There is a lot of controversy on this topic: some are more comfortable with “strength”, others with “frequency”. It all depends on the type of muscle fibers and the level of cardiovascular fitness. It is the balance of these factors that determines the optimal cadence for a particular athlete.
For example: cyclists who are easily gaining muscle mass during strength work in a rocking chair will benefit from a low cadence. Those who cannot build muscle quickly and easily have a higher BMD. And in order to achieve the same power, they need to pedal faster.
- The generally recognized “golden mean” of cadence in cycling is 90 rpm. precisely: from 80 to 100.
It is at 80-100 rpm that the most effective work of slow muscle fibers is carried out (it is they that quickly recover during rest).
An interesting fact: during endurance rides, many cyclists find it more comfortable to twist at a frequency below 90 rpm, immediately during MPC intervals and sprints, the cadence reaches 100 rpm, and many do not even notice it. The trick is that at a pedaling speed of /. 100, muscles get tired less than at 60 rpm.
At a cadence of 100, muscles are fatigued less than at 60 revolutions
Optimal cadence depending on the track
- Relief terrain. Usually the hump is overcome in high cadence and low gear. At the same time, the muscles do not get tired so quickly and are enough for long-term work. But this does not mean that, climbing at 95 rpm, you will go faster than someone who will “twist 75 rpm.” It all depends on the physique and the value of the VO2 max.
- Sprint. Representatives of this “stratum of the cycling society” are recommended to have a low cadence high gear. And strength training in the gym. A lot of strength, especially on the legs. And yes: low cadence is recommended for short rides. no more than 2.5 hours.
How to properly train cadence when cycling
Cadence. the cadence while cycling depends on many factors: not only physiological ones. What else and how to properly train cadence when cycling?
How to calculate cyclist cadence
The easiest way is to count the number of lifts of one of your legs in 30 seconds, then multiply the figure by 2. For example, your right leg rises 45 times in 30 seconds. This means: your cadence = 90 RPM. Too lazy to count. buy a cadence sensor.
It was he who, in the early 2000s, “brought the fashion” to pedaling at 90. But Peaks Coaching Group CEO and author of the book “Training and Racing with a Power Meter” Hunter Allen draws attention to the fact that before cancer, Lance rode a cadence 85 turns. And he explains this by the fact that after cancer, Armstrong lost 16 kg of muscle mass. As a result: the power is not the same, but you still need to win the races. Fortunately, with Lance left his strong heart and trained cardiovascular, and in order to equalize the power with the result, the cyclist had to “take a cadence”.
Lance Armstrong. I moved to a higher cadence after cancer
How To Stop Your Brakes Rubbing | Mountain Bike Maintenance
The importance of calculating cadence correctly
Your knee health and muscle performance depend on your cadence per minute. If the cadence is too low / in “high” gear, the myofibrils force work. This is fraught with premature muscle fatigue and harm to the knees. The cadence of 60 and below is already serious damage to the knee joints.
- Important: It’s not just a wrong cadence that can hurt your knees. Keep your knees warm during the cold season / keep your body hydrated at all times.
If the cadence is higher than 100 rpm (especially on the “plain”). as a result, you “talk about”, have an ineffective expenditure of energy, low speed. Not the most pleasant trip, and even less the most productive workout.
The lower the cadence, the more the knees suffer
Tips for triathletes
Brett Sutton, acclaimed Australian coach and auto book Power Meter Training and Racing, advises triathletes to ride in low cadence. Causes:
- Triathletes train three disciplines at once, not one. Therefore, they do not have time to train cadence separately.
- For a triathlete, the finish of the cycling stage is not the end of the race. Therefore, it is impossible to sprint at a high pulse (usually it is on this sprint that happens). there will be no strength left to run.
Triathletes cannot sprint on the cycle stage. there will be no strength left for running
And where did the value “90 rpm” come from then??
- Requires the use of a dedicated rotor.
- They do not take small blows. The clutch may crumble.
- They quickly get washed out in the mud. Work poorly when weather conditions change.
- They rub for a long time.
- Have the largest resource of all types of pads.
- They are expensive and not widely used. Originally came to cycling as a pro weapon and not particularly well suited for everyday use.
Organic Pads (Resin PAD)
In these pads, the friction material is represented by a composite consisting of metal shavings (or, more correctly, metal inclusions), which are immersed in a special compound. There are no more than 30% of such inclusions in the composition of the composite. The compound can be organic resins, high temperature resistant materials, rubbers or other soft materials. Often referred to as Resin PAD.
