# How many bike speeds are better

## Optimal gear shifting

To avoid skewing and skipping the chain, it is recommended to change gears as follows: The first chainring works with rear sprockets in combinations 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and 1-4. The second chainring works with chainrings in combinations 2-4, 2-5, 2-6 and 2-7. The third chainring works with chainrings in combinations 3-6, 3-7, 3-8 and 3-9.

The result is that a bike with three front and nine rear sprockets nominally has 27 speeds (39 = 27), but in fact it will only use 12 speeds. And this is enough for trips across terrain with any terrain. It is worth noting that it is not at all necessary to adhere to this scheme, but when using the optimal combinations of switching stars, chain wear is significantly reduced.

### With the right gears:

• Move faster and more economically (in terms of physical strength);
• Get a longer service life of the bike components;
• Reduce stress on knee joints.

And also go faster downhill, climb uphills with less effort, or drive at a comfortable constant speed.

Rear on the cassette, if the bike is multi-speed, usually from 5-11 stars. So transmissions are 7/8/9/10/11 high-speed.

If the bike has 6-7 speeds, then it has one front sprocket (gear) and a rear cassette of 6-7 stars. If 18 or more. there are 3 chainrings and a rear cassette of 6-7 stars. Sometimes the rear cassettes are 9-10-11 stars, which allows you to bring the number of speeds to 27-30.

Why did everyone want to make faster speeds before??

It was considered, not unreasonably, that the greater the gear ratio on a particular bike, the more accurate the gear can be selected for a specific terrain. It really is.

However, today they still come to the conclusion that you can get by with fewer sprockets on a bicycle. Thus, greatly saving weight, since the extra stars in the front and the front derailleur are removed.

Why does the chain not fall off one sprocket in front?

The development of recent years is a special Narrow Wide chainring with a variable and higher cross-section of teeth, as well as a special rear derailleur that dampens all irregularities. All this together eliminates the need for a chain damper on the chainring.

The tendency is that the higher the class of the transmission. from 7 to 11 speeds, the more expensive it is.

• 7-9 speed bikes are put on the most affordable bicycles;
• 10 speed bikes can be found on middle class bicycles;
• 11 and even 12 speed versions are found on professional models.

The more stars there are in the cassette, the closer they become to each other and the chain will be thinner. From this, the price of such a product will be higher, and the durability is lower.

What do the numbers mean in the description of the transmission 48x36x26T?

They represent the number of teeth on the sprockets. If you are a beginner, then the information is almost useless for you as there is nothing to compare with. But if you are already an experienced bike enthusiast, you can choose a new transmission or bike according to your preferences based on the experience of previous bicycles.

How to properly switch gears on a bike

If you want your chain and sprockets to last as long as possible, it is recommended that you switch at minimum load. To clarify, shifting in the middle of a climb puts a very heavy load on the transmission, which can lead to situations up to a switch breakage or an open circuit.

Also try to shift early and avoid excessive chain skew.

After riding for a while, whether you lubricate the chain or not, attention to the drivetrain may be required. The chain may stop switching perfectly as at the very beginning. Problems can be as follows:

• The gearshift cable is stretched. you need to pull it up with a special lever on the shifter or switch;
• The cable jacket has accumulated too much dirt. it is better to replace it together with the cable;
• Rear derailleur not tuned. tuning required, better in a workshop.

What types of steering wheel switches are?

They switch gears with special handles on the steering wheel. shifters. They are:

• rotary. gears are switched by turning the knob;
• (revoshift and grip-shift, grip-shift). when you rotate the handle towards yourself or away from yourself, the speed is switched.
• lever. gears are switched by special levers.

Dedicated finger levers. One switches to a higher speed, the other to a lower one. These shifters are more convenient for many cyclists, less whimsical to maintain, but often more expensive.

Typically, the left shifter is responsible for shifting the three front gears, and the right shifting gears in the rear cassette. Thus, the left derailleur and chainrings are used to adapt to the main type of terrain. And the right one for private and short-term changes during the trip.

professionally speaking, changing the speed changes the cadence. Cadence is the cadence and the required pressure applied to the pedals by changing the gear ratio between the wheel and the pedals. Cadence is important in terms of strength and health benefits to evenly distribute the energy expended in pedaling.

