable in terms of relief than rough terrain. Therefore, it is important for a road cyclist to choose a very comfortable gear, it happens that the relief of the asphalt road remains unchanged for a long time, and if there are no gusts of wind, then the conditions for the road bike remain unchanged for a long time, hence the comfort of pedaling comes to the fore.
But how many speeds should you choose? The question is very controversial, so I will not draw unambiguous conclusions, but only disseminate important information, and you will decide for yourself what you need. Still, on MTB I would not put a 7-8 speed cassette complete with a double in front, it is very likely that it will be difficult to find a comfortable gear. I drive 3 in the front and 8 in the back. Enough, but 9 would be even more comfortable, and 10 more Consider the price of the transmission, 8-speed. the most inexpensive, for example, the KMC Z92 chain I buy for 90 UAH. (less than 10), while 10-ck. will cost no less than UAH 400, i.e. 4 times more expensive. A nine-speed chain is slightly cheaper than a ten-speed chain. The difference in price due to the fact that the more speeds the chain is made for, the narrower it should be, and accordingly it is more difficult to make it with the same requirements for strength, wear, etc. The same goes for cassettes, in terms of production and price issues. There is another side to the coin Bicycle parts market leaders Shimano and Sram make good derailleurs and derailleurs, assuming that the buyer will take 9 sk., Not 8; 10 speed, not 9. That is, the more speeds, the better the equipment that will work in tandem with the transmission. Let’s say 8 sc. cassettes set switches: Altus, Acera, Alivio. On 9-ku already put, say, Deore. And on the 10-ke will be XT. Naturally, the higher the class of the derailleur and shifter, the better the shifting itself will be, in addition to the ratio of gears.
A new stage in development began with the production of the 154-111, which was similar to its predecessors. precisely, it resembled Sport 452-01, the production of which continued in parallel to the Tourist. There were design differences. Protection appeared on the front and rear sprockets. The gearshift mechanism affected not only the rear sprocket, but also the front.
The bicycle Sport Tourist 153-421 replaced it, the production of which continued until 1987. However, this model was no longer very popular due to its poor quality. The fact is that instead of steel for the production of a bicycle, they began to use aluminum again.
Let’s consider the technical data of bicycles of this series in more detail.
We do it yourself
Bicycle Sports Tourist is popular nowadays. But not the models of recent years (they are of low quality), namely the representatives of the Soviet era. They are often even tuned to give them a second chance to please their owners.
To get started, you can turn to the sprockets with rods and chains. This will improve driving performance. In particular, it will become easier to climb the mountain.
The rear derailleurs can also be replaced. If you prefer a ratchet with a large rear sprocket, you will need derailleurs. And they can only be found from foreign manufacturers. Otherwise, the details of the native Kharkov plant are enough. Despite the rather primitive mechanism, they are not inferior in quality to their imported competitors.
Double rims are a good alternative to the standard. Unfortunately, they will have to be bought from a foreign manufacturer. A good option is rims with a width of 18 to 21 mm.
These changes will improve the quality of the Tourist in terms of driving performance. As for the external tuning, there is also room for imagination.
The first thing you can turn your attention to is the seat. Soviet copies are far from ideal. At first, they can be replaced with a more convenient modern device.
Next, you can proceed to the elements on the steering wheel: handles, bell. Modern brake levers will not leave indifferent bike lovers. And today there are a huge number of call models.
Next is the backlight. In the evening and at night, the bike will look spectacular if you stick a reflective film on its individual elements. An LED strip is glued to the wheel rim, which will not go unnoticed. There are also various stickers, inserts, windings for the spokes.
Small things such as a trunk, a holder for water or a mobile phone will not spoil the appearance of Sports Tourists.
When starting rework, the main thing is to stop on time. The fantasy of some Oomator cyclists is so great that the Tourist becomes unrecognizable. Only a solid frame can remain from it. Fortunately, there are enough opportunities for this today.
The initial series included 3 Tourist models:
The first model was produced in limited quantities. Therefore, there are very few options that have come down to our times. The B-31 was distinguished by the presence of only one speed. In addition, there was an idle speed, which was not found in any other model. Kharkov plant refused to release this model due to limited functionality.
The B-32 Tourist came to replace it with a similar frame geometry. The main difference is the presence of 3 speeds. The mechanism for their switching was nicknamed the bone leg. By the end of the production of this model, this mechanism was replaced by a telescopic one. Also, the changes have affected the frame.
Later, they began to produce the B-33, which outwardly differed from its predecessors only with a new emblem. But from a technical point of view, the changes were more noticeable. They affected bushings, glass assemblies. Hooks were installed to hold the cables. Instead of a ratchet, they began to install a cassette, which had the same number of stars, but an increased number of links on them. Aluminum parts are replaced with chrome.
Production continued until 1961. In connection with the events in space exploration, the management decided to rename the bicycle to Sputnik. And only in 1977 the old name Tourist returned. From that moment on, the second stage of the life of Sports Tourists began.
Bicycles Sport Tourist
In Soviet times, the Sport Tourist bicycle was popular among a wide part of the population. Its production has been carried out at the Kharkov Bicycle Plant since the beginning of the last century. The tourist was part of the sports and road tourist series.
Technical characteristics of the models of the first series
Technically, the B-31, 32 and 33 models were similar to each other. Regardless of the differences between them, they all had the following data:
- Base length 109 cm.
- Weight. 14 kg.
- Closed frame height. 56 cm.
- Frame, fork and handlebars are made of steel.
- Box-type wheel rims were made of aluminum.
- Tire diameter. 28 inches (corresponds to the size 31×622 mm).
- Lightweight cast alloy pedals.
- Closed fork made of steel pipes.
- Front brakes miteless.
- Front sprocket with 48 teeth.
- Rear hub without brakes, ratchet with 3 stars (number of teeth. 6, 20 and 24).
- Bush roller chain.
The seat could be either soft or hard. The HVZ bike was completed, as a rule. bell, lanterns and a pump with a hose for pumping up the wheels. And there was also a tool bag.
Some historical facts
The history of the Tourist began in 1927. It was then that two friends. I. Freidberg and A. Knyazev. returned from their trip around the world. Inspired and overwhelmed with enthusiasm, they began the production of bikes of various models at the already existing at that time Kharkov Bicycle Plant named after G.I. Petrovsky.
The assembly of the Tourists began in 1949. The entire production period can be divided into 2 stages:
- From 1949 to 1961;
- 1978 to the present.
During this time, several different models were released, which differed in their characteristics. As you can see, the manufacture of bicycles was suspended for almost 2 decades. But they did not dare to completely abandon the production of the bicycle so beloved by buyers.
The Sport Tourist bicycle in this modification had a frame made of thin tubes. Its height, depending on the party, varied from 55 to 60 cm. The length of the base was 106 cm. The steering wheel was different. He was already of the road type. Weight was 14.5 kg.
The side wheels were slightly larger than in previous models. Their size is 622×32 mm. Shields were already installed on them. Steel knitting needles with a thread 2.1×0.4 mm.
The seat was a semi-rigid frame, on top of which a soft layer covered with leatherette was worn.
The rest of the bike elements have been transferred from previous models without changes.
The set with the bike of this series included a trunk, a footboard, a tool bag (attached under the frame), reflectors (yellow on the sides, red in front), a pump. In some cases, it was possible to find options with headlights and an electric generator.
