# How bicycle speeds work

## First part: setting the reverse speeds

Before describing the disassembly and adjustment process, you need to learn the names of the constituent elements that, when assembled, form the rear derailleur. If there is a problem with one of the elements, then knowing its name, you can get expert advice even by phone. that is why theory in this matter is so important.

• Locking nut. secures the cable.
• Drum. responsible for the tension of the cable.
• Bottom screw. called Low, which translates as bottom.
• Top screw. called High, which means top.
• Chain tension screw. responsible for the degree of tension of the transmission chain.

So, having decided on the names, and finding all these elements on the rear derailleur, let’s move on to setting them up. It will be carried out in three steps, as well as adjusting the forward speeds, so it is better to remember the sequence from the very beginning.

• Adjusting the limiters. This stage is very simple: you put the largest star in front, and the smallest one at the back, then rotate the top screw, and then do the opposite. On the contrary, it means that there is the largest star in the back, the smallest in front, you need to rotate the lower screw. The purpose of this operation is to make sure that the derailleur rollers are in the same plane with the star.
• Adjusting the quality of the transfer. When you ride bicycles, you don’t care how the propellers work, the cables communicate and everything else. When changing gears, you want to hear crisp chain travel and smooth gear changes. without hesitation, sticking or bouncing. It is precisely this moment that we will set up: put the smallest sprockets in front and behind, and then turn the adjusting drum in different directions. Depending on where the hitch occurs when changing speeds, the drum must be turned either clockwise or counterclockwise. You will determine the correct position empirically. do not worry, in fact it is much easier than it seems at first glance.
• Chain angle adjustment. The largest star is at the back, and vice versa at the front. Next, you must rotate the chain tensioning screw. While turning the screw, closely observe the gap between the sprocket and the transfer roller, it should be clearly adjusted, and be approximately three to five millimeters.

Now, half of the work is done. Please note that setting the rear speeds is the first step, that is, you need to start adjusting the transmission from this part of the bike.

## Preparation in work

From the very beginning, we remember three simple rules:

• any bicycle maintenance requires preparation;
• when working with mechanisms, in no case should you rush;
• if something does not work out for you, pause, and only after the break, return to work.

These rules are simple and straightforward, but only real bicycle masters can complete them to the end. their movements are always accurate, stingy and prudent. Remember that a professional is not someone who has an innate talent, but someone who has made every possible mistake in a very specialized business. Therefore, you should not be afraid of failures, they are part of the training.

### Bike Gears: 8 Things You Need To Know | Cycling Weekly

Before setting up the transmission, it is imperative to perform the following steps.

• Remove dirt from the bike. Yes, since you have decided to start working with speeds, it would be nice to wash your bike. this will do a useful job and save your work clothes from unnecessary stains. If you think your bike is clean enough not to be washed, then at least clean the chain and derailleurs. Particularly carefully you should get rid of fine sand, which has properties to fill even the smallest gaps, and disable precision mechanisms.
• Lubricate working elements. After cleaning the chain and switches, you will need to lubricate them. This is done in order to evaluate the operation of the mechanism in conditions as close as possible to real ones. with a full load on the system during the trip.
• Check the integrity of the cable. The cable itself does not break or break very often, but during operation, bends are often formed on it, tubercles are formed, delamination occurs, and even tears occur. If you continue to use such a cable, then there will be no sense from the transmission. the cable simply will not allow the speeds to switch normally. Therefore, if you find one of the defects, it is better to replace the cable with a new one. it will cost nothing at all, but you will save yourself from a huge number of problems in the future.
• Check the integrity of the shirts. Inside each shirt there is a silicone insert, if it becomes thinner, torn or in any other way becomes unusable, it must be replaced. Shirts also cost very little, but their importance is difficult to overestimate. Therefore, as in the case of the cable, it is better to replace all shirts if there are suspicions about their integrity.
• Check the condition of the rear derailleur and hinge (brackets). Both of these elements must be intact. In particular, it is worth inspecting the mounting bracket, which is called a rooster, if it is even slightly bent, it should be replaced, otherwise the metal will burst the next time the rear wheel is tossed on some high bump.
• Loosen the transmission cable. To adjust the speeds, the cable must be completely loosened; in a taut state, it will not allow correct debugging.
• Turn the drum all the way in. In this position, it will be most convenient to tune the transmission. you can not specifically check this fact, just wrap the drum.