The optimal cadence is considered to be in the region of 60-100 rotations per minute.

If you are riding uphill or on uneven terrain, you need to make a lot of effort to pedal, which, for a long time, can lead to arthritis. Turning on a low speed will make it easier for yourself to pedal, reduce stress on muscles and joints, but the bike will go slower.

On a flat track or when descending a mountain, you must turn on a high speed, then more effort will be required to pedal (compared to models without speeds or other gear), but the two-wheeled horse will become faster, more stable, it will move smoother and more stable.

So how many speeds do you need to be happy??

Let’s answer this question as follows. As in the article how much does a good bike cost, we will note that it all depends on the use of the bike and the place of riding.

If you only ride on paths in a park or sidewalk, you really don’t need the speed on your bike. But fans of cross-country driving, long journeys with alternating ascents, descents and flat areas, real athletes will appreciate this parameter.

For city and folding bicycles, there is no need for more than 7-9 speeds. For them the thesis the more, the better does not work.

For mid to high end mountain bikes, 1 × 10, 1 × 11 (One star front and 10-11 rear) solutions are already available today. At the same time, only 10-11 speeds are enough even for mountainous terrain. On more affordable bicycles, options like 2 × 10, 3 × 9 are more common.

For amateur riding, 18 speeds are enough. Driving in a city, park or woodland is less demanding on gear ratios.

## Switches

In order to change speeds, just turn or pull the switch on the steering wheel. Switches (they are also shifters) are of several types:

• rotational (speeds are switched when the handle is turned);
• lever (on the steering wheel there are special levers for switching speeds);
• gripshift (the handle should be rotated away from you or towards you);
• finger levers (one lever changes the speed to a lower speed, the other to a higher speed).

All these devices cost about the same, the latter were invented recently and will cost you a little more.

## What are we for

When switching speeds on a bicycle, we shift the chain from sprocket to sprocket and change the cadence, that is, the cadence, taking into account the force required to press them. By varying the gear ratio between the pedals and the wheel, we can change the pressure on the pedals. In order for the energy to be evenly distributed during rotation, we include different gears.

When riding in rural areas, on steep inclines or descents, the cyclist is forced to pedal at high speed. One, two, three times this can be done without risk to health, but constant experiments on the body can lead to serious problems with blood vessels. What can be done? Turn on the lowest speed possible. The bike will go slower, but the load on the muscles and blood vessels will decrease due to the pedaling speed.

On the contrary, when descending, the speed will need to be increased. You have to put in a little more effort, but the bike will accelerate and go smoother. For driving on flat surfaces in the city, average speeds are usually chosen, while the chain is stretched evenly, and the load is distributed between muscle groups.

It turns out that the multi-speed system passes the following tests with dignity:

• climbing steep hills;
• a sharp descent from the hills;
• overcoming high barriers;
• driving on sand, mud, off-road.

Summarizing what has been said, we can summarize: transmissions are necessary to save muscle energy in different parts of the path. That is why the question of the number of speeds directly depends on which bike and on what roads you are going to ride.

## How to switch gears correctly

When driving upwind, on sand, clay, wet mud, or going uphill, the forward gear must be dropped. Then it will be easier to pedal, maneuver and pick up speed.

First forward gear is ideal for lifting if you don’t want to put in a lot of physical effort. The second gear is suitable for small climbs and driving on forest paths. It is recommended to shift into the third forward gear (the largest sprocket) while driving in the city. In this case, the reverse gear is shifted in accordance with the above gearshift scheme.

### What does it mean to change gear?

Gear shifting is a chain transfer from one chainring to another. This changes the gear ratio and pedal force.

First of all, for comfort. Gears allow you to save power and choose a comfortable pedaling mode based on:

• The relief of the road (plane, ascent or descent, acceleration or smooth braking);
• Required speed;
• The physical condition of the rider.

## Live at full speed

No matter how many speeds you choose, each sprocket has its own service life. Every cyclist can extend the life of a gearshift system, which includes a chain, cassette, gears and pedals. It is enough to remember a few rules.

