Budget electric bike (from a screwdriver)
Hello to lovers of craftsmanship, this time we will look at how to make a very simple electric bike based on a screwdriver with our own hands. The drive is carried out to the largest drive sprocket on the bike using a separate chain. The visually used engine is similar to the 775. If the battery runs out, you can always pedal to your destination. The drive sprocket on the engine is from the rear wheel of the bike, it is with a ratchet mechanism, so you do not need to turn the engine when using your feet.
The author uses two batteries from a screwdriver as a power source. Of course, everything is not collected reliably, but, nevertheless, homemade products have the right to life.
Materials and tools used by the author:
List of materials:. motor with a gearbox from a screwdriver;. two batteries from a screwdriver;. a switch from a screwdriver;. a bicycle (with gears);. boards;. a bottle;. wire;. screws, self-tapping screws;. epoxy glue, cold welding or the like ;. chain;. sprocket with a ratchet from the rear wheel of the bicycle;. wires.
List of tools:. glue gun;. drill;. soldering iron;. hacksaw;. scissors.
Step one. Installing the gearbox First you need to disassemble the screwdriver and remove the gearbox from it. We have to install it on the bike frame. We take a piece of board as a basis, for a start, the author glues the gearbox with a glue gun.
Next, the author wraps the screws in wood and makes a clamp of copper wire to secure the gearbox. Well, then the whole thing can be covered with cold welding silt with something else based on epoxy glue.
As for the drive sprocket, the author glued it to the screwdriver chuck, the installation process is not shown.
We fasten the board with the gearbox installed to the bike frame using screws for fastening the roofing materials. After that, you can already pull the chain.
Step two. Installing the switch We do not need to install a bicycle switch, the same switch from a screwdriver is used here, which will allow you to smoothly control the speed. For the switch, the author made a frame of wood, gluing the parts with a glue gun. We install the whole thing on the frame using a clamp made from a piece of rubber from a bicycle tube.
Step four. Final assembly At the end, you need to connect the switch, we will control it with one of the handbrake levers, connect the cable so that the loop is compressed and pressed on the button. We fasten the motor to the gearbox, not forgetting to lubricate the gears well, we also solder the wires.
Everything is ready, we connect the terminal to the battery and try to start the engine. Unfortunately, the author did not show us the tests of the car, but the bike jerks quite confidently from the spot, the torque should be enough for driving.
I hope you are interested in the homemade product, good luck and creative inspiration if you decide to repeat it. Do not forget to share your ideas and homemade products with us.
We connect the engine
After completing all the above steps, it remains only to correctly connect the motor. To do this, the clutch and throttle valve must be connected to the ignition lever by means of drive cables. The tension force is selected so that the motor can start immediately and start spinning the wheel. As soon as you connect the power unit, consider that you have already succeeded in making a bike on a motor.
It is no secret that vehicles equipped with an engine will move faster than a regular bicycle, therefore, for safety reasons, it is worth installing lighting devices, and the driver himself must use a helmet, knee pads and special shoes. That’s all. Another answer to the question “How to make a motorbike with your own hands?” I’m ready now.
What do we need
To accomplish this task, you will need a gasoline engine itself, spare parts from a real moped (wheels, shock absorbers, brakes and an exhaust pipe), a strong, welded bicycle frame and working tools (including a welding machine). Considering that in this variant you are going to make a real motorcycle out of a bicycle, its frame must have the appropriate weight and strength. You can try to find a part from a small moped, but if it doesn’t work out, then a “skeleton” from a bicycle in the style of “Stork” or “Yew” will do.
Moped with gasoline engine
If you don’t want to refuel the car every day, and riding a bike is too tiring, then a gasoline homemade moped will be the perfect solution to your problem.
Preparing the frame
Suppose you could not find a ready-made moped frame, which means you have to strengthen the bike. To do this, you will need a welding machine and an additional pipe, which is welded onto the existing structure, thereby connecting the seat and the steering part. However, it must be said that this is not the only possible way to increase strength, and instead of a pipe, iron bars can be used.