Tourist Device 154-111
The frame of this bike was made of thin steel tubes. Its height was 52-60 cm (there were slight differences depending on the batch). Base length. 99-103 cm. The steering wheel was made of aluminum alloy. Its shape was reminiscent of sports models. The steel front fork had a new shape, different from its predecessors. The weight of the bike was 10.5 kg.
The wheel rims were also aluminum. Tire size. 600×27 mm. Reduced spokes made of steel.
The saddle was made of hard plastic. Unlike the models of the first series, soft seats were not provided.
The steel pedals were of the shuttle type. Bush roller chain.
It’s all about the stars
The number of stars directly depends on the type of bike. There are usually two leading stars on road bikes and three leading stars on mountain bikes, but there are exceptions. At the same time, there are additional stars: for example, 3 and 7-10 gears are installed on road bikes on the front and rear wheels, respectively. To determine the total number of gears, you need to multiply the number of stars on both wheels. It is easy to determine that the number on modern road bikes ranges from 21 to 30. City bikes are often equipped with five gears in the back and two in the back. Ten speeds will be more than enough for them. Most modern city bikes are equipped with seven starter gears. Do not need a lot of speeds and children’s bicycles.
What is the best number of speeds for a bike?
Our fathers, in their youth, never dreamed that a bicycle could be multi-speed. Such innovations existed at that time only in the West: in the middle of the twentieth century, a bicycle with stars on the front and rear wheels was designed in Italy by the inventor Tullio Compagnolo.
The number of gears has increased from decade to decade, and today (in some models for cycling) exceeds 10. But does it always mean a lot? To understand how many speeds a bike has better, you need to figure out in which cases they make the cyclist’s life easier, and in what. only complicate.
In order to change speeds, just turn or pull the switch on the steering wheel. Switches (they are also shifters) are of several types:
- rotational (speeds are switched when the handle is turned);
- lever (on the steering wheel there are special levers for switching speeds);
- gripshift (the handle should be rotated away from you or towards you);
- finger levers (one lever changes the speed to a lower speed, the other to a higher speed).
All these devices cost about the same, the latter were invented recently and will cost you a little more.
What are we for
When switching speeds on a bicycle, we shift the chain from sprocket to sprocket and change the cadence, that is, the cadence, taking into account the force required to press them. By varying the gear ratio between the pedals and the wheel, we can change the pressure on the pedals. In order for the energy to be evenly distributed during rotation, we include different gears.
When riding in rural areas, on steep inclines or descents, the cyclist is forced to pedal at high speed. One, two, three times this can be done without risk to health, but constant experiments on the body can lead to serious problems with blood vessels. What can be done? Turn on the lowest speed possible. The bike will go slower, but the load on the muscles and blood vessels will decrease due to the pedaling speed.
On the contrary, when descending, the speed will need to be increased. You have to put in a little more effort, but the bike will accelerate and go smoother. For driving on flat surfaces in the city, average speeds are usually chosen, while the chain is stretched evenly, and the load is distributed between muscle groups.
It turns out that the multi-speed system passes the following tests with dignity:
- climbing steep hills;
- a sharp descent from the hills;
- overcoming high barriers;
- driving on sand, mud, off-road.
Summarizing what has been said, we can summarize: transmissions are necessary to save muscle energy in different parts of the path. That is why the question of the number of speeds directly depends on what bike and on what roads you are going to ride.
Live at full speed
No matter how many speeds you choose, each sprocket has its own service life. Every cyclist can extend the life of a gearshift system, which includes a chain, cassette, gears and pedals. It is enough to remember a few rules.
- Try not to change gears on uphills. Select the first speed for both stars and keep it until the end of the climb.
- After climbing or descending on a smooth surface of the track, remember to return the derailleur to medium speed.
- The speed can only be changed while the pedals are spinning, that is, when the bike is in motion. Otherwise, the chain will wear out quickly.
- The difference between the gears of the chain should not be higher than 4. If you set the maximum speed on one star and the maximum speed on the other, the chain will stretch a lot and the whole system will break.
- Do not forget to take good care of the chain in a timely manner. If the bike is being used in a relatively comfortable environment, the chain can be simply wiped down with a dry cloth and coated with bike chain lubricant. If off-road driving is practiced, before lubricating the chain, it will need to be washed with a special mixture or ordinary kerosene.
Concluding the conversation about the number of speeds, I would like to note that ride comfort is a very, very individual thing. For some, 28 speeds are not enough, but for someone it is pleasant to ride along the paths of the park, without bothering with thoughts about gears. Walking, cycling, commuting or cycling professional. it all depends on your goals.
Useful information for a beginner cyclist
Basically, you can ride any bike that you have at hand. In the days of the Iron Curtain, cyclists crossed our country from Vladivostok to Moscow on ordinary road “Ukraina”, and in Belarus there was a cycling club whose members traveled exclusively on folding bicycles, and carried their luggage behind their backs in backpacks of the “Ermak” type. And the people were not particularly “soared” in choosing a bicycle. They just sat down and drove. Of course, riding a bike with a backpack behind you is a very dubious pleasure, and the folding bike itself with 20-inch wheels is a very peculiar form of transport with extremely limited possibilities. But youth and a passionate desire to travel took their toll, and we saw the guys on the “Salutes” and “Storks” even in the area of Lake Baikal. In the 70s and 80s of the last century, people who were seriously involved in cycling tourism rode two types of bicycles. These are light-road “Sport” (“Sputnik”, “Tourist”) and “Start-Highway”. If the first type in serial production is more or less suitable for long-distance hikes, then the Start-Highway bike underwent serious alterations: the leading and trailing stars were changed, double one-tubes were glued, the wheels were re-spliced onto light-road rims.
Why were there many adherents of the purely Start-Highway road bike? The fact is that it had a fairly light and strong chrome-molybdenum steel frame and double rims. Of course, we must admit that the reliability of even double one-tubes was not high, but on the whole it turned out to be a relatively light (11-12 kg) and durable bicycle, vaguely reminiscent of a modern “hybrid”. The high durability of the Start-Highway frames allowed more than one generation of cyclists to travel around the entire former USSR.
However, bicycles of the “Sport” type (“Sputnik”, “Tourist”), with lower strength characteristics, remained the most common bicycles among cyclists in our vast country. It was easier to get, it cost less than Start-Highway, tires and tubes were also cheaper than one-tube. Most importantly, these bicycles had wider mud clearances, allowing them to be fitted with high-profile tires from a regular road bike. High-profile rubber made it possible to compensate for the insufficient strength of the light-road rim (it was made of AMG aluminum alloy), which, however, in the event of deformation during the hike, could be easily restored with the help of a knee, trampling with feet and strikes against a nearby tree.
But everything in the world is constantly changing. With the arrival of the “animal grin of capitalism” and the market economy in our country, we got the opportunity to acquire “overseas technology”, which many did not even dream of.
Let’s try to consider what types of bicycles, suitable in one way or another for cycling, are present on our market today, and how they are arranged.
Primarily. this is a familiar road bike of a “classic” layout. This is a closed or open (female) frame, wheels with a diameter of 28 inches, mud guards, a durable trunk, the chain is closed with a special casing, most models have headlights and a dynamo generator. Landing on such a bike assumes, as it were, a normal position of the back (straight) and, in principle, is not ideal. This bike is not designed for long trips. It usually has one gear. Recently, however, many models have appeared equipped with 3x-4x-7-speed planetary hubs (where shifting takes place inside the hub), which significantly expands the capabilities of this type of bicycles. Weight of bicycles in this class 15-18 kg.