• Try not to change gears on uphills. Select the first speed for both stars and keep it until the end of the climb.
• After climbing or descending on a smooth surface of the track, remember to return the derailleur to medium speed.
• The speed can only be changed while the pedals are spinning, that is, when the bike is in motion. Otherwise, the chain will wear out quickly.
• The difference between the gears of the chain should not be higher than 4. If you set the maximum speed on one star and the maximum speed on the other, the chain will stretch a lot and the whole system will break.
• Do not forget to take good care of the chain in a timely manner. If the bike is being used in a relatively comfortable environment, the chain can be simply wiped down with a dry cloth and coated with bike chain lubricant. If off-road driving is practiced, before lubricating the chain, it will need to be washed with a special mixture or ordinary kerosene.

Concluding the conversation about the number of speeds, I would like to note that ride comfort is a very, very individual thing. For some, 28 speeds are not enough, but for someone it is pleasant to ride along the paths of the park, without bothering with thoughts about gears. Walking, cycling, commuting or cycling professional. it all depends on your goals.

## Switch capacity

The capacitance of the switch is the value calculated as the sum of the ranges of the star sets, i.e. formula for calculation = (Teeth on the large sprocket at the front. Teeth on the small sprocket at the front) (Teeth on the large sprocket at the back. Teeth on the small sprocket at the back). After some simple calculations, a value appears in the range from 10 to 50, which can already be used when searching for the desired model.

Physically, this difference is in the length of the frame located between the two rollers of the rear derailleur, and the possibility of its deviation becomes decisive in the delta of the sizes of the stars. From below, this indicator is strictly limited to a tolerance of 10 units.

## Choice and purchase

Although, as always, money is the main factor, there are a few technical characteristics to keep in mind when choosing a switch:

• Mount type.
• Rope travel.
• 3Capacity.

How much does a good switch cost? In fact. from 1.5 thousand rubles. Most riders absolutely do not need professional solutions with titanium elements and protection, with a huge road capacity or a non-standard Shadow (construction is 30% less wide), which makes the model more expensive by two or three times. But if the price is not important, the choice changes dramatically. It is worth choosing only the best, choosing modern composites, accurately adjusting the capacity so that not a single millimeter of sagging is allowed.

## What are the best gear shifters to use on a bike?

Most modern riders have two derailleurs per bike. Of course, they may not be there, and some walking models have only one, and it looks non-standard, since it is located inside the planetary hub. Nevertheless, everyone is familiar with switches in one way or another.

## Shimano and SRAM drives

In the world of switches, there are two de facto monopolists. At least in the area of ​​standards. There are, of course, unique items from Specialized and other VIP brands, but most bikes are equipped with accessories according to the standards of these two manufacturers.

### The perfect number of gears for your urban bike is three. Here’s why.

Shimano is promoting its own types of mounts. First of all, it is practically recognized for the universal standard E-Type with mounting on a carriage assembly. SRAM, in turn, offers several types of frame mounts.

The main difference and the main reason for incompatibility when replacing devices from Shimano and SRAM is the gear ratio of the cable from the shifter mounted on the handlebar. In the case of SRAM, a one-position shift means a 2.5mm cable movement, while on Shimano models this shift is 5mm of cable movement. Thus, these kinds of devices cannot be interchangeable.

By the way, there is still no consensus on which standard is more effective. Some point out that Shimano’s travel is sharper, while others say that SRAM is more reliable and easier to use. Which opinions are more truthful, only practice decides.

## Construction and work

The principle of gear shifting is, in fact, very simple. Both devices are frames that, being controlled through a drive cable by a shifter (shift knob), shift their position relative to the stars on the system or rear hub, moving the bicycle chain with them.

At first glance, the trivial task is complicated by many factors:

• heavy load on the transmission. modern front and rear derailleurs place high demands on materials;
• positioning accuracy. small errors in the position of the frame (and, accordingly, the chain) can lead to rapid damage to the chain and stars by incorrect switching;
• the subtlety of the mechanism. in a modern device there are more than two dozen elements, each of which must be almost ideally positioned and work under load.

Modern models are delicate mechanisms that require serious development and no less serious maintenance.

Let’s consider these devices in more detail. It should not be forgotten that both the rear and the front derailleur have their own restrictions on the types of attachment and the size of the allowed stars in the transmission. Rear frames are also limited in overall length.

### Rear derailleur

The rear mechanism is somewhat more complicated than the front one. Its stroke is longer, and its attachment point is more dangerous.