The composition of the friction clutch here does not differ from organic ones, but the quantitative composition has been changed. up to 65% of metal inclusions are allowed. They are still immersed in a special heat-resistant resin or other binder.
Replacing rim brake pads on a bicycle
Over time, rim pads (like any other bike part) fail. And any self-respecting bike enthusiast, not to mention professionals, should be able to replace them. over, this is easy to do with v-brakes. The main thing is to do everything slowly, clearly observing the technological stages in the required sequence:
- Open the brake. bring its levers together and remove the iron tip of the “shirt” from the groove formed (the cable comes out of it).
- Remove old pads, remembering in which sequence the fasteners were used.
- Install new pads, sequentially collecting all mounting shims and washers.
It’s even easier when it comes to cartridge pads! It is only necessary to replace the rubber gaskets. remove the locking pin, remove the old one and put a new gasket, and then secure it with the same (or new) split pin.
Care must be taken when changing v-brake pads as they can be left or right (the markings are directly on the pads). Then in no case can they be confused.
In addition, it is not enough just to change the pads, you also need to adjust them. And before that, check the brake cable for wear or breakage. He must be absolutely intact and easily move around in a “shirt”. It is also necessary to check the shape of the wheels so that there are no “eights”.
The brake pads must be properly pressed against the wheel rim. And the pressure can be adjusted (configured) using the shoe fasteners. It is not difficult to get the desired angle if you hold down the brake and loosen the nut on each of the pads.
The v-brake cartridge pads should be located strictly horizontally, touching their entire surface to the rim, but not touching the tire. And when the required position is reached, you should fix it with a shoe nut. Regarding conventional brake pads, the rear of the pads must first come into contact with the rim horizontally.
During the tuning process, it is also necessary to ensure that the brake levers come together equally. Position adjustment is possible with a Phillips spring tension screw. If the lever barely moves, then the screw should be tightened, and when the lever moves too easily, unscrew.
Instructions for setting up the V-brake system. in the video review:
A bicycle disc brake is a combination of a steel disc (rotor) located on a hub with a caliper. a device that actually clamps the disc with the brake pads. From the brake lever on the handlebar, the force is transmitted to the brake by a cable (mechanical disc brake type) or through a hydraulic line (hydraulic disc brakes).
Bicycle disc brakes also have their advantages. They:
- less clogging when driving;
- can work without problems while driving on snow or mud;
- as smoothly as possible (in contrast to rims) adjust the braking force;
- do not react to slightly curved wheel geometry (small “eights” are not a hindrance for them);
- do not affect the wear of the rim;
- and do not require expensive maintenance.
Many bicycle disc brakes have only one moveable brake pad. The second is fixed statically relative to the frame structure. This greatly simplifies and reduces the cost of the caliper. But, however, as the wear and tear, the cyclist will have to tighten the brake pad, which is stationary.
Brake discs are standard sizes. These are 140, 160, 180, 185, 203 or 220 millimeters.
- They wear off relatively quickly, but at the same time have a high braking efficiency.
- They do not cope particularly well with bad weather conditions. If liquid or dirt gets in, they require regular drying. In bad weather, they lose the lion’s share of efficiency.
- They have a high modulation (due to their overall high softness). One of the best indicators among all types.
- Used with rotors that do not have strong protrusions and notches. the saw rotor will easily grind such pads into powder in a couple of weeks.
- Not recommended for heavy cyclists.
- Not recommended for e-bikes or e-scooters.
- Very quickly rub in.
- Have a shorter service life.
- With the correct selection of the friction pair, the rotor-shoe is practically silent.
- It is quite difficult to clean such pads from contamination. you need to ignite the pads with great care (read the article on what to do if oil gets on the pads), and washing them does not always help. Therefore, cleaning must be approached carefully. Annealing can destroy the non-metallic compound.
Ceramic pads (Ceramic)
Quite a rare occurrence in the cycling industry, but occasionally occur. They are relatively expensive. The friction material here is represented by ceramic with friction properties.
Replacing brake pads on disc brakes
Installing and replacing rear brake pads is significantly different from replacing drum brakes. Here you need not only standard screwdrivers and keys, but also special pullers that are designed for the car system.