The next class includes bicycles of the Hybrid type. This is a bike with wheels 28 inches (622 x 32.37.40) with a solid frame, having geometry and layout from a mountain bike, (that is, there is no slack in the carriage) other components and assemblies. speed switches, braking system are also taken from it. However, many models have a racing wheel (steering wheel). Hence the name hybrid came from. As a rule (but not always) there is a trunk, including a front one, mud flaps and other accessories. Very often, the frames of such bicycles are made of alloyed chromium-molybdenum steels and aluminum alloys, less often titanium ones. This type of bicycle is widely used for long-distance travel (cycling), a sturdy frame and reliable equipment allows you to move on roads with different types of surfaces, from unpaved, very rough terrain, at a decent speed. Typically, these bicycles have between 18 and 30 speeds (gears). Something like our bike “Tourist”, “Sport”, “Sputnik”, but obviously with different capabilities. Weight 13-16 kg.
The next type. this is a racing bike we are used to. Its layout has not undergone major changes over the past 50 years. Wheels are usually 27 inches (except for special machines). Individual components and assemblies have undergone changes. Such as: gearshift system, braking system. A new type of wheels, unusual for us, has appeared. clincher. These wheels use ultra-narrow tires and tubes. This innovation relieves the consumer from the anguish associated with gluing and replacing single tubes. The main purpose. drive fast and far. Even for an unprepared person, it will not be difficult to ride a racing bike 100 km. As a rule, they have from 12 to 30 speeds (gears). Aluminum, titanium alloys and composites are widely used in the production of frames. Weight 8.5-13 kg.
The next type. ATV (All Terrain Bike) all-terrain bike. Many people confuse it with a mountain bike. Typically, this is an inexpensive bike with a mountain bike layout, but has 24- and 26-inch wheels with a noticeably sloped back top tube. Rubber on wheels. high profile with “aggressive” tread. As a rule, they have 15-18 speeds (gears). Very popular with teenagers 13-16 years old.
Next, we need to highlight a bike of the ATV class, but with wheels of 20-24 inches. This is the smallest ATV bike in the class. Bicycles of this type can be ridden from the age of 8-9. It also has a multi-speed system, like the adult ATV, which promotes the accumulation of initial mechanical skills, with the accumulation of experience and the acquisition of driving and repair skills begins with the first ride.
Folding bicycles. the most common type of bicycle in our country. Foreign companies today offer a good selection of folding bicycles equipped with gearshift switches, wheels usually from 16 to 26 inches. “Backpack” folding bicycles have appeared on our market. They fold up 3 times without any tool and are placed in the household. bag. Our motorists especially liked them.
In the early 1980s, completely new types of bicycles appeared with a very wide range of possibilities. This is a whole family of mountain bikes (mountain bikes) MTV. These are bicycles with a very strong and light frame, strong light alloy rims, powerful tires (wheel diameter is usually 26 inches). The bike has a front and rear derailleur, and the derailleur knobs are usually located directly on the handlebars. These bicycles have from 18 to 27 speeds! But it should be noted right away that mountain bikes are not designed to achieve unprecedented speed. These bicycles are designed for riding in especially difficult conditions: over mountains, stones, mud, snow, sand, that is, where the bike we are used to will not pass. And such a wide selection of speeds is designed to select the right gear depending on driving conditions, as well as a smooth transition from one gear ratio to another.
A special feature of mountain bikes is their frame design. She has a special geometry. There is no slack in the carriage. What is Carriage Slack? If you run a straight line through the axles of the bushings, then on a regular bike the center of the carriage will be 50-75 mm lower than this mowing line. On a mountain bike, the hub centers and carriages are on the same line. From this it follows that MTV has increased ground clearance, or as motorists say. clearance. This allows the drive sprockets and connecting rods to avoid obstacles when driving over very rough terrain. MTV also has a fairly long base. the distance between the centers of the bushings. Coupled with a well-thought-out tilt of the steering column and forks, such a bicycle is difficult to tip backwards or in the direction of travel (i.e., through the handlebars forward or backward onto the back). As a rule, MTV has a straight, wide enough handlebar. Although a straight steering wheel itself is not comfortable for long trips and no one has come up with a smarter steering wheel in the last 50 years. Straight handlebars allow for more efficient handling of the bike on rough terrain and at low speeds, which is the main purpose of these bicycles.
Also a distinctive feature of MTV is their braking system. The brake arm consoles are welded to the frame and fork. Brake levers with brake pads are directly mounted on them. Their outward-facing design provides ample mud clearance, allowing the wheel to roll unhindered in the frame and fork in heavily soiled conditions. The special design of the front and rear derailleurs with powerful return springs and the special design of the drive and driven sprockets, coupled with improved chains, allow for reliable gear shifting in conditions of heavy dirt and high loads on the bike components. The emergence of mountain bicycles, as a new class, gave rise to new design solutions for bicycle components and assemblies, which have found application on all types of bicycles.
I would like to talk about these innovations separately. And we will consider them on the experience of the SHIMANO corporation. The creation of the index gearshift system was truly revolutionary. SIS (Shimano Index System). A ratchet mechanism is installed inside the shifter, which allows the shifter to move forward and backward with clicks. That is, one press on the lever of the shifter accurately transfers the rollers of the rear derailleur together with the chain to a new position, exactly falling into the plane of the driven sprocket. SIS makes shifting precision independent of the rider’s experience. The ratchet mechanism allows you to shift 1, 2 or even 3 gears at once. In addition to the shifters, the design of the driven sprockets has also undergone changes. With the help of computer calculations, it was possible to calculate the most advantageous paths of the chain at the time of index switching. On the sprockets, in certain places, various shapes of indentations appeared, some of the teeth changed their shape and height in relation to the adjacent teeth. The sprockets are set using marks in a strictly defined position. The distance between the sprockets themselves is calculated and is an exact size constant. All this allows the chain to be guided exactly to the next sprocket.
The design of the rear derailleur is also different from the usual one. The bar on which the rollers are fixed is long, allowing efficient adjustment of the chain length. The derailleur has 2 return springs that work in the longitudinal plane of the bicycle, which automatically adjust the minimum distance between the upper roller and driven sprockets. The chain is designed in such a way that with a constant chain pitch (12.5 mm), it has the possibility of a large lateral bend, while not losing strength. All these innovations made it possible to quickly and efficiently, even under load, switch the rear derailleur to the selected gear.
It was much more difficult to get the SIS to operate in front derailleur mode. Forward shifting was always accompanied by a loss of speed because it required a reduction in pedal pressure to allow the chain to slide off the previous sprocket. To solve this problem, SHIMANO has developed new HG Leading Sprockets. Four pairs of strategically placed spikes on the top sprocket pick up the chain at special release points defined by the drive teeth on the inner sprocket and guide the chain from the middle or small sprocket along the shortest and straightest path to the next sprocket.
The teeth of the middle sprocket are shaped like the drop function on the small drive sprocket (third) with the pick-up effect of the large sprocket. This system allows you to quickly and reliably change gears without reducing pedal effort and without losing speed. It also reduces wear on the front derailleur and sprockets. The shifter itself with a built-in ratchet mechanism can be made in different ways. There are 3 main types of shifters (MTBs).
First type. This is a single shifter attached to the handlebars with a collar. The shifter has the ability to move a predetermined number of clicks forward and backward. The number of clicks is determined by the number of rear sprockets. The disadvantage of this system is that at the moment of switching the hand is partially lifted from the steering wheel, which does not allow full control of the bike control on rough terrain.