• switch frame;
• parallelogram mechanism. unlike the front one, here the spring is much larger and more noticeable in order to provide more travel;
• attachment to the frame (including the cock);
• upper and lower rollers. they are responsible for guiding the chain into the frame and for its correct pulling back into the transmission.

The rear derailleur is in a much more damage-prone location and the cock point has become the de facto standard. The rooster is a small piece, a switch holder that fits into a groove on the feather (outermost tube of the frame) and can be easily replaced. Its main function is to protect the switch. In the event of a blow to the rear attachment area, the cock becomes there a weak point, which will break, protecting the frame and derailleur from taking all the load.

### Front derailleur

The front derailleur for a bicycle is the simpler of the two, but surprisingly a little more rare. There is a whole class of models (old sports and tourism, pleasure and cruisers) that do not use this element. This is usually done in order to simplify the design or reduce the cost of the bike.

Usually a device consists of several elements:

• switch frame. the main element that works when switching, a circuit passes through it;
• parallelogram mechanism. a set of joints that allows the frame to move in space without deviating from the vertical axis of the transmission;
• fastening to the frame.
• The clamp on the frame is the simplest and most common. There is some risk of error in the diameter of the clamp, but this error can be easily corrected by replacing or additional spacers. There are several clamp mountings, with one, two and three attachment points. In addition, such fasteners may differ in the point of winding the cable into the mechanism.
• E-Type is Shimano’s proposed and de facto standard bottom bracket mounting system. It is used on full-suspension and other bicycles with a complex configuration of frame tubes.
• Bolt fastening to the frame is a rather rare, but very reliable fastening when a seat is already provided on the frame.

## Service and customization

Derailleurs are some of the most subtle elements of a bike to adjust. Minimal tolerances and the fatal effect of misalignment on the chain and sprockets. all of this dramatically increases the importance of correct tuning.

With the ride now standardized, cyclists have a little less set-up to worry about. Previously, it was also necessary to work with the tension of the cable. Now the main thing is to set the correct position of the extreme points of the switch.

This is done using bolts H (High, high position) and L (Low, low position). The chain is thrown first to the largest chainring in the front and the smallest at the back, and with constant observation, using the screw H, the bicycle derailleur is set so that the planes of the chainring, chain and derailleur frame become parallel. Then a similar adjustment is made for the other extreme stars using the bolt L.

There are many obstacles that can interfere with the simple setting of the switches, and which will require more serious intervention, which is already problematic to do it yourself:

• damage to any frame;
• discrepancy between the set of stars and the capacitance of the switch;
• damage to the frame or cock;
• cable drive mismatch.

It is best to avoid these issues before starting the setup.

## How to choose a bike size

How to choose a bike size

The main criterion for choosing the size of a bike is its frame. Immediately it is worth noting an important point that there are many articles with size tables, that is, for what height. what size of the bicycle frame will be more suitable. How Buy Sell does not recommend blindly believing these figures, since bicycle manufacturers from different countries estimate this parameter in their own way, not to mention the fact that anthropometric data in people also differ. with the same height, there may be different leg lengths. The size table is more suitable for women, and even then, they should be looked at for a specific bike brand.

Also, do not forget that the diameter of the wheels can significantly affect your choice. information about choosing a bike by height is described below, in the corresponding section of this article.

## What is the best number of speeds for a bike?

Important question: how to choose a mountain bike suitable for a man by yourself

The versatility of mountain two-wheeled iron horses has been proven by many professional riders. After all, it is no secret that this type of machine is recommended to be purchased by beginners who have not really decided what is more important for them: cross-country ability along forest paths or overcoming high-speed asphalt sections.

The topic of how to choose a mountain bike for a man is often not interested in those who like professional disciplines: cross-country, freeride, downhill, trial, dirt jumping. Among the fans of this type of bikes, the largest percentage falls on cyclists, and all because their favorite hardtail has:

• excellent driving performance over rough terrain;
• high durability, which allows you to confidently hang a trunk and a backpack-pants on it, adding up to 20-25 kg of additional load;
• acceptable coasting on highways;
• excellent climbability due to a large number of speeds.