That, in fact, is all the preparation for tuning the transmission. Agree, there is a lot to do, but if all the actions are performed correctly at the preparatory stage, then the adjustment will be easy, simple and without delay, and this is the most important thing. Therefore, do not be lazy to carefully inspect all the elements for damage, assess their condition, and only then start work.

## Second step: adjusting forward speeds

Before making the same three-step forward speed adjustment, there are two things to check.

• Parallelism of the chain frames. If they are not parallel, then it will be necessary to bring them to such a state by all means, otherwise you can forget about the correct setting of the transmission. If you have any difficulties in this moment, it is recommended to contact a professional workshop.
• The size of the gap between the largest sprocket and the derailer. There is a strict value for it. 2 millimeters. If it is more, decrease, if it is less, increase. In any case, you need to achieve the reference position of the elements.

So, you have already checked these two points, and are ready to get started. Well, let’s not hesitate.

• Low limiter. The smallest star is behind, the largest in front. Next, we disconnect the cable from the derailer and rotate the lower screw. If, as a result of rotation, the chain begins to touch the inner frame, then the setting is incorrect. The correct position is as follows: the chain runs near the inner frame with a minimum clearance, but does not touch it with any of the segments.
• High-limiter. The order is the same: a small star in front, a large star in the back. We turn the top screw until we achieve that very ideal chain travel, which guarantees a clear and smooth transfer when changing gears. Again, be careful not to let the chain touch the inner frame.
• Angle of inclination of the chain. It happens, as is the case with the rear row of speeds, by adjusting the drum.

By and large, this setting of the transmission can be considered completely completed, but in fact there is still a lot to be done.

## Test Drive

Bring the tools you used to tune the transmission with you and head to a suitable test drive site. A regular sports stadium with a flat surface is best suited for this. Your goal is a small ride, start at a low speed, and gradually accelerate to test all the gears. During the ride, you can easily identify the weaknesses of the transmission, for example, there are hiccups when shifting from high to low gears, or vice versa. The problem may be in the chain sticking during the transition, or even in its rally when trying to change gears. In such cases, there is no need to despair, just a little twist and tighten, and your bike will be in perfect condition.

Always remember that a test drive is the most important part of tuning your bike. If you neglect this step, you endanger not only the correct operation of the system and the integrity of the bike, but also your own safety on the road. Believe me, it’s better to spend a little time and avoid risks than without having to put your head.

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## How to adjust bike speeds?

The transmission is the most capricious part in any vehicle. If you were brave enough to tune the transmission system yourself, then you have decided to seriously connect your life with bicycles. The fact is that after conquering this peak, there will hardly be such problems with the bike that you would not be able to handle. Any professional rider will tell you with complete confidence that it is the brakes and transmission that are the most difficult to adjust and tune. And everything else is just a matter of a few tens of minutes of work.

When starting to adjust the speeds, you need to be prepared for the fact that one of the actions described in the sequential algorithm will cause problems. it does not matter. You just need to go back to the previous step, and very carefully try to figure out what the problem was.

Once you’ve figured out how to set up this intricate system, you can easily adjust your bike’s gear shifting so that there is no hesitation when changing gears. This will allow you to drive as efficiently as possible, not lose speed when changing sprockets, and get the most out of every trip. So let’s get down to business.

## About the rules for working with transmission

And finally, you should figure out how to properly switch speeds on a bicycle. If you have been driving for several years, then this information will most likely be useless for you, but it is better to refresh your memory. The fact is that the wrong technique is not only a problem for amateurs, but also for professional riders. Many participants in cycling races do not work quite correctly with the transmission. due to experience, they do not lose speed or maneuverability, but they expose the transmission mechanism to blow. To avoid all this, here are some simple guidelines for you.