Second type. these are two trigger levers mounted on the bottom of the brake lever. One lever is designed to be pressed with the thumb and the other with the index finger. One trigger, after pressing, moves the chain to a higher star, and the other to a lower one. This system is called “RAPIDFIRE PLUS”. Convenience is that the trigger levers are located close to the brake lever, do not interfere with braking, and allow you to shift without taking your hands off the steering wheel, even in difficult off-road maneuvers.
Third type. the most common today is the “GRIP SHIFT” system. Verbatim. rotating handle. Half of the handle on the steering wheel is designed in such a way that it has the ability to rotate a predetermined number of clicks forward and backward. Its device is similar to the ratchet mechanism, but somewhat simpler. The advantages are the same as for the 2nd type, but, in contrast, it does not have protruding levers, and, accordingly, higher survivability. However, unlike the two previous systems, it allows faster and more efficient shifting through 2,3 or more gears, which is important for athletes. Among the shortcomings, it should be noted that in competition conditions, when the steering wheel is covered with mud, it is quite problematic to switch the “GRIP SHIFT”, as the hand slides along the handle. If the SHIMANO company continues to improve the so-called classical transmission system, then using the example of the German company SACHS, I would like to consider an option for a non-standard solution to the problems of gear shifting. SACHS has developed the so-called system 37. This revolutionary innovation should completely change our concept of gear shifting over the years.
The essence of the idea is that the 7-speed ratchet is integrated into one piece with the planetary 3-speed hub (it should be noted that the planetary hub was invented about 90 years ago). This made it possible to completely abandon the front derailleur and 3 drive sprockets, which are replaced by one medium-diameter drive sprocket. System 37 has internal forward shifting, which is faster and easier. Internal gears can be switched not only while driving, but also when stopping, pedaling is not necessary. Gear changes are instantaneous, much faster than using the front derailleur, which requires a full pedal rotation and at least 1 meter of distance. Having 1 drive sprocket, it is possible to increase the life of the chain (since its bend is reduced), to shorten its length and reduce the size of the rear derailleur base.
SACHS has also been successful in developing improved chain designs. The “super silent chain”, which appeared in 1995, differs from the previous ones in the shape of the heads of the axles of the silent blocks. The design of the silent block itself has also changed and allowed the chain to have a greater lateral bend, which is important when working on 8 and 9 speed hubs and, most importantly, reduced its own width. The chain width is now 7.05 mm instead of 7.35 mm previously, which has now allowed some bicycles to be equipped with a 9-speed rear hub. The links of the chain itself are hardened using a special Delta Hardening technology, the essence of which is the surface of the steel, the stainless steel molecule, which increases the chain’s resource. The strongest MTB chain is marked CN-7701.
Next, we will consider what qualitative changes the wheels have undergone. First of all, consider the wheel hubs. If at the initial stage of MTV development there was no difference between road bushings and bushings for MTV, then later they underwent qualitative changes. And first of all the rear wheel hub. In view of the umbrella tension of the rear wheel spokes, as well as the increase in the number of sprockets to 7 or more, the problem of the rear axle fracture appeared (although it was before). But with an increase in the number of sprockets, the free axle overhang on the right side of the hub increased, which is in direct proportion to the overhang length increased the likelihood of a rear axle fracture. An increase in its diameter and the use of exotic steels did not solve this problem, since MTB bicycles were subjected to much greater loads than ordinary ones.
SHIMANO offered an original solution, which is used today by almost all other companies. The freewheel drum (ratchet) is put on with its splines on the splines made on the right flange of the bushing, and from the inside is screwed with a bolt having an internal hexagonal hole of 10. That is, the bushing has become, as it were, composed of two parts. On the far right side of the ratchet drum, there is a treadmill for the balls of the bushing itself. This solution made it possible to reduce the axle overhang on the right side of the rear bushing to 6-8 mm, which practically excludes the bushing axle fracture (for old bushings, the overhang reached 36-38 mm). These bushings are called PARALLAX HUB. The driven sprockets are put on the outer splines of the ratchet drum, assembled in a package using 3 screws or riveted with rivets and fastened with one spline outer nut. Since in the SIS shifting system the sprockets must be put on in the same position, assembling them in a package (cassette) excludes the possibility of their incorrect installation on the hub drum. Also, such a system allows you to quickly change cassettes (for example, with a different set of stars). The outer fastening nut can always be easily unscrewed, since it does not work to tighten while driving. (We all remember how hard it can be to unscrew the ratchet from the racing hub at times.) New bushings are called cassette bushings. The next solution was to increase the diameter of the body of the middle part of the bushings by more than 2 times. The large hub diameter gives the front fork more rigidity (and the rear one too). That is, the relative movement of the frame stays is reduced, which improves the maneuverability and controllability of the MTV in difficult road conditions. The wheel itself with such a hub has greater rigidity and, accordingly, greater strength.
Now a little about the rims. If earlier box-shaped rims made of durable aluminum alloy were the ultimate dream, then with the advent of new stronger alloys, as well as the technology of “growing” complex profiles from these alloys, the rim has become “double”. That is, it was possible to combine the tubular structure of the racing rim under the tire into one whole. The new technology of “growing” allows you to make rolled products of any shape, and, accordingly, to achieve greater rigidity and stability of the rim under various loads on it. In addition, the surface of the rims began to be saturated with molecules of other metals (for example, titanium nitride), which made it possible to triple the surface hardness of the metal without significantly increasing the weight of the rim. This is very important in the places (sidewalls) where the brake pads work. Such a rim is wiped by the brake pads much more slowly. Knitting needles also began to be made from a different material. Now it is usually stainless steel (more than 18% chromium). These needles last much longer and have greater tensile strength, do not corrode.
In this way, new opportunities can be squeezed out of an ordinary wheel.
The use of space technology in the design of a bicycle today has made it possible to make wheels from composite materials. With a relatively low weight, they have better aerodynamics and a very large margin of safety. When we ride a conventional spoked wheel, we overcome significant resistance from the spokes to the air. No tricks in terms of reducing the number of spokes, changing their profile (flat spokes) will not solve this problem. Composite wheels typically have 3,4,5 wide aerodynamic spokes, which gives a serious advantage over a conventional wheel. Their main disadvantage is their very high cost.
On the bike. frame is the main structural element. However, like a car. It is on the frame that all other components and assemblies of the bicycle are mounted. Basic requirements for frames. it is strength, lightness, rigidity, durability and of course an attractive look.
The emergence of MTB as a new class of bicycles and the sharply increased consumer demand for them caused the emergence of new technologies in the production of bicycle frames, as well as the use of new materials. Today MTV frames and forks are made of the following materials:
Steel. most common material 1. low carbon steels 2. high alloyed (chrome molybdenum). Aluminum alloys. Titanium alloys. Composite material. carbon. Exotic alloys. beryllium
A potential buyer with a budget above the line beyond which the choice begins is interested in the fundamental difference between bicycles whose frames are made of different materials. Eyes run up. chrome molybdenum steel, aluminum alloy, titanium alloy or maybe carbon? The question of what is better is worth more than one year and will probably remain open no matter what technological innovations appear.