We equip the frame
The bicycle frame becomes the main location for all parts and elements of a future moped. In particular, the engine, gas tank and battery are attached to it with the help of fastening clamps. The most successful option for their location is as follows: the battery is on the upper tube, the engine is at the junction of the lower front and seat tube, and the gas tank is directly next to the motor.
Benefits of electrical equipment
The advent of modern electric vehicles has allowed humanity to appreciate all the advantages of this type of transport. An environmentally friendly and economical car almost immediately gained worldwide popularity, it was available to “tell” motorists about all the privileges of using electric motors. Therefore, it is not surprising that many people were interested in the question “how can you make an electric bike out of a bicycle?”.
The electric engine runs quieter, does not emit harmful exhaust gases into the atmosphere and does not heat up as much as its gasoline counterpart. In the case of a home-made electric bike, the role of the engine can be played by a car starter, screw gun, or any other power plants available on the farm. Along with the electric motor, an important component of the already converted vehicle is the controller (or regulator), the task of which is to accelerate the moped bike under optimal operating conditions of the power plant. To start the movement, a very small current flows from the controller to the motor, due to which the motor starts to rotate smoothly. In a braking situation, the regulator recuperates the movement energy into an electric current that supplies the battery. The battery is practically the same fuel tank, but much more environmentally friendly. It often consists of a matrix and batteries connected to a specific circuit.
The simplest homemade e-bike includes only a motor and a battery. After installing the motor, it can be energized using a conventional switch. However, you should also be aware of the impracticality of such an approach, because, having a powerful power plant, starting on such a vehicle is somewhat more difficult, and this can lead to an accident. It is better to use a low-power unit capable of providing a slow start to movement, even if it does not accelerate to serious values.
Building an electric bike
If you do not like the idea of using a gasoline engine on a bicycle, then you can consider an alternative way to improve this vehicle with the use of electrical equipment.
Assembling a moped with a gas engine
Compared to the previous version, this method will allow you to get a more “advanced” vehicle, which is almost completely consistent with a real moped.
“Make way for electricity”: how I made my first e-bike
Oleg Makarenko, head of the “Games” art department, talks about what an electric bike consists of, how to choose a motor, drive and battery, and how much it will all cost.
The Group is developing the idea of DIY: in May 2016, another participant in this movement, the developer of “Mail” Vadim Balashov, told how he made a “smart home” out of his apartment.
Having studied the e-bike market, I came to the conclusion that most cheap serial e-bikes from Chinese manufacturers have very poor quality: literally everything breaks down, and the declared characteristics do not correspond to the real ones. Therefore, I decided to assemble an electric bike with my own hands. Had to be a little confused, but the result is worth it.
As a child, like many boys, I dreamed of a motorcycle. When, at the age of 12, I got a small internal combustion engine with a gas tank for installation on a regular bicycle, I decided to make a bicycle moped and with great enthusiasm set to work. I took the front fork from the “Aist”, the front wheel from the “Salut” and the rear wheel from the “Kama”. In general, a combined hodgepodge from what I had in the barn at the dacha.
The result is a very funny bike moped. It was a little ugly, with a lot of flaws, with a broken clutch and no brakes. I started it “from the pusher”. He also did not have a toggle switch for turning off the ignition, so I tied a rope to the armored wire: when it was necessary to brake, I pulled it, the wire jumped off the spark plug, and I stopped.
Ideally, my bike was supposed to look like the title picture, but it was much worse. Unfortunately, no photographs have survived. Despite all the shortcomings of this unit, I traveled with great pleasure on it for a whole season, after which he suddenly died.
Years passed, and somehow on the Internet I came across a video about electric bicycles. The topic interested me very much, and I decided to assemble a similar unit. but at first I was curious about what is now on the market. It turned out that there are a huge number of e-bike modifications on sale.