### How Do Bicycle Gears Actually WORK?

• Only change gears on the move. At rest, the chain will still not change position when the handle is shifted, but excess pressure will be exerted on the transmission, which is absolutely unnecessary.
• Pick your speed ahead of time. It makes sense to change gear at the very bottom of the ascent and at the very top, before descending, and not do it while overcoming an obstacle. By choosing gears in advance, you save yourself from pedal failures when shifting.
• Reduce your speed on unpaved roads, especially those with fine sand. This is done so that fine sand does not fall into the sensitive mechanism.
• Do not skew the chain. If there is a large star in front, then small ones should be used at the back. so the chain will be in the correct position. If the smallest star is in front, then on the back, on the contrary, one of the largest. This is determined empirically, you yourself will understand that the combination of a small star in the front. a small star in the back does not allow you to move normally, and you will no longer use them.

That’s all there is to know about setting up and using your transmission correctly. Be very careful when tuning the bike, be patient, and be prepared to spend a lot of time working.

In the conditions of our off-road conditions, the question of purchasing a comfortable, functional and durable bike is relevant. Such units are found among budget models, but it is difficult to make a choice, since the market is full of assorted bicycles. First you need to decide what goals you are pursuing: you want a frantic drive on rocky slopes or you need a reliable mountain bike for driving on urban asphalt and forest terrain.

Today the market presents a wide range of bicycles for every taste, color and wallet. The huge number of proposals is difficult for a layman to understand. To make the right choice of a two-wheeled friend, you should familiarize yourself with the general classification and purpose.

A standard frame made of wood on runners. these are the sleds preserved in the memory of most parents. But manufacturers and technologies do not remain in place, and the rating of the best sleds in 2020 will be a confirmation of this.

## Necessary terminology

To understand the process of self-adjusting the speed switch, you need to know the definition of some specific terms, otherwise it will be difficult to understand the instructions.

• Speed ​​switch (crossover). This is a transmission element that is specifically responsible for gear shifting. If there is a rear crossover, then it also acts as a support for the tension of the bicycle chain. The crossover (back and front) can be described as follows: it is a parallelogram mechanism equipped with a powerful return spring, on which the frame is fixed. The rear derailleur has two rollers inside the frame. if the level of cable tension increases, then the frame shifts the chain to large stars, and if this cable tension decreases, then the chain is shifted towards small stars with the help of the frame. The mechanism of the front derailleur works in the same way.
• Shifter. It is designed to switch speeds by changing the tension level of the cable. Most often, the shifter is located on the handlebars, but in some models of bicycles it can also be located on the lower tube of the frame triangle. Note:shifters and speed switches have a common connection on the steering wheel (this is provided by a cable) and are covered with a jacket.
• Cassette. This is the name of the rear transmission unit, which consists of stars of different sizes (of different diameters and with a different number of teeth) and is installed on the rear hub drum. If the bike is old, then a ratchet is used instead of a drum in the rear hub.
• Cock. It is a metal part that helps maintain the integrity of the frame and rear derailleur in the event that the vehicle has been hit. The rooster is always attached to the frame, and a cross-over is already attached to this metal part. When a blow occurs, it is this very cock that breaks, and the frame and the speed switch (crossover) remain intact.
• System. This is the name of the front transmission unit, which consists of stars of different diameters and with a different number of teeth. These stars are fastened to each other and the connecting rods with special hollow bolts on the connecting rods, but you need to know that there are no hollow bolts in cheap bicycles. the stars and connecting rods are riveted to each other.

## What to do if you can’t adjust the bike’s rear derailleur

There are several methods for solving this issue. But if the standard tuning instruction did not work, to tune the rear derailleur you need to:

• dismantle the chain, remove the cable;
• move the switch to the chain position to the smallest star;
• use adjusting bolts (this way you can tighten the cable);
• set the adjusting bolt H to the extreme position;
• move the part called the parallelogram to the big star and adjust the position of the bolt L.

The regulator is fixed with bolts. It must be set to the extreme position. After that, the chain must be displaced in this order: the front cassette is the largest star in diameter, the rear one, on the contrary, is the smallest.

## Rear derailleur

The gear selector is an important part of a multi-speed bike. Thanks to this component, it becomes possible to move in extreme conditions, which include upwind movement, ascents, poor road quality. The transmission unit must cope with all these problems. The quality of the ride and the safety of the cyclist depend on the fine-tuned operation of the speed switch. This skill is very useful, and every bike owner should learn how to independently adjust the gear shifter. Every cyclist can make adjustments to the bike’s gear shifters on their own. You need to study the theory in detail by reading the instructions, or using the advice of experienced bike owners.