The problem is that the approach to material selection. highly individual. When choosing a bike with frames made of different materials, the price will still be the key point.
over, if we take the highest level of manufacturing, then the difference in weight will not be significant: for example, the lightest frame made of aluminum alloy. Klein Adroit weighs 1300 grams, carbon Trek. 1250 gr., The leader among titanium. Merlin XLM. 1300 gr. they are not much inferior to steel frames, but it is really possible to find a frame made of chrome-molybdenum alloy weighing 1600 grams. (Scott Team Raicing for example) Naturally, such samples are expensive, so the fundamental difference in price disappears, here the manufacturer plays the main role, not the material. At the average level (bicycles from 500 to 1500), of course, there is a difference in weight. Chrome-molybdenum frames in this category weigh about 2 kg., Aluminum frames about 1800 g. Mid-range titanium frames are found only in our country. Domestic titanium frames are 3 times cheaper than in Europe or America. By weight, they fit into 1500. 1750 gr. A bicycle with such a frame will cost no less than 1000. But let’s get back to our main task and talk about the main differences between materials.
Depending on the level and purpose, the pipes of the frames and forks themselves can be made as from conventional structural low-carbon steels. So also from high-alloy steels with high m of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, etc.
Low carbon steel frames usually have sheet steel tubes that are seamed along the entire length of the tube, or the tubes are made by winding steel tape onto a mandrel followed by welding and surface machining. Such frames are inexpensive and quite heavy. Not designed for extreme loads. This technology makes it possible to make frames from pipes of a larger than usually accepted diameter, sometimes such frames are not round (ellipse, rectangle, etc.) Massive appearance coupled with bright colors attracts a mass buyer who thinks that the thicker the diameter pipes on the frame, the stronger it is. This is not true. No one has come up with a smarter round-section pipe from which frames are made over the past 70 years (although there have been attempts). As you know, a pipe with a circular cross-section perceives loads in all directions equally. For example, a pipe with an elliptical cross section has a longitudinal stiffness 25% higher, and a transverse one 12% less than that of a round tube. Accordingly, a frame made of non-circular tubes has low survivability as it can “collapse” under peak lateral loads. It should also be noted that, as a rule, pipes are made of high-alloy steels. it is a seamless rolled product, and it is technologically harder to roll a non-circular pipe. Next, you need to know that frames and forks are for really high-class cars, or rather, their pipes are butted (eng. BUTTED). Butting. it is a value characterizing the ratio of the wall thickness at the end and in the middle of the pipe. Butting can be double, triple, quadruple. As you know, the plots of the load on the frame are maximum in the area of the steering column, carriage, seat assembly and the rear lower part of the chain fork. We have less load in the middle of the pipe. This allows the wall thickness to be variable i.e. thicker in places of high stress and thinner in others. It also manages to significantly reduce the weight of the frame itself. The quad-butted chrome-molybdenum frame is comparable in weight to a mid-range aluminum alloy frame. Inside butted pipes, there can be various reinforcing spirals (such as rifling in the barrel of a rifle), which opens up additional possibilities for strength. You also need to know that a steel frame made of good steel can serve for decades and always warns you about possible troubles: first, fatigue cracks will appear and only then after a while it will break. A crack can always be seen during external visual inspection. The steel frame is also easy to repair. Steel frames are distinguished by the assembly method. The most widespread technology of welding of inexpensive frames made of cheap steels today. it is HIGH TEN (HIGH TENSILE) glued and welded technology. Its essence is that the ends of the pipes, pre-processed mechanically, are processed with conductive glue-flux and voltage is applied to the pre-assembled frame, which is on a special slipway. The resulting electric arc melts the ends of the pipes and we get a construction of the “monocoque” type. These frames are “baked like pancakes” and are extremely cheap. The strength is adequate. The classic scheme of the nodal brazed, silver solders, assemblies are not common and as a rule these are hand-assembled “HAND MADE” frames and they are quite expensive.
The most widespread is the welding technology of the Japanese company “TANGE”. This technology resembles domestic carbon dioxide welding, although it has significant differences. This technology makes it possible to assemble a knotless monocoque frame with high reliability of welded seams, coupled with good butted steel. The result is a lightweight and durable frame.
There are not many companies that produce high-quality alloy seamless (including seam) pipes for the production of frames. Remember their names: “REINOLDS” (USA); “COLUMBUS” (Italy); “VITUS PRESTIGE” (France); “TRUE TEMPER” (USA); ORIA (Asia); “TANGE” (Japan), etc. Each company has its own brand, which after welding and painting is glued on the seatpost or inclined tube and carries information about the material of the tubes, their internal profile and the purpose of the finished frame.
The modern material, which is aluminum, was mastered for industrial processing back in 1886, but then no one even thought about making bicycle frames or their parts and assemblies from it.
Today, with the advent of the wide spectrum of Spectra aluminum alloys and their triumph in aviation and astronautics, this material can no longer be excluded from the production of bicycles. Even the simplest bike with a steel frame and fork has aluminum parts: rims, brakes, steering column, stem, derailleurs, wheel hubs, etc. The share of aluminum in the total mass of the bicycle is up to 30%. And if the frame and fork are made of aluminum alloy, then its share in the total mass is 60% or more.
Unlike steel pipes, they have a larger outer diameter and a large wall thickness. This is due to other strength characteristics of this material. The aluminum alloys themselves are not expensive enough material and allow you to make strong and lightweight frames. However, the service life of aluminum alloys is limited (about 10 years). Over time, strength is lost and such a frame can break suddenly. Rarely enough, forks are made of aluminum alloys. Usually the front fork on aluminum frames is triple butted steel. This is due to the strength of the starting material itself. The fork is subject to tremendous vibrations and is more likely to break an aluminum fork than a steel one. You also need to know. that aluminum requires a special coating otherwise it corrodes very quickly. It is very difficult to paint aluminum (as a rule, these are epoxy-based paints).
The main difference between aluminum frames and steel frames is their higher rigidity. Accordingly, the efficiency of the frame is higher. The rider’s energy is more fully transmitted in the forward movement, i.e. the frame itself absorbs less energy. The rider literally “feels” the surface, which will help to drive up decent slides. But vibration from the surface is transmitted through the frame to the rider and makes the ride less comfortable. Therefore, aluminum is not recommended for people weighing less than 70 kg and definitely need a front suspension fork.
Of the positive qualities of aluminum frames. their aggressiveness. it seems that the bike starts to accelerate as soon as you start to pedal, but immediately (!) stops as soon as you stop turning. As cyclists say. pro. frame “dull”.
Steel frames do not have such disadvantages. When choosing an aluminum frame, there is one more thing to keep in mind: the steel frame licks the bumps in the road and writes the turns. that is, it flexes appropriately, which helps in handling the bike. The aluminum frame, in turn, does not forgive mistakes. requires precise handling of the bike, the ability to choose the right gear and masterly control of the braking system.
Some people ask the question: why are aluminum alloys used as a material for frames, although its characteristics in terms of strength, rigidity cannot even be roughly compared with the same properties of steel. The answer is formulated by physics: an increase in the diameter of the pipe leads to an increase in the rigidity of the structure in a cubic proportion. This means that a double increase in diameter results in an eightfold increase in stiffness. But the thickness of the pipe walls affects the rigidity only in a linear proportion, as well as the greater hardness of the material. That is, a material twice as hard gives in the end “only” double the rigidity of the pipe. Focus is that by reducing the pipe wall thickness to a reasonable, from a technical point of view, at the same time increasing its diameter so that it becomes as rigid as required by technical standards and as light as possible. And aluminum of all the classic materials allows you to do this best. The term “oversizing” explains the strategy of “inflated” frame pipes very clearly. Large in volume (diameter) aluminum pipes with a relatively large thickness of their walls reliably protect the structure from dents and bends, and at the same time they are lighter and more rigid than the lightest steel pipes.