The electric motor is his heart. The controller is his brain. The battery is food. The throttle handle controls the voltage supply to the engine. The brake sensor is optional if there is an energy recuperator. The display can display the operating voltage, battery charge, current speed, and so on. But the electric bike can be assembled without it, because the main parameter of the battery charge is duplicated on the battery.
Another option is pass assist, a pedaling assistant. Depending on the cadence, it delivers metered energy to the electric motor. Most of these assistants work very poorly and most people with e-bike experience do not install them at all.
Next, I had to decide what kind of electric bike I need, by what criteria I will select the main components.
Firstly, I needed a cruising range of about 50 kilometers. this is the road from home to work and back. It was important for me that the bike was light, so that I could easily stuff it into the car, transport it in public transport and bring it into the apartment. The appearance was no less important, so that the wires did not stick out of the bike, so that it looked neat.
Many e-bikes are made unnecessarily fast. For myself, I determined that he should ride a little faster than if he was pedaled by a regular cyclist. Finally, the total cost of the bike must have been low.
Electric bike motors can be roughly divided into three categories:
- low power, capable of accelerating a bicycle up to 40 km / h;
- average power. up to 60 km / h;
- high power when the bike flies at speeds up to 100 km / h and above.
What types of motors are used on bicycles?
The carriage is placed on the pedal carriage. This type of motors is rather complicated, they have an overrunning clutch, but at the same time there is a big drawback. the motor gives an additional load to the entire chain drive, which causes the sprockets and chain to wear out very quickly. The second disadvantage is high
The forward motor is rather bulky and heavy. Such motors belong to the categories of medium and high power. The only benefit is durability due to the lack of gears. depending on the power. Among the disadvantages: at low speeds, the motor has a weak torque.
Gear motor. A planetary gearbox with gears is installed inside it, it is very lightweight and compact. The price is lower than the rest. Such motors are classified as low power
I decided that a speed of up to 40 km / h would be enough for me, so I chose a geared motor.
Gear motors are often front-wheel drive. This is the easiest installation method and minimal labor costs. But, since the load on the front axle of the bicycle is not large, the front wheel slip very often occurs, maneuverability deteriorates, and the wheel can skid, which will lead to loss of balance.
Rear-wheel drive is a classic option. The main load in a bicycle falls on the rear axle, and all the disadvantages of a front-wheel drive are immediately eliminated.
You can also make four-wheel drive when two motors are installed. This is done for off-road driving, snow, sand, mud. But the process of creating an all-wheel drive e-bike is very laborious. The most difficult thing is to synchronize the operation of the motors, and the cost of the entire project is considerable. After weighing all the pros and cons, I chose rear-wheel drive.
The reason is still in the starter brushes?
Take your time to disassemble the starter immediately after removing it from the vehicle. First, start the starter separately. This is done in order to determine the state of its engine. Connect it directly to ground. If at the same time the engine starts and runs without problems, then the whole problem lies in the relay. But if the engine is in dead silence. the cause of the malfunction in the brushes.
When it is already safe to say that the problem lies in faulty brushes, you still need to determine the cause. In fact, there may be two of them. misalignment and wear. There is a proven method for this. When starting the starter separately from the vehicle, pay attention to its operation. Sometimes you can find such a phenomenon when the starter works perfectly in one position, and in another. no (no contact). This is most often due to wear on the starter brushes. The thing is that the brushes are strongly pressed against the collector, creating a small gap between the spring and the brush holder. With the wear of the brushes and changes in their thickness, contact is possible only under the influence of the weight of the spring. Therefore, due to a slight change in the position of the starter, the contact immediately disappears, and the starter motor stops working.
Of course, such a problem can also arise if the brushes are somehow skewed, having changed their position, and are stuck in the brush holder.