Before setting the derailleur, the rear derailleur must be adjusted. Placing the bike in the correct position (wheels up) will greatly facilitate the entire adjustment process. So, all the necessary details will be in plain sight, and it will be much easier to get to them.

Reasons for poor gear shifting:

• physical defects of the switch parts;
• contamination of parts. To prevent this from happening, the components of the transmission unit must be periodically cleaned of dirt, dust and old grease;
• worn out cable with elements of damage. Such a part requires replacement;
• damage to the cock.

If you observe damage, deformation and wear of the constituent parts, they must be replaced as they are practically irreparable.

If all parts are OK, adjust the switch. What is the speed selector made of? The components of the speed switch are as follows:

• The handle for shifting the speeds, located on the steering wheel;
• A shifter that attaches to the handlebars near the handles. Handles and a cable are attached to the shifter. It is with the participation of the cable that the impulse is transmitted from the shifter to the stars;
• Cassette, which includes stars of different sizes;
• front fixing mount;
• rear derailleur, whose main function is to transfer the chain to the necessary sprockets.

## Bicycle Rear Derailleur Adjustment

After we have eliminated all 5 possible problems with the rear derailleur, we can begin to configure it. I took a bike with a shimano rear derailleur and divided the whole setup into 8 steps:

On the shifter, we throw off to the highest speed (which corresponds to the smallest star on the block of led stars). We pedal so that the chain is on a small star. (now you understand why it is so convenient to work with the rack)

I do not show numbers on the shifter, but believe me the position of the indicator is at number 9. Which corresponds to the smallest star on the cassette.

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When adjusting the rear derailleur on the sprockets (front), it is best to place the chain where you use it most. This is usually the central star on a 3-star system.

Loosen the hexagon or bolt that holds the cable.

We twist it all the way, and then return one turn back all the adjusting thumbs of the cable tension that are on the switch and on the shifter (sometimes there is only one adjustment screw on bicycles, most often it is on the switch, less often on the shifter).

In my case, the cable tension regulator is located only on the shifter. The photo shows how I twist the lamb.

We pull the cable with our hand (it is not necessary to pull with all our strength, the main thing is that it does not sag and be stretched along its entire length) and tighten the bolt holding the cable.

Align the center of the derailleur foot rollers with the center of the smallest chainring on the bike. Some people remove the chain for stages 5 and 6 to fine tune them. I do not see the need for this, you can not shoot, especially if you have a switch that is not of the top level, such as shimano tourney, acera or alivio.

Actually, all this movement of the switch occurs using the adjusting screws with the letters H and L.

The shift pad position adjusting screws look something like this.

Turn the screw H with a screwdriver until the centers of the rollers on the foot of the switch and the small star coincide and go to the next step.

In the photo, I showed a red line, by which you can see that the switch roller is under a small star on the cassette, which means that the extreme position is set correctly.

We switch on the shifter to the lowest speed (number 1), which corresponds to the largest driven star. We twist the pedals so that the chain goes to the extreme sprocket. And also align the center of the presser foot rollers with the center of the largest sprocket. All this alignment takes place with the screw L.

On the shifter, the indicator for switching the speed to number 1, if there are no numbers in the most extreme position, which should correspond to the largest star on the cassette.

Essentially, the H and L screws act as end stops for your derailleur, which keeps the chain from flying off and keeps you alive.

We expose the extreme position of the switch foot so that the switch does not hit the spokes of the wheel. By aligning the axes of the largest sprocket on the cassette and the axis of the derailleur foot.

We drop again at the highest speed. Do not forget to pedal. The chain should be on the smallest star. Next, switch to one speed and turn the pedals, if the chain does not jump or does not jump right away, then you need to slightly unscrew the adjusting screw that adjusts the cable tension (it turns out we are pulling the cable).

Next, we again check and switch from the highest speed one step lower (if an 8-speed cassette, then from 8 to 7 speed), if the switch happened immediately, congratulations you set the switch! You can check the remaining speeds will also easily and clearly switch both up and down.!