Steel pipes just don’t stand up to the competition. Even if you increase their diameter to increase rigidity, you will have to radically reduce the thickness of the walls to the state of a foil in order to maintain weight characteristics. But the lower limit of the wall thickness of the steel pipe lies within 0.4 mm and a further reduction in the walls sharply increases the risk of dents, bends, breaks. At the same time, steel pipes will still remain noticeably heavier than aluminum ones, which have the same rigidity.
Now let’s talk about aluminum alloys used in bicycle construction and some of their properties. Pure aluminum is too soft and weak to make bicycle frames or other bike parts.
To impart the necessary characteristics, other chemical elements are added to aluminum: magnesium, zinc, copper, etc. Alloys in bicycle construction are marked with four numbers. The alloy number indicates which components were added to the original aluminum. So, for example, the 1000th series will consist of pure aluminum and have little strength and stiffness. Bike parts and frames are mainly made from 5000 (5086), 6000 (6061) and 7000 (7005) series. It should be noted that a higher batch number does not always mean better quality. The first number denotes the base element that is used in this alloy recipe. Magnesium, 7000 series, is added to the alloys of the 6000 series. zinc. The 6000 and 7000 series alloys are weldable. Now let’s talk about the main characteristics of alloys that affect the choice of one or another alloy when designing the required product.
Ultimate strength. characterized by the pressure required to bring the material to its ultimate strength. Abroad, this value is calculated in thousands of pounds per square inch. (ksi). For example, 35 ksi.
Yield point. it is the amount of force required to deform the material. Also calculated in ksi. The tensile strength can be higher than the yield point, but the yield point is more important in the case of cycling.
Elastic modulus. a quantity characterizing the elastic properties of a material, also calculated in ksi. It is important to remember that almost all aluminum alloys have almost the same hardness.
Density. it is a number that expresses weight in terms of volume. If you have a 1 square inch bar of steel and a bar of aluminum of the same area, and they are equal in volume, then the aluminum will weigh less due to its lower density.
All aluminum alloys have approximately the same density.
Elongation (elongation at break). expressed as a percentage. Imagine a toffee candy. As you pull on the opposite ends, the center section of the tufts gets longer before breaking. That is, lengthening. this is the percentage that the material is elongated before breaking.
Of course, there are other characteristics of the material, but the above ones are of the greatest interest when choosing an aluminum alloy.
Which alloy to choose? At a first glance, it seems that the best choice would be to select an alloy based on its yield strength. But we must be able to replace the frame tube if it is damaged. That is, it is desirable that the material can be welded. And before we pay attention to its strength when choosing an alloy, we must take into account its fluidity and stiffness, which measure the material’s ability to reverse transformation. Glass, for example, is quite tough, but as you might guess, it won’t make a good material for a bicycle frame because of its fragility. Frames should be made of material that is flexible enough. You also need to take into account the following factor: the yield point of steel is five times higher than that of most aluminum alloys. In addition, steel is a more flexible material (three times more flexible than aluminum). So why do we need aluminum? Why are all frames not made of steel??
And the fact is that by such a small number of characteristics that we tried to consider, it is impossible to unambiguously judge the material. And we forgot some other aspects besides the physical and mechanical characteristics of the material. The construction and design of bicycles and components must be taken into account. This concept includes geometry (diameter, pipe, wall thickness) and some other physical aspects of the final appearance of the components. Engineers are interested in a quality alloy because only with it through design can they take full advantage of the material. By changing the diameter of the pipe, you can influence its strength and stiffness. Larger diameters increase the strength and rigidity of the pipe. Material endurance can be improved by experimenting with wall thickness and shape. Aluminum has a lower yield point than steel, but with the right design approach, aluminum is a more suitable material because it has a better strength-to-weight ratio. If the engineer is well aware of the characteristics of a particular alloy, the frame or component can be designed with maximum strength, resilience and minimum probability of deformation.
In the struggle for the optimal appearance of the product, the most important role of design should be considered. The decisive factor for the purchaser may be the more “energizing” effect of thick aluminum pipes compared to thin steel pipes. In any case, the choice will be yours.
One of the world leaders in the production of frames from aluminum alloys is the American company CANNONDALE (since 1977). Frames are made of alloys used in the aerospace industry and are subjected to special heat treatment during the manufacturing process, which increases the life of the material. The firm gives a lifetime warranty for such frames. Unlike other manufacturers of aluminum frames, “CANNONDALE” has all welded seams sanded (by hand). This gives an additional benefit in terms of the external aesthetics of the frames.
All CANNONDALE bicycles belong to the HAND MADE class, are produced only in the USA and are assembled only by hand. for such bicycles cannot be called unaffordable, but still close to “aerospace” (from 800).
In addition to CANNONDALE, among the quality manufacturers of aluminum bikes on the Russian domestic market, the following companies are represented: GT (USA); WHEELER (Germany); TREK (USA); MARIN (USA); GIANT (Taiwan); SCOTT (USA).
They are less common than those discussed above, due to their high cost. Although titanium is the most common metal on our planet and is found in its purest form, all products are made from it. these are alloys with tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt and the cost of such alloys is very high. Titanium alloys are difficult to machine and require complex welding techniques. In terms of strength and product weight, these alloys offer completely new possibilities. Titanium alloys do not oxidize or corrode; as a rule, products made of them are not painted, but left in their natural form (usually polished). The MTV frame made of titanium alloy can weigh in the range of 1200-1500 grams. Titanium pipes have 50% less density than steel pipes and at the same time have a margin of safety that allows them to survive any other material. flexible than steel, titanium provides a softer and more comfortable ride.
But right away it should be noted that the titanium frame. the choice of the elite. If you sit on a titanium bike once, you probably won’t want to ride anything else after that. if only you are a fan of extreme stiffness and you don’t care about energy absorption. The titanium bike helps you ride as well as jump and turn. He kind of licks all the irregularities of the soil. He “forgives” mistakes in management.
To date, engineers have calculated titanium tubes so that the wall thickness at each point is different, thereby ensuring the rigidity of the frame and, at the same time, dampens shock and absorbs vibrations.
Such things are very often bought not in the form of bicycles, but in the form of a frame, since many do not want to contemplate serial components on such a frame. instead pulls to hang HI-END components, something exclusive and assemble the Dream Bike.
The most “advanced” company in our market offering titanium bikes. this is “WHEELER”. WHEELER has been producing titanium frames for a long time and independently. Perhaps only the Merlin Titanium can boast of the best elaboration of titanium with its XLM model. (But 2700 Yes, yes, those very “green papers.” And moreover in the States, not here.)
Manufactured using space technology. A composite pipe is made approximately in the following way: from fibers of fiberglass, kevlar, carbon fiber, carbon thread a special machine on a mandrel of 68 threads weaves a tubular stocking, which is impregnated with a compound resin and sintered at a temperature of 800 degrees Celsius. After machining, the resulting pipes are glued to aluminum or titanium assemblies using cermet adhesives. Again, the finished product is heat treated. A different percentage of the above parts allows you to provide the desired strength and rigidity of the product. In terms of weight, strength, rigidity, composite frames significantly exceed all of the above materials, but it should be noted that space technologies also imply “space” prices.