- First you need to loosen the hand (parking) brake cable;
- the hand brake lever is released;
- the adjustable pins must be knocked out, and the retaining spring must be removed;
- brake pads and pads are removed;
- the surfaces of the caliper must be cleaned as the surface of the caliper is in contact with the brake pads;
- it is necessary to simultaneously check the condition of the dust cover for mechanical damage. If there is such damage, then it will be necessary to completely sort out the caliper;
- further check the friction surfaces of the brake discs for mechanical damage, measure the thickness of the brake discs. In the manual, the minimum permissible thickness of the brake discs is preliminarily specified so that after a few days you do not have to change the brake discs;
- then you need to push the pistons of the brake cylinder into the cylinder;
- then install the brake pads. Both sides of the gasket must be lubricated with a thin layer of silicone grease. The gasket is installed on the back plate of the shoe. Next, brake pads are installed;
It is important that if, during disassembly, the brake pad was removed from the caliper, then the brake fluid will need to be added to the reservoir, as well as the brakes must be pumped. Make sure the brake fluid does not leak
Then you will need to adjust the brakes.
Replacing the brake pads on the front disc brakes
Before changing the front brake pads, there are a number of simple steps to follow:
- Place the car on a level surface and place stops under the wheels to prevent further movement of the car.
- Open the hood and remove the brake fluid reservoir cap (to facilitate later movement of the working cylinder piston).
- Loosen the wheel, jack up the car and remove the wheel.
Next, turn the steering wheel out to provide better access to the caliper (along with better visibility. the Toyota Camry disc brake in picture 1 above) and inspect the surface of the brake disc.
The design of fastening brake pads in different makes and models of cars may differ slightly, however, almost all models have common structural elements. These elements include the fastening of the caliper or its part (cover): by loosening one of the bolts (2) and completely unscrewing the other, you can raise the caliper cover, freeing access to the pads (3).
Since the caliper is connected by hoses to the brake fluid source, do not let it hang on them during operation. It is advisable to fasten the completely or partially removed caliper to the suspension parts with a wire, making sure that there is no load on the pipelines.
The next step is to dismantle the old brake pads and install new ones. After dismantling, you should carefully inspect the surface of the old pads, and assess the condition of the brake disc.
Before installing new pads, it is necessary to “press” the piston rod of the working cylinder into the adjoining surface of the caliper. Since new brake pads are thicker than worn ones, they need extra space.
This operation is convenient to carry out using a clamp, as shown in the following figure and in the video at the end of the article.
An old brake pad can be used as a spacer between the stem and the clamp.
If there are no clamps at hand, then the old pads in the caliper (and therefore the piston rod of the working cylinder) are squeezed out with a small assembly (or a large flat screwdriver) before disassembling the caliper itself.
Remember to close the brake fluid reservoir cap. The fact is that brake fluid is hygroscopic and does not benefit from prolonged contact with the atmosphere. Read more about brake fluids at this link.
Further, the new pads are installed in the caliper and fixed there as provided for by the design of the car. Further assembly is carried out in the reverse order of disassembly.
After replacing the brake pads, depress the brake pedal several times to make sure everything is in place.
Replacing the rear pads on disc brakes is carried out in the same way.
When to change brake pads?
With a calm driving style, the pads need to be replaced every 40-50 thousand km. However, the condition and integrity of the friction linings need to be checked much more often. every 5-10 thousand kilometers.
The safest and easiest way to check the condition of the pads is to remove the wheel and measure the thickness of the pads. Parts need to be changed if no more than 2-3 millimeters of the friction layer remains. The pad must be replaced if the lining is chipped and cracked.
Which brake pads are best for you? TOP-8 best manufacturing firms
Some models have a special signal plate that starts to make noise when the lining is heavily worn. In this case, visual inspection is not required.
On modern machines, the pads have sensors that are triggered when the permissible wear level is exceeded. In this case, the on-board computer warns the driver about the need to travel to the service station.
- Squeak when braking.
- Vibration, shock or shock when the brake pedal is depressed.
- Metal shavings on the inside of the rims.
The listed symptoms may be the result of other malfunctions. Therefore, when they appear, it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive diagnosis of the suspension and brake system.
When replacement is required?
You can not miss the moment of changing the brake pads if you keep track of the mileage. As a rule, these parts wear out completely, having served their owner 15 thousand km. Although now there are those that are enough for 30 thousand km. However, these numbers are just a convention. The life of the pads depends on many factors.
Riding style will play a decisive role: the more aggressive it is, the more difficult climbs and dizzying descents a cyclist overcomes, the sooner he will have to think about working with the brakes.