The chain should jump to the adjacent speed. In my case, this is a 9 speed cassette. Switching from 9 to 8.

Adjust the distance from the largest star to the derailleur roller. This distance should be about 4 mm, if the distance is greater, the switching clarity will be reduced. The adjusting screw on the switch is responsible for adjusting this gap. By unscrewing the screw, the distance decreases, screwing it in increases. tuning is done on the largest star corresponding to the number 1 on your shifter.

## How to adjust the front derailleur

There are also clear and simple step-by-step instructions for adjusting the front derailleur:

• Shifting the chain to a smaller star.
• Unscrew the fixing screw and release the cable.
• We find the screw marked L, with its help we adjust the position of the frame so that the chain is between the plates of the frame, but at the same time does not touch them.
• We stretch the cable, fix it with a screw.
• Now we move the chain in the cassette to a smaller sprocket. it is convenient to do this using the rear derailleur.
• With the front derailleur, move the chain to the middle sprocket and look. if the chain on the second one touches the outer side of the frame everywhere, then you need to increase the cable tension using the drum located on the left shifter.
• We switch the gear to the largest sprocket in the cassette and check. if the chain touches the walls of the frame, you need to move the last element so that the chain is located in the middle. This manipulation can be done using a screw marked H.

## How to adjust the speed switch on a bike

It often happens that either the speeds on the bike are not switched clearly, or some new transmission elements have been installed. In this case, you will need to adjust the speed switch and it is quite possible to do this work on your own, without contacting specialized workshops.

## Bicycle front derailleur

The transition to the setting of this mechanism is possible only when the rear derailleur is set. This feature is important to take into account before starting work. The figure shows the switch (round, black).

Leave the chain on the middle sprocket of the front block and place it on the large sprocket in the rear block. If chain friction is observed, re-engage adjuster L. To adjust stop H, the chain moves to the largest sprocket at the front and smallest at the back. The adjuster will help to position the chain in the optimal position without friction and excessive tension on the chain. At the end of the work, be sure to check the quality of its implementation.

## Bicycle Rear Derailleur Setting

A very common problem faced by cyclists is the rear derailleur not working properly. Today we will try to figure out how to set it up from scratch or adjust it if the settings are out of order.

This article is suitable for setting up all shimano, sram, campagnolo, microshift and other derailleurs, no matter how many speeds you have on your bike, ranging from 2 to 11 speed sprockets on the rear wheel.

## What are the best bike shifters

Every owner of a high-speed bike knows what a bicycle shifter is. These devices are directly involved in gear shifting, with their help, the cyclist easily and simply controls the transfer of the chain through the cassette stars. The part is small, but it depends on its state whether the bike will be fast, as it should, or it will get stuck in one gear.

## How to independently replace and sort out the shifters on a bicycle

Sooner or later, the shifter may stop working correctly or even refuse to serve further. Pulling or loosening the cable may not solve the problem, so the old mechanism will need to be replaced.

New shifters come pre-assembled with a cable, so you don’t need to rebuild them from scratch. All operations are reduced to removing the old part, installing a new one and the obligatory adjustment of the switches.

• Removing the grips from the bicycle handlebars. They are often thicker than the grip of the shifter yokes and will interfere with removal.
• Disconnect the gearshift cables from the derailers.
• Loosen the mounting bolts and remove the shifters from the steering wheel.

After that, you can put new parts on the bike:

• Attach the shifters to the handlebars. Do not move the brake levers during operation.
• Gently thread the cables through the frame to the derailleurs.
• Connect new cables.
• Adjust switches, test new shifters. Adjustment must be done with both cables attached to the switches.

If the shifters do not work very well, they get stuck on shifts, you can use the alternative option. bulkhead, cleaning and lubrication. In the event of a malfunctioning part, you can put it from a similar model, then this is the repair of the shifter. In any case, you will have to disassemble it, and how to do this, we will find out further.

Bulkhead and repair using the example of Shimano shifter: 1. Unscrew the bottom cover bolt, pull it out.

Remove the top cover, which contains the speed indicator.

We get to the ratchet mechanism with dogs. Common problems, which can be: entry of antennae, dirt or lack of lubrication. In the first case, further disassembly makes sense if you insert a new washer with antennae from another shifter.