You should search for a suitable model after determining the desired type of mountain bike by the type of suspension:

• Hardtail (rigid frame shock absorbing front fork). The most versatile and affordable type of two-wheeled vehicles. Suitable for cross-country, tourism, urban travel and park riding.
• Full suspension (both wheels are equipped with shock absorption). Extremely expensive and designed for high speed travel over difficult rough terrain. Often used exclusively for professional purposes: cross-country and downhill.
• Rigid (rigid frame and fork). Designed for professional use in areas such as trial and dirt jumping. Rarely rigid models are found among ordinary walking MTV models of the budget segment.

## Speed ​​switches

Speed ​​switches

There are two main types of speed switches:

• External. visually you can distinguish them by the presence of cassettes with asterisks of various sizes.

External speed switches

• Light weight
• Simplicity of the mechanism
• High gear count
• favorable price than internal (planetary)
• Higher efficiency due to fewer friction processes inside the mechanism.
• Internal (planetary) derailleurs. you can see only one sprocket in the front and one in the back. The gearshift mechanism is hidden inside the rear hub.
• Switching speed without pedaling
• Protection from adverse climatic factors
• Ease of maintenance
• Reliable, durable work
• Built-in brake

## Bicycle wheels

When choosing a bicycle for an adult, the choice of wheels is a separate issue. If we are talking about expensive manufacturers, famous brands, then here you don’t have to worry too much about the quality. If you choose from budget models or an inexpensive children’s bike, then I would like to draw the attention of Hubaisell readers to a few nuances:

Bicycle wheels

• The wheel rim is usually single, double or triple. The most common is double, it is distinguished by an affordable price and sufficient strength. Triple rims are set for extreme riding. Single. usually found in unnamed bicycle manufacturers, as well as in cheap Chinese and children’s.
• Tires are: road (slicks). for fast driving on good roads; semi-slick. provide fast driving on a good road, but, thanks to the side spikes, allow you to feel quite confident on the road; mud. perfect for lovers of cross-country, riding on the sand, in the rain; winter. it is clear why. The quality of a bicycle tire can be determined by trying to tear off the technological antennae from its surface.
• Wheels are:
• 20 ”. bike for kid, BMX and folding options.
• 24 inches. teenage, downhill and other extreme riding.
• 26 inches. mountain bikes and city bikes (most common wheel type).
• 27 inches. for road and speed.
• 28 inches. hybrids, urban, road builders, Soviet Ukraine and Aist.
• 29 inches (29ers). the new standard for city bikes, rapidly gaining popularity every year.
• And yet not very common, but already actively promoted, the standard of city bicycles with 27.5-inch wheels.

## Bicycle frame and its size

Bicycle frame and its size

When choosing the size of the bike, special attention should be paid to its frame.

• aluminum,
• steel,
• titanium,
• magnesium
• composite.

Bicycle frame and its size

## Bike brakes

Bike brakes

Particular attention should be paid to the choice of brakes. Your safety will depend on their correct choice.

Bicycle disc brakes

• V-Brake (rim). have a low cost, easy to maintain. Not suitable for mountain bikes. they can be completely erased in one descent. In bad weather conditions, the grip on the rim deteriorates.
• Disc. today, their main advantage over rims can be called all-weather, and in terms of quality, they have not gone far from V-Brake, especially if we take the price-quality ratio.
• Hydraulic discs are the most advanced type on the market. It is better to choose these, because you will get excellent power and better modulation. Their main disadvantages include the price and the relative complexity of maintenance. However, for ordinary women’s or children’s bicycles, ordinary disc or rim bicycles are quite enough.

The choice of a bicycle saddle is a sore point for beginners, and in the truest sense of the word. Any beginner will encounter, first of all, pain in the fifth point and there is nothing you can do about it, except to ride regularly. What is the best bike saddle and how to do it? Here, the correct choice will depend only on the goals of the ride. For trips over distances of more than 10 km, professionals do not recommend taking a soft and wide one. Since a soft bicycle saddle will contribute to squeezing blood vessels and numbness of the fifth point, and you will rub your legs against its wide edges.

Structurally, the bicycle consists of a frame and bicycle components fixed to it. As you learn the basics of choosing the right mountain bike, it’s helpful to know what raw materials are used to make frame structures:

• ordinary steel;
• chromium-molybdenum steels;
• aluminum alloys;
• titanium;
• carbon fibre.