Walking slowly through the park in a relaxed manner will allow the entire braking system to last longer, but only if they are correctly adjusted.
Decreased brake fluid level
Due to the fact that when the lining is worn, the width of the pad decreases. the caliper pistons have to move further during braking, which reduces the level of brake fluid in the reservoir.
Increased stopping distance
That is, due to the fact that the friction material is worn out as much as possible, and the contact of the pads with the disc occurs due to the metal base, then the braking coefficient also decreases, increasing the length of the braking distance.
In addition, you can give a number of tips for driving tactics:
- if possible, predict the length of the braking distance in order to brake shorter and press the pads more intensively;
- choose only high-quality material for the pads. This also applies to disc brakes and V-breaks;
- Disc brakes usually stop squeaking after being dried. To do this, you can do two or three emergency braking. Why does the creak disappear? During a series of emergency braking, the pads become very hot and the water evaporates.
Thus, despite the differences, there are common reasons why good brakes can squeak: wet weather and winter season (then the pads are always damp), the installation of new pads and the material from which they are made.
Bedding In a Disc Brake. Tech Tuesday #106
How often do the brake pads change?
As mentioned above, brake pads are a consumable item that requires constant monitoring and regular replacement during periodic maintenance. The service life of the pads is purely individual and depends on many factors.
Detailed table. how much you need to do on a stationary bike to lose weight?
Many of those who are overweight or just want to lose a couple of kilograms, see the exercise bike as an excellent solution for losing weight.
Indeed, this machine is a good option if you want to normalize body weight and get in shape. At the same time, you need to be able to train and take into account various aspects, including the duration of training.
To lose weight normally, you need to know how much to exercise and how often to do it. Whether you are using a mini stationary bike or a super comfortable recumbent trainer, duration is always of the essence for your performance. Let’s talk about this.
How much time per day do you need to exercise?
To answer the question. how much a day you need to travel, you first need to decide on the chosen distance, which largely depends on the purpose of your training, for which the corresponding training programs are selected.
In addition, factors such as load and speed need to be considered. There is certainly a difference between 10 km per day at a measured pace and 10 km per day at maximum load and at maximum speed. In two cases, completely different mechanisms work in the body.
When exercising on a stationary bike, we advise you to choose a distance that will be comfortable throughout the entire session to maintain your heart rate in the range of 120-130 beats. This value is suitable for people aged 30-40 years, for the older generation and elderly people it is necessary to reduce 5-7 strokes for each decade, and for a younger age, work at a slightly more intense pulse.
If you want to keep fit and lose weight, aim for a distance of about 20 km per day. Again, you should focus more on training than distance.
Also try to focus on duration, since many body functions change precisely depending on the duration of the session, and not on the distance. Therefore, training for 5 minutes a day will not bring any results.
On the mechanical version of the shoe type, you will need to “ride” less, since such simulators better simulate cycling and give a greater load. If we are talking about a simple home electromagnetic version, then sometimes you even want to drive more on it in order to feel the load.
When is it better to “ride”, in the morning or in the evening?
When it comes to weight loss, one of the most significant factors is exercising on an empty stomach or a couple of hours after a meal. This technique is used to ensure that the body processes adipose tissue. If you exercise after a meal, most of the calories that have been recently consumed from food will be processed.
Therefore, in general, there is no fundamental difference for the time of classes: here we are talking mostly about your schedule and convenience. In particular, consider these options:
- training in the morning before meals is a perfectly acceptable option: wake up, drink a glass or a couple of glasses of cold water, do your own hygiene and then sit on the simulator, after training you can eat and do other morning chores;
- workout in the evening after work. you can come home or to the gym after work (but before dinner) and after a bit of rest start training, after that you can have dinner.
Thus, the main detail here is the location of the training in relation to the meal, and you can choose the training period based on your own preferences and capabilities. And proper nutrition during classes is a component of success in achieving the goal. Of course, it is more convenient to train at home, so you need to evaluate various aspects before choosing an exercise bike for your home. And if you prefer a fitness center, then you should pay attention to cycling.
How much you need to pedal to lose weight (table)
Below is a table that you can focus on when training. However, these numbers should not be considered absolute: they are mostly just a guideline that you can take into account when creating a training schedule and determining the duration of each workout. In addition, you can use the energy consumption table.