We take out the pressure piece and levers.

Unscrew the screw that holds the case.

We remove the case, take out the ratchet mechanism with a cable.

Separating the ratchet from the plastic washer.

There is a pull-up dog on the body near the cable fixing, it should not be disassembled, since it will be quite difficult to assemble.

Disconnect the levers: pry the springs at the junction of the levers with narrow claws.

We carefully wipe and lubricate all the parts of the shifting mechanism. Installation is in the reverse order.

This is how the shifter is repaired using an example. The most important thing in work is to keep all the details separately from each other in the field of view.

## Types of shifters, their differences

Initially, bicycle shifters worked on the principle of sliding the cable and fixing the cable with a nut. Here, the gear was determined by the tension on the shifter body, approximately as described above. Later, ratchets were installed in them, and the method of changing the position of the cable is called index.

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Modern bicycle models are equipped with several types of drive mechanisms:

• grip-shift;
• triggers;
• brake. Dual control;
• pistols.

Gripper shifters change the cable tension by moving the drum around the steering wheel axis. The movement is carried out back and forth, in the center there is a pointer along which the gear is set. Other models can be equipped with an arrow display.

The advantages of these shifters include the geometric integrity of the devices, the absence of protruding parts and instant response when the drum moves. It is noted that grip shifts are easy to operate.

• random switching;
• take up a lot of space on the steering wheel;
• the swivel mechanism of budget models breaks easily.

Triggers are the second common type of shifters, where shifting is carried out by protruding levers: tension and release. The first upshifts, the second downs. The front and rear shifters work opposite to each other: the front up lever is down for the rear, and vice versa.

• clear operating principle;
• levers are light to the touch, do not distract from control;
• there is no risk of accidental switching as with grip shifters. hands on grips do not touch the shifters.

Of course, there are disadvantages, taking into account which grips are better than triggers:

• if the bike falls, the levers may break;
• tight pulling of the cable on fast transitions through 2-3 gears, which causes a delay in switching;
• incorrect alignment with the brake pincers (however, this is more a jamb of the bike manufacturer than shifters).

Triggers come in several flavors:

• lever and button above the steering wheel (Ez-Fire Plus). budget Shimanov models;
• with steering column placement of levers (Rapidfire). Shimano high class;
• Trigger: SRAM single lever shifters, new SRAM models with lever and button.

Dual Control, or brake shifters, are activated by moving the brake lever in a perpendicular direction. The novelty was presented by Shimano. Compared to the previous types, drive units of this type are used in narrow circles and are installed on expensive foreign models.

Dual Control does not interfere with the bike’s control even when the grip is moved. Also of great interest is their design, where the brake claw has two degrees of freedom. We can say that shifters of this type are integrated into the brakes. Along with this, there are a number of serious disadvantages:

• cannot be installed on hydraulics;
• poor compatibility with rear derailleurs;
• put only from scratch.

Pistols. shifters specifically for racing bicycles. Their design is similar to Dual Control in that the gearshift mechanism and brake actuator are integrated and controlled by a single lever. To brake, you need to pull the lever back to increase the gear inward, and to lower it, press the auxiliary lever under the claw.

A significant advantage of this mechanism is the ease of control in any grip, the disadvantages are the high price and low braking force.

## What are shifters, and how are they arranged

Shifters are gear shifter actuators attached to the handlebars of a bicycle. Modern high-speed bikes are 90% equipped with two shifting systems. front and rear. respectively, each equipped with its own shifter. On the left handlebar is the drive mechanism for the front derailleur, on the right for the rear.

In the classic 3 X 8 gearshift system, there are 2-3 rear sprockets for each chainring. By analogy, one division of the left shifter includes 2-3 divisions of the right. On bikes with a single gearshift system (rear cassette only) or on the planetary hub, one shifter is installed, on the right side of the handlebars.

The professional name for these devices is shifters. Their internal structure is quite simple, it includes several mating parts:

• drive handle;
• movable block;
• winding;
• free lever;
• shift cable;
• ratchet lock.

The handle, which is operated by the cyclist, causes the position of the free arm to change. That, in turn, moves the block on which the gearshift cable is wound or unwound. The spring retainer serves to secure the position of the cable on the drum unit and does not allow the switch to independently throw the chain.