Steel frames are only found on entry-level bikes. The only drawback is the high weight. Advantage. excellent damping properties.

The most common frames are made of aluminum alloys. With an optimal cost, these structures are very lightweight, but tough.

Carbon fiber frame products are the basis of expensive professional models. They are both lightweight and able to cushion the shocks that occur when walking.

For your information. A high-quality frame will be distinguished by the use of the butting technology of pipes in their manufacture (it can be single, double, triple). The presence of a mark on the use of this production method indicates a different wall thickness of the tubular product from one end, two or three places (the method allows you to increase the amount of material in highly loaded places and reduce it. in places with the lowest stress concentration).

Components: choosing a new mountain bike by component

If the manufacture of the frame is assigned directly to the manufacturer, whose name is printed on it, then bicycle components in the form of wheels, seat posts, transmissions, forks and other things are purchased from other companies.

Modern mountain bike damping forks come in several varieties. The initial difference is due to the type of damping element and spring.

• Elastomeric spring (so-called breadboards). They are used on bicycles under 600. The forks work out road bumps very mediocre. Suitable for driving on asphalt.
• Oil-air. Spring. air, damper. oil. Installed on two-wheeled products from 500. They perfectly cope with damping of various irregularities. Weak for downhill.
• Spring oil. They perfectly work out irregularities. Most expensive. Suitable for all disciplines.

A competent solution to the problem of how to choose a fresh mountain bike for a man implies the selection of the appropriate dimension of the wheels. At the moment, mountain bikes are equipped with three types of wheels:

• 26. typical for walking models; well controlled, conducive to dynamic acceleration, satisfactory roll-forward;
• 29. specimens with such wheels are referred to as niners: excellent roll-forward, swallow irregularities well. Disadvantages: it takes a long time to gain the required speed, the bike has worse handling than its analog on the 26th.
• 27.5 is a recently introduced size, a compromise between the merits of 26 and 29 wheels.

### Fixie Vs Geared: Which Bike Is Fastest For City Riding?

When examining the wheels, you should ask what material the rim is made of and how many walls it has. Models with a double aluminum rim are preferred: both strong and light.

The most important element of the wheel is the hub. Almost all manufacturers use more or less resource bushings with an average level of protection against dirt and water.

Determine which mountain bike is best for different purposes: brakes and transmissions

### Shimano 1x vs 2x | Which Drive Train Is Better For Mountain Biking?

Any MTV has a transmission with a certain set of speeds in the base. The number of the latter determines the degree of comfort in the selection of the cadence (cadence should be 80-100 rpm) in different sections.

On bikes in the mid-range, 27- and 30-speed drivetrains are common. Bikes up to 500 are equipped with 18-, 21-, 24-speeds. The lower the speeds, the cheaper the transmission is to maintain. The 27-band models are considered optimal in terms of reliability / quality.

The transmission is formed on the basis of the following components:

• System (cassette chain chainring with connecting rods).
• Front / rear derailleurs.
• Shifters (pins. elements that directly send a command to the switches to change the speed).

There are two transmission manufacturers: Shimano and SRAM. Each line consists of different groups. When figuring out which mountain bike is better to choose, you should pay attention to the class of equipment.

In the Shimano lineup, the ascending groups are arranged as follows:

• Tourney.
• Altus.
• Acera.
• Alivio.
• Deore.
• SLX.
• XT.
• XTR.

CPAM has the highest class referred to as X0. The higher the number next to the letter X, the higher the group.

It will not be possible to meet a bicycle whose speed system is assembled on the basis of one group. To reduce the price of the two-wheel friend, components are selected from different classes. The brakes, the front distributor, the system are often in a lower class. But the rear derailleur is selected from a higher group of equipment. Regardless of what inscription is on it, and the style of riding, you need to know how to set up the rear derailleur on a bicycle with your own hands. This will have to be done several times a season, perhaps even in the field.

For your information. Shimano Alivio / Deore, SRAM X4 / X5 groups are considered optimal for long-term gentle operation and tourism.

One of two types of braking systems can be installed on MTB:

• V-Brake (rim).
• Disk.

The current trend is that disc brakes have practically supplanted rim brakes. The latter are often installed only on budget bikes worth up to 300. There is nothing wrong with such systems. they more than provide the deceleration required in simple conditions. In professional disciplines, they are significantly inferior to disc.