Replacing starter brushes with your own hands
A common situation when it is impossible to start the car immediately, as it was before. Now you have to tinker a little to start, and at this time the starter makes heartbreaking sounds. Agree. this is an unpleasant moment, however, many drivers at one time encounter this.
Whether you like it or not, starter diagnostics are needed to calculate the problem. The first stage of diagnostics will be to check the technical condition of the battery and the entire electrical circuit. After making sure that the problem is not at all in the battery, you need to move on. You still need to determine the cause of the breakdown, which means you need to remove the starter and inspect it.
How to replace the brushes on the starter
Observing some rules, even a motorist with minimal experience will be able to do all the work. First you need to disassemble the starter:
- disconnect the terminals;
- unscrew the screws on the shaft cover;
- after removing the cover, remove the O-rings and gasket;
- take out the brush holder.
During disassembly, carefully lay out all the parts in order so that there are no problems during assembly. Then you can start replacing the brushes:
- after a thorough inspection, replace the brushes and (if necessary) the brush holder;
- clean all parts from dirt;
- align the brushes by installing them on the collector;
- install the springs;
- fix the already assembled brush holder;
- replace the gaskets, O-rings and the manifold cover;
- insert and tighten the bolts;
- connect the power cable, securing it with a special nut.
The starter is now assembled and ready to go. You just have to install it on the car and connect.
The main symptoms of a starter malfunction
Despite the fact that the starter is a fairly reliable device, it can also break. Some breakdowns may have symptoms identical to other malfunctions, but nevertheless there is something in common in electric motor malfunctions.
The main symptoms of malfunctions in the starter:
The solenoid relay does not click (does not work) and the armature does not rotate.
- Discharged battery (full or partial) or its failure;
- Oxidation of battery terminals and tips connected to it;
- The terminals or lugs connected both to the starter itself and to the battery are gone;
- Lack of contact on the terminal bolts, provoked by a break in the wires connecting the ignition switch and the starter;
- Short circuit, open circuit or breakdown to ground of the solenoid relay windings.
When the electric motor starts and the solenoid relay is working, the armature spins slowly or does not spin at all.
- The contact on the terminal bolts of the solenoid relay is broken;
- High wear of brushes or their jamming;
- Burning or overheating of collector plates;
- Breakdown of the stator winding caused by insulation failure or interturn short circuit;
- Breach of the insulating layer of the positive brush holder;
- Closure of collector plates, provoked by insulation failure;
The anchor of the started starter rotates, but the crankshaft does not spin.
- Overrunning clutch slippage;
- Mechanical damage to the freewheel device (buffer spring, liner ring);
- Departure of the starter drive plug or damage to it;
- Difficulty moving the drive along the cut on the anchor shaft.
After starting the internal combustion engine, the starter continues to work.
- Jammed drive fork;
- Damage to the ignition switch spring;
- Jamming of the contacts of the retractor relay or starter drive on the anchor shaft;
- Damage or stretching of the springs returning the solenoid relay or freewheel;
- Jammed solenoid relay;
- Skewing of the electromagnetic motor caused by unscrewing its fasteners to the internal combustion engine.
Increased noise when the starter is running.
- Increased wear of individual parts of the armature (necks and bushings);
- Violation of the integrity of the starter housing at the location of the drive;
- Mechanical damage in the teeth of the flywheel or bendix;
- Insufficiently twisted motor mounts;
- Contact of the armature during rotation with the pole due to the weakened fastening of the latter inside the unit.
Checking the starter with a battery
Before contacting a car service, buying a new unit or spare parts for it, you must try to independently check its performance. With the proper approach, it is possible to independently identify problems.
First of all, if there is a suspicion of malfunctioning of the starting device, it is necessary to check the contacts on the terminals of the battery and the starter, their screwing and the presence of oxidation, the battery charge, since in many cases the above factors are a problem in starting the internal combustion engine.
A simple way to check the health of the electrical network is to close the terminal bolts of the electric motor with a screwdriver; before this procedure, you must put the car in neutral speed (or move the selector lever to parking or neutral mode).