Thus, by changing the tension of the cable on the block, the corresponding gear is set. It is imperative that the shifting mechanism is fine-tuned, and one division on the shifter corresponds exactly to the chain tossing exactly one sprocket. If the shifter works properly, but the gears do not shift or skip over two or three, then it is necessary to adjust the speed switch.

So, in this article we learned how the bicycle shifters are arranged and work, what types they are divided into, their pros and cons. It will not be difficult to change the shifters on your own to new ones, disassembly should also not cause any difficulties.

## Bicycle speed switching rules

Most modern bicycles have a chain drive. The force from the cyclist’s feet is transmitted through the pedals, connecting rods to the driving stars of the system, then the force is transmitted by means of a chain to the driven stars of the cassette. and then the effort is transmitted to the wheel and spins it. And the shifting of bicycle speeds occurs by jumping the chain from a chainring of one size to a chainring of a different size. When and what gear to use is very important. There are several rules for switching speeds:

• You should only switch the bike speeds while driving;
• Reduce foot pressure on the bicycle pedals when changing gears. It is especially difficult for the front derailleur, since it works with the circuit in the place of its constant voltage;
• Try not to change gears when going uphill, select gear before going uphill. To switch gears during uphills, you need to have sufficient experience and good “feel” of the bike;
• Do not switch multiple speeds at once. Go to the next speed gradually, after the chain has completely switched to the previous one;
• Do not skew the bike chain too much.

## How to switch gears on a bike

Most modern bicycles have 2-3 sprockets (front) and 7-10 sprockets (rear). The front stars are numbered from small to large, while the rear stars are numbered from large to small.

Consider a bicycle with three driving stars and eight driven stars.

Try not to skew the chain too much, this can greatly shorten its lifespan.

## Which gear to choose

There is such a thing as “cadence”. the cadence of the bike. It is measured in revolutions per minute. Due to the physiology of the human knee joint, the normal cadence is 80-110 rpm. With a slower rotation, the fluid in the knee joint is more viscous and it is harder for the joint to perform its functions, and with a faster rotation, the joint becomes unnecessarily stressed. You also need to remember that stress is harmful for the knee joint, and the more the joint is tense, the more friction there is.

Based on the foregoing, it follows that the choice of gear is to keep the cadence at the level of 80-110 rpm, while with constant pedal effort and the less effort the better. It is clear that the tension of the legs will be great uphill, but on a flat road you can pick up gears in which you will not need to strain at all, and the pedals will turn under the weight of the legs.

You should not start from high gears right away. You should start moving at light speeds, warm up the muscles, spin the pedals to a normal cadence and then start switching speeds up.

## How many bike speeds do you need and how to switch them?

Gear (or speed) indicates the mode of movement and operation of the bike. When weather conditions or road conditions change, the cyclist shifts gears to find the mode best suited to the situation.

## How many speeds should a bike have

Gear shifting is carried out by quickly jumping the chain over the stars. Because of this, the number of speeds depends on the number of front and rear sprockets in the structure. Ordinary bicycles usually have 6-15 gears, and sports bicycles. up to 33. If a person plans to ride only in the city or on equipped tracks, then there is no need to buy a bike with a large number of speeds. Most likely, he will only use 2-3 gears, since there will be no need for the rest.

It is generally accepted that the more speeds on the bike, the better, because the number of stars affects the accuracy and quality of wheel traction. However, bicycles with fewer speeds lack the front derailleur and extra sprockets, making them lighter and more maneuverable. For trips in urban areas, it is better to limit yourself to the minimum number of gears, paying special attention to the functionality and convenience of the bike.

## General recommendations for shifting speeds on a bicycle

There are several basic rules for shifting gears on a bicycle:

• it is possible to change gears only on the move;
• rear and front derailleurs cannot be used at the same time;
• while shifting gears, you should listen for extraneous sounds (the presence of a metallic clang or rattle indicates an incorrect transmission setting);
• you need to change gears on a flat road (not on the rise and not on the descent);
• shifting to multiple gears should be done in stages.

Correct gear shifting will extend the life of the structure, reduce stress on the knee ligaments and joints, and increase the speed of the bike.

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