Disc brakes are of two types: mechanical and hydraulic. Hydraulic systems are available on the 500 and above and offer excellent modulation and very little effort. In comparison with mechanics, it is more difficult to maintain, field repair is impossible, but they show themselves well in sports disciplines.

When choosing a mountain bike, like any other thing, you should be tied to its value:

• up to 300: simple models exclusively for recreational use and urban use.
• 300. 500: Starter vehicles designed to move on asphalt with occasional forays into rough terrain.
• 500. 1,000: Fully functional models, suitable for mixed use: asphalt / lightly traversed. The optimal price category for buying a bicycle with an emphasis on tourism.
• 1,000. 1,500: Worthy amateur specimens, adapted to the crossroads of varying difficulty. It is this segment that is a meaningful ceiling for the purchase of a bicycle on which it is planned to make long tourist trips.
• 1,500. 2,500: Basic level racing models designed for competition.
• over 2,500: professional racing models of excellent quality. Application is only justified in special disciplines.

For your information. 95% of the mountain bike market is shared by hardtails and full suspensions. Up to 1,500, it is recommended to purchase a rigid frame unit. A high-quality double suspension costs at least 1,500. Cheaper models with a rear shock absorber are equipped with low-quality damping elements prone to low-quality shock absorption and sudden breakdown under the influence of a sharp critical load.

The route for choosing a suitable model of a two-wheeled friend is as follows:

• Decide on the type of bike suspension: hardtail, full suspension or rigid. The type directly depends on the operating conditions of the bicycle.
• Frame: aluminum and carbon fiber structures preferred; butting is a sign of a quality product.
• Wheels: serious manufacturers have in their assortment only two types of wheel dimensions: 27.5 and 29 (niners). The 29s are harder to spin and harder to turn, but they give better roll and smoother ride. When asking how to choose a mountain bike for a tall man, it should be borne in mind that only niners are prescribed for people with a height of 190 cm or more.
• Suspension fork: Elastomer spring forks are suitable for park riding or operation mainly on asphalt and rolled soil. If the bike will be operated mainly on an intersection, air-oil and spring-oil products are preferable.
• Drivetrain: riding bikes are equipped with basic-level systems, derailleurs and shifters with a relatively low resource, lack of dirt protection and requiring frequent adjustments (SRAM X3, Shimano Tourney-Altus-Acera). Decent models for touring and light / medium traversing come with the highly reliable SRAM X4 / X5 drivetrain, Shimano Deore-Alivio.
• Brakes: Park riding models are equipped with a V-Brake. Disc mechanics are more efficient and reliable. Disc hydraulics are even more efficient, but the most difficult to maintain.
• Price: walking models. up to 500; good tourist items and products for confident movement on easy rough terrain. 500-1,000; excellent devices for tourism and cross-country movement of average difficulty: 1,000-1,500; racing. over 1,500. Up to 1,500 it is recommended to buy a hardtail.
• Manufacturers: all other things being equal, a model of a well-known company will in any case be more expensive than a less-known analogue. Chasing the name is not worth it, since the manufacturer makes only the frame, and the rest of the bike components are purchased (for example, the transmission on all bicycles is either from Shimano or from CPAM). When choosing the best mountain bike, you must first of all look at the mechanics. at the same price, there will definitely be models with a body kit of higher / lower classes.
• Rostovka: having determined the suitable model, you should definitely inquire,

rider. The bicycle is probably manufactured in at least four standard sizes. An incorrectly chosen bike is fraught with inconvenience and can harm the health of the Katalets.

## Speed ​​switches

Much more important than the number of speeds are the switches themselves, which are responsible for switching them. Two bicycles with the same number of speeds will ride differently if they have different transmission equipment classes.

If we talk about mountain and city bikes, then most often you can find derailleurs from two manufacturers: the Japanese company Shimano and, much less often, the American SRAM. Both companies have their own ranking of manufactured equipment from the simplest to professional.

What does this classification depend on? First of all, on the reliability and quality of gear shifting, the higher the class, the more reliable the equipment.

But here it is worthwhile to understand that the most top models are designed primarily for sports, they differ not only, and not so much in reliability, but in low weight, which is very important for racing.