Of the “advanced” companies on our market, it should be noted the products of SCOTT, GIANT, TREK.
SCOTT in 97 launched an unusual carbon model of the ENDORPHIN series on the market. This is an unusual carbon construction with no rear feathers. racks going from the carriage to the rear wheel axle. At first glance, the unfinished triangle leaves doubts about the bike’s reliability. However, 98 years of operation of the new frame proved its viability. It turns out that this decision of the rear stays is due to the desire of the designers to provide a “passive” rear suspension! So frivolously, in our opinion, the suspended rear stays have a vertical travel of 35 mm. This have not happened before! Also in the battle of the giants in our market has joined the company GIANT (“Giant”. In English).
Of particular interest is the MCM990 two-suspension carbon bike. The best modern technologies are embodied in its design. The lack of a similar design among American manufacturers confirms that the company works by itself and “does not knit brooms”, and the attitude towards GIANT should be serious, despite its Taiwanese origin.
My bike fell down helpless full off Road adventure vlog Pulsar 220 Adv in tamil
As a rule, these are beryllium frames. Surpassing titanium, aluminum, composite in terms of weight and strength is many times higher than their cost. Beryllium frame costs 5000-6000.
Let’s go back to the beginning of our article. The development of MTB bicycle classes (mountain bicycles) with the above listed advantages of their units and assemblies led to the emergence of new classes of bicycles. One of them is this. “hybrid”. It is based on a modified MTB frame, often with an inclined upper tube, on which the same components and assemblies are mounted, but the diameter of the wheels is not 26, but 28 inches (like our “Tourist” bicycle). So this type of bike can be thought of as an improved MTB or retired racing bike. Wheels with a diameter of 28 inches are optimal for long-distance travel and, like the MTB, have strong and light rims and tires.
As you know, large diameter wheels are built for speed. Low rolling resistance and greater gyroscopic effect than 26 wheels (at sufficient speed) coupled with a higher gear ratio (compared to a conventional bike) makes you king on the hard road. Due to the larger wheel diameter, the hybrid overcomes obstacles and irregularities on the road somewhat better, and the presence of high-profile tires with a developed tread brings the cross-country ability of hybrids closer to the cross-country ability of mountain bikes.
The frame has accessories for installing roof racks, fenders and other attachments. That is, we got a bike with the capabilities of a mountain bike, but with wider dynamic capabilities.
On long journeys, a hybrid will help you cover longer distances with less energy than an MTB. As a rule, most of the cycling trip takes place along roads or at least paths, and a hybrid is quite capable of doing this. Of course, when going on a trip to the Karakum desert or to the cold pole of Oymyakon in winter, you need to think about choosing a different type of bike. But such extreme expeditions are rare and require serious preparation not only of equipment, but also of people. In any case, you yourself will choose what to go on a hike.
When choosing a bicycle from a foreign company, beware of products of little-known companies, even if the price is tempting for you, and the color of the frame is attractive. A really good bike cannot be cheap, although its price directly depends on the purpose of the bike (walking, tourist, sports) and the quality of the materials and parts from which it is assembled, as well as on the popularity of the manufacturer.
Remember the names of the leading bicycle manufacturers in the big cities, from the most prestigious and famous high-end brands to popular mass products:
Intense, Santa Cruz, Pinarello, Orange, Klein, Nicolai Yeti, Ellsworth, Mountain Cycle, Hot Chili, Bianchi, Cannondale, Grossman, Marin, Specialized, Colnago, Wheeler, Rocky Mountain, Balfa, Iron Horse, GT, Trek, Scott, Gary Fisher, Schwinn, Norco, Jamis, Da Bomb, Haro, Felt, Mongoose, Dimond Back, Corratec, Univega, Author, Muddy Fox, Rock Machine, KHS, Merida, Trekking Fox, Atom, Stark.
So, having studied the above material, you decided to attend to the purchase of a new bike. First of all, ask for advice from friends who already own a bike (even better if they have already changed a few bikes).
TOP 3 FASTEST BIKE SPEED
At the same time, remember that novice bikers can be “fascinated” by all sorts of expensive and unnecessary “bells and whistles” that they have hung on a very simple bike that does not get better from it. Advanced bikers can advise you on a “workhorse” that is too expensive for you. It follows from this that first of all you need to agree with yourself about the purchase budget. You can start with an inexpensive (
300) bicycles, but keep in mind that more or less decent cars cost 500-700, and for a thousand dollars. You will find a car with its own self. She will “grow” for you and will be able to teach you a lot. Next, decide what material your bike frame will be. Summarizing all the above material, we remind you: steel frames (chrome-molybdenum) are more durable, easily repairable in the field (long-distance travel), more comfortable to use. Aluminum frames are considerably lighter, stiffer and give a pleasant “aggressive” impression. Instead, you will have to feel every bump along the way. Many people also dislike aluminum because it accumulates fatigue. In ordinary language, this means that after a couple of years, the frame may burst. Or maybe not! And not everywhere you can find argon-arc welding to fix it. Carbon is considered the newest material. He is in fashion, the beauty of his flowing forms conquers the hearts of real men (and even more so women). Carbon (carbon fiber) frames are lightweight and very expensive, and it is stylish to ride carbon. There is, however, an opinion that this material is too fragile. Nice hit on stone. and you no longer have a thousand dollar frame.
In general, make sure that you buy a bike with a really high quality frame (the frame is the main thing in a bike) and that this frame suits your desires and tasks.
Next, you need to pay attention to what “hitch” on your bike
As a rule, a bike from a good manufacturer with a good frame, but for a reasonable price of 400-600 USD. has a “budget” equipment package. About 80% of the world’s bicycles are equipped with components from the Japanese company Shimano. Various Shimano components of the same level are grouped into groups that differ in cost and purpose. The simplest and most inexpensive equipment is united in the Tourney group and is designed for teenagers and amateurs who are fond of quiet cycling. Tourney offers a choice of six series giving a choice of 15, 18 and 21 speed transmissions.
This is followed by the Altus and Acera groups, which offer 21 and 24-speed transmissions that provide better bike control and safer riding, which is very important for beginners and hobbyists.
Completing the amateur components is the Alivio group. It is a 24-speed drivetrain that combines style, affordability and ample reliability. Deore components are no longer offered for amateurs with the best price / quality ratio among all MTB groups. This is a 27-speed group with a choice of braking systems: V-brake, disc mechanics and disc hydraulics. The Octalink splined connection provides a stiffer and more accurate connection between the connecting rods and the bottom bracket, while the 22mm diameter hollow chromoly bogie axle increases the overall rigidity of the connecting rods. Rear cassette (11-32 teeth) provides a wide range of gear ratios.
The next group, the Deore LX, combines components that won’t let you down in tough conditions. On the components of this group, you can descend from the mountains, engage in freeriding, conquer cross-country tracks.
Regardless of the route and conditions, Deore LX components work smoothly and reliably. Among the distinctive features: V-brakes have parallel pad travel, which increases braking efficiency and pad life. Dust and dirt protection of the bushings has been reinforced by means of double anthers. The Deore XT group has the best components for any off-road routes. This group has become the generally accepted quality standard for mountain bike components (and beyond). Deore XT components are suitable for trails of any difficulty level. This group uses advanced technology in bicycle construction. Both V-brakes with parallel travel and hydraulics are available. The braking force can be adjusted in three levels. Front hubs have an 11mm aluminum axle for added strength and diamond-polished bearing treadmills reduce friction in the wheel hubs.