Generally speaking, you need to exercise for about 40 minutes: this kind of training allows you to deplete glycogen stores and start the process of processing adipose tissue. This allows you to burn calories in a targeted manner and turn on the metabolic process for the non-training period.
|Duration of training||Travel speed||Calories burned|
|20 minutes||15-20 km / h||150|
|40 minutes||15-20 km / h||300|
|hour||15-20 km / h||450|
|20 minutes||20-30 km / h||200|
|40 minutes||20-30 km / h||400|
|hour||20-30 km / h||600|
|20 minutes||30-35 km / h||250|
|40 minutes||30-35 km / h||500|
|hour||30-35 km / h||700-800|
Calorie expenditures vary depending on the level of fitness of the body: at the initial stage (the first six months of classes), your body will spend more calories, since the load will be specific to the body. Further, after the physical condition of the body improves, the expenditure of calories will decrease, and the body will spend energy more carefully and rationally. That is why it will be more difficult for you to achieve the desired level of calorie burning, but the metabolism in general will be better.
Attention! Losing weight is a complex process, and calories in this matter are just a guideline that helps you follow a certain schedule of exercises and track your own achievements. In this case, you should not immediately expect that you will lose weight. When you have expended a certain amount of calories, fatty tissue disappears gradually and throughout the body. To evaluate the result, focus on reducing body volume.
Speed has a big effect on the number of calories you burn. As a rule, the higher the speed, the more calories are burned, but it is not always fatty tissue that is processed. Therefore, speed is not the highest priority in this case. We will briefly talk about this further.
Also, the position of the body has a certain effect. These figures are indicated for the vertical version of the standard type simulator.
3 more important nuances
Finally, here are some actionable tips that can dramatically enrich your workouts and make your workout more efficient:
- Focus on breathing. Ideally, you should have even breathing that allows you to speak normally. You should control your own breathing and also avoid excessive exertion. Normal breathing helps burn fat, and this factor is essential in weight loss workouts.
- Food. No mechanical or magnetic option will come in handy if you’re not in control of the power. A positive property of the exercise bike is the ability to adhere to a normal diet, you can not specifically cut calories, the main thing is not to overeat or use junk food.
- Measured ride. One way to tap into the breakdown of fat is by using a steady pace of riding with light loads. The essence of this method is that the slow muscle fibers in the thighs immediately use the adipose tissue. You may be aware of the presence of a small amount of fat in slow and large muscles: if the movement is measured, then it is the slow fibers that work, and they use the adipose tissue. Therefore, you can easily work without acceleration and other sophistication: just drive for about 45 minutes at a measured pace. So during a workout, you can burn about 15 grams of fat. It seems like an insignificant result, but you are burning fat, not removing water. Such workouts are more targeted and effective for weight loss. If you want to train for more than 45 minutes, you should take a short break after this period and only then start again at a measured pace.
Is it possible to exercise on a stationary bike every day?
In training, the recovery period is essential. For example, when you want to build muscle mass, you first put stress on the muscles, and then rest and recover. and it is during this period that the muscles grow. Here you can find out which muscles work on an exercise bike.
Attention! In order to stick to regular training, make yourself a schedule for at least a week. Choose the days when you can definitely work out, and describe the workout for each day. At the start of a new week, create a new workout regimen based on your goals and progress.
With weight loss and getting in shape, the situation is similar. You first train and activate metabolism (in particular, the processes of splitting adipose tissue), after that you rest, but adipose tissue continues to be used, and toxins are better excreted.
Therefore, in order to lose weight with the help of an exercise bike, it is precisely regular workouts that are needed, which translate the body into a mode of increased tone. Regular rest is also required, which will relieve stress, excessive wear and tear and a high waste of resources.
As a rule, it is impractical to exercise every day in the beginning, as you simply will not be able to recover normally. The maximum is one day of intense normal training, and the next day just sit down at the simulator for 20-30 minutes and ride at an easy pace without significant effort. Either way, during the initial six months of training, it is most beneficial to exercise every other day. There Are Only 5 Fat Burning Workout Programs You Can Use.
Over time, you can start training every day, but here you should evaluate your own well-being and capabilities. Most of the time, you’ll know when regular interval training becomes available.
The most complete overview of everything related to training on a stationary bike can be found here.
In fact, exercising every day is quite beneficial, regular cardio training will only benefit you. But the benefits and harms of exercising on a cycling machine are individual concepts.
If you want to start exercising, choose an effective weight loss method for yourself and find out more about it. We hope that the information offered in this material will also be of some benefit to you.