## Cycling Speeds: Important Facts

If the dimensions of the wheels and the frame of the bicycle are far from being accurately determined by eye, then the number of speeds can be felt literally by the piece. Apparently, this attracts so much attention to this property of the bicycle among cyclists.

In fact, the number of speeds on the bike is not the most important parameter. First of all, because in everyday riding, you are unlikely to use more than 3-4 speeds. An exception may be athletes or residents of mountainous or hilly terrain abounding in steep and long climbs. For walks, this number of speeds is enough for the eyes.

But why, then, do most bicycles have at least 21 speeds? This is largely a consequence of the marketing strategy of their manufacturers. On some bicycles that have an impressive number of speeds, their quality is poor. To understand why more does not mean better, let’s try to understand the technical component.

## Ratchet or cassette?

The ratchet is a composite device that, in addition to the stars, also includes a ratchet mechanism that is responsible for the free movement of the bicycle. It is attached by screwing it onto the bicycle hub.

The cassette consists only of a set of bicycle stars that are put on the hub (bushing) of the rear wheel with a drum. At the same time, it is held by the slot. And the ratchet in this case is part of the bushing.

Externally, when assembled, these two transmission elements are difficult to distinguish from each other, especially for an uninitiated user, but still possible. As a rule, if the number of rear sprockets is 6-7, it is most likely a ratchet. The number of stars in the cassette starts from 8, although there are exceptions, so this method does not give a 100% guarantee.

To be sure, you should take a closer look at the rear wheel. If you see a nut whose inner diameter consists of rectangular teeth, then it will be a cassette.

As mentioned above, the cassette may differ from the ratchet in the number of stars, but it may also have an equivalent number. But do not think that in this case the quality of the first will be identical to the second.

The cassette will be better and more reliable in any case, thanks to a more thoughtful design.

Another important parameter, which also affects the number of speeds, is the leading stars, or rather, their number. The classic layout is considered to be 3 leading stars on a spider (the basis for attaching the stars), but gradually they begin to abandon it.

Due to the large difference in the number of teeth of adjacent drive sprockets, gear shifting can be accompanied by big problems, for example, chain slack.

In professional racing bicycles, this trend can already be clearly identified, with many manufacturers either reducing the number of leading stars to two, or returning to the classic version with one star. This helps to avoid various troubles, to reduce the weight of the bike, and therefore to increase sports performance.

## How to determine the number of speeds

The nominal number of speeds is determined by the combination of front and rear sprockets. For example, if a bicycle has 10 rear sprockets and 3 front sprockets, then the nominal number of speeds will be 30, and if there are 9 sprockets at the back, then 27. However, there is one caveat. the actual number of speeds that can be used will be less. This is because all possible sprocket combinations should not be used due to misalignment and incorrect chain tension.

Modern bicycles can have a maximum number of speeds of up to 30. The number of speeds depends on the number of front and rear sprockets. A speed switch on a bike is essential for a comfortable ride on rough terrain. For example, when driving on a hill, you should switch the speed to lower gears, and go down a hill in a higher gear. By switching speeds when necessary, the cyclist saves energy.

## Optimal gear shifting

In order to avoid skewing and skipping of the chain, it is recommended to change gears as follows: The first chainring works with rear sprockets in combinations 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and 1-4. The second chainring works with chainrings in combinations 2-4, 2-5, 2-6 and 2-7. The third chainring works with chainrings in combinations 3-6, 3-7, 3-8 and 3-9.

The result is that a bike with three front and nine rear sprockets nominally has 27 speeds (39 = 27), but in fact it will only use 12 speeds. And this is enough for trips across terrain with any terrain. It is worth noting that it is not at all necessary to adhere to this scheme, but when using the optimal combinations of switching stars, chain wear is significantly reduced.

## How to switch gears correctly

When driving upwind, on sand, clay, wet mud, or going uphill, the forward gear must be dropped. Then it will be easier to pedal, maneuver and pick up speed.

First forward gear is ideal for lifting if you don’t want to put in a lot of physical effort. The second gear is suitable for small climbs and driving on forest paths. It is recommended to shift into the third forward gear (the largest sprocket) while driving in the city. In this case, the reverse gear is shifted in accordance with the above gearshift scheme.