And finally, the most advanced XTR group. This group is the new benchmark for XC components. In addition to the new design, new solutions have been added to the drive system, gear shifting and braking system design.
These are not all Shimano groups, but we tried to look at those that are suitable for long distance travel. There are bicycle components from other manufacturers. They are usually also categorized by tier, similar to the Shimano groups (we don’t count high-end components).
If you have a rigid aluminum bike (and not only), then the best way to relieve yourself of a headache. Install the front suspension fork. If you are prepared to say “I want” and “how much”, then we will try to generalize the problem. Functionally, all forks are the same. Their task. absorb the impact of the front wheel of the bicycle on the road surface. On a rigid fork bike, impact energy travels through the fork, handlebars, and your arms directly to the rider’s body, and possibly to the head. After riding on bad roads 3-4 hours a day for a week (this is how much a simple bike trip takes) and the issue of purchasing a suspension fork will be resolved immediately.
The simplest and cheapest (30-50) forks have metal springs inside. The springs, of course, will be compressed from the impact, but then they will sharply “shoot” back (you didn’t get a door on the spring on the back?). Such forks are usually installed on the simplest bicycles. On mid-range bikes, there are two other forks’ fillings. In the first case, elastomers (soft polymer inserts) are installed. complex forks combine the benefits of both options. There are efficient forks that use springs in combination with elastomers and hydraulics. So we come to the delicate issue of price. A decent mid-range fork will have to shell out the cost of an entire inexpensive spring fork bike (something like 300).
So, after reading the above material, after long torment and arguments with friends, you gathered your will into a fist and bought the bike of your dreams (or maybe not).
Like any technically complex mechanism (in this case, a vehicle) or a car, a bicycle needs running-in and additional adjustment. These services should be provided to you by the sales company (usually free of charge). After running in, you might consider going on your first bike trip. Take care of installing a rack on the bike. Any serial luggage carrier (imported), as a rule, is designed for 25-35 kg of cargo (this is a guaranteed estimated weight). This is quite enough in the presence of good equipment (modern tourism equipment weighs much lighter than 15-20 years ago). For especially difficult travels, reinforced trunks are used (as a rule, from titanium alloys), which are made in small batches by “simple craftsmen” with an estimated load weight of up to 100 kg (pay attention to the drawing of the trunk of the 1986 model, developed in Leningrad and still used today).
Further, without bothering with any other details, feel free to sit in the saddle. and go! You will learn the rest on the road, and an understanding of the whole issue will come to you with experience.
Compiled by: veloDr. Arnold. Velocenter “BIVAK”
They are the whole point. The number of bike speeds directly depends on their number. Most bicycles currently produced (road and cross-countrey) have sprockets on both the rear wheel and cassette (where the pedals are). In order to find out how many speeds a particular bike has, you need to multiply the number of chainrings and chainrings. For example, if there are 7 stars in the back, and in the front. 3, the bike is 21-speed.
The number of speeds can vary from 10 (5 stars at the rear and 2 at the front) to 30 (10 stars at the rear and 3 at the front). Bicycle manufacturers often prefer to produce bicycles with 21 speeds. These are light-alloy bicycles, with a front shock-absorbing fork, designed for riding not only in urban areas, but also off-road. Road bikes with narrow wheels with a diameter of 27 to 31 cm are distinguished by a large number of speeds. Smaller. Children’s bicycles.
A little about the correct gear shifting
In order to avoid premature wear of the cassette, chain and gearshift system as a whole, it is necessary to adhere to a number of simple rules. First, you should not change gears while climbing. The tension of the chain is not weak anyway, and even the chain has an instant load while jumping from one star to another. Select the slowest speed for ascent (in other words, select the largest sprocket at the rear and the smallest sprocket at the front. The speeds are switched for both the rear wheel and cassette. Simply put, the first speed is selected for ascent on both derailleurs.
Secondly, it is worth changing the speed only while riding the bike, when the pedals are spinning. Otherwise, during the start of the bike, a person may hear a not very pleasant sound from the chain. This will affect its wear.
Third rule. the difference between the speeds (chain sprockets) should not be more than 4. That is, you should not select the lowest speed on the front / rear sprocket and the highest on the other. This can cause the chain to stretch faster than the chain manufacturer specified. A stretched chain will lead to a breakdown of the gearshift system as a whole. It. not very pleasant and not the cheapest repair.
And the last thing. the chain must be lubricated regularly. A signal that it is time to do this may be extraneous metallic noise from the chain or a kind of rustle while driving. If the bike is used carefully and not on the road, you will need to wipe the chain with a dry cloth from dirt, and then lubricate with a special bicycle chain lubricant. If the bike. frequent visitor of village roads or sandy beaches, before lubrication, you will need to rinse the chain with kerosene or a special mixture for cleaning the chain.
BIKE COMPONENTS TOURIST 153-421
- The frame is made of steel and thin-walled tubes;
- The brakes are made according to the cantilever type (rim);
- The steering wheel is made of steel;
- The front fork is made of alloy steel alloys, round tubes
- The saddle is semi-rigid;
- Wheels: box-section rim, lightweight wheel flaps;
- Rear hub, brakeless;
- Steel pedals.
TOURIST. A BICYCLE FOR LOVERS OF SPORTS AND TOURIST TRIPS
Most cycling enthusiasts prefer sport-touring or light-road bicycles, the main advantage of which is their versatility. Today there are even companies that organize sports and tourist bike rides. For this sport, many cyclists choose the Tourist bike.
And it is not surprising, because its main advantage is its versatility. The Tourist bike has good cross-country ability, develops good speed on the roads, is lightweight and easy to operate, so the cyclist will not get tired quickly.
Tourist. a bicycle, which was produced by the Kharkov Bicycle Plant named after G.I. Petrovsky. The very first models of this bike were: B-31, B-32 and B-33, produced in the period from 1949 to 1961.
Despite the fact that these bicycles were designed so many years ago, they are still popular today. Many people choose the Tourist, because they trust the quality of this bike.
These bicycles are mainly intended for sporting and touring and road touring purposes. If we compare it with a bicycle of the Ukraine type, the Tourist has a different frame design with a lighter alloy, which is called duralumin aluminum alloy, as opposed to the metal frame of the Ukraine bicycle.
The bike also has 4 speeds, respectively 4 stars on the rear wheel, narrow tires, manual front and rear brakes.
When compared with bicycles today, the main difference between the Tourist bike is that they did not have tires at all, but had a thick tube that served as a tire and a camera at the same time.
The creators of this bike in this way lightened its weight for a more efficient ride, in turn this was reflected in its resistance to damage, which of course only increased due to this.
The Tourist bike had a steel trunk, the reflectors on the wheels were yellow, and the rear brushes were red. The factory package also included a tool bag that was attached to the frame and a pump.
BIKE TOURIST 153-421 AND ITS SPECIFICATIONS
- 14.5 kg. bike weight;
- Frame height: 0.54, 0.56, 0.58, 0.6 cm;
- 1060 mm. the distance between the centers of the wheel hubs;
- 4 transmission speeds;
- 622 by 32 mm. tire size;
- 51. the number of teeth of the chainring;
- 16, 20, 22, 24. the number of teeth of the rear sprockets;
- Bush roller chain (12.7 / 3.3 mm).
Finally, I would like to note that in popularity in the USSR the Tourist was in second place, but in the first place was the bike Ukraine.