If the starter starts the engine, you should look for a fault in the electrical circuit. Otherwise, remove the unit by disconnecting all fasteners from the engine and removing the terminals and other wires.
How to check the solenoid relay, winding, bendix, armature and starter brushes for operability
The starter is an essential attribute of any vehicle. If it malfunctions, the car can only be started from a tug and then if the transport is equipped with a mechanical gearbox. The starter forcibly spins the engine, bringing its speed to the required for independent operation of the internal combustion engine.
How to check the Solenoid relay
When the ignition key is turned, a click should be heard, indicating that the armature is retracted and the bendix is engaged.
Before checking the serviceability of the starter, it is necessary to firmly fasten it (either in a vice, having previously wrapped it with a thick layer of cloth, or with the help of a strong assistant who will hold the unit), since a very strong jerk can occur when it is started.
It is necessary to connect the plus from the battery to the plus on the starter, and the minus from the battery to the unit body. If the knot is working properly, then there should be a quick and sharp click and the bendix will come out and start spinning.
If there is no click and no movement of the freewheel, the retractor relay must be replaced. When power is disconnected from the battery, the bendix should retract.
How to check Bendix
After removing the electric motor, it is necessary to inspect the bendix (gear at the very end), if there is increased wear of the teeth, cracks in it, it should be replaced.
The bendix should only rotate in one direction, otherwise it will have to be replaced. By connecting the unit to the battery, the serviceability of the bendix is unlikely to be diagnosed, since it can spin, but with insufficient force to start the internal combustion engine.
Why do you need a starter and its design features
Starter (from the English word start. to start) is a mandatory unit for starting the engine, which forcibly rotates the crankshaft flywheel to the revolutions required for independent operation.
It is a 4-pole DC motor that draws energy from a battery. A starter is necessary to start the engine of any vehicle and receives power from the battery when the key is turned in the ignition lock.
- body. a piece of steel in the shape of a cylinder, in which the winding and cores are located;
- anchor. has the shape of an axis and is made of high-strength steel, collector plates and a winding are fixed in it;
- a retractor relay that supplies power to the starter when the key is turned in the ignition lock and ejects the bendix;
- brushes and brush holders. supply the required voltage to the armature collector assembly, increasing the motor power when the internal combustion engine is spinning;
- drive gear and bendix (freewheel).
Despite the huge range of electric motors, there are only two types of them, which differ in the presence of a gearbox.
The most modern version of the electromagnetic motor is a gear motor, the main advantages of which include the possibility of its operation even with a low battery charge and the presence of permanent magnets that reduce winding problems.
The main disadvantages of such a unit are the low strength of the gear and the impossibility of repair, which in the event of a breakdown leads to an expensive purchase.
Starters, which do not contain a gearbox in their design, directly act on the rotating gear.
The main advantages of this type of starter are:
The disadvantages of gearless starters include:
- difficulties with starting in severe frosts;
- significant weight of the unit;
- high energy consumption, leading in some cases (in the presence of malfunctions in the starting system or other nodes) to a strong battery discharge and the impossibility of starting the internal combustion engine without recharging;
- quite high for spare parts.
Starter check: how to check if the starter is working
So, if malfunctions are noticed in the starter, it is necessary to check and troubleshoot. In this case, it often becomes necessary to make a quick check of the starter without removing.
eBike Part 1: Intro to the motor
To perform this check, the battery must be charged, and you must also have a pair of power wires on hand. Please note that it is not possible to check the armature, starter winding or brush from the battery. To check these elements, the starter must be disassembled, and then called with a multimeter (tester.). The available methods will be discussed below.
Checking the starter armature
In the diagnostic process, it is important to know how to check the starter armature. To do this, you will need to directly supply 12 volts from the battery to the starter. In other words, voltage is bypassed to the relay.
If the starter turns, it means that the anchor is in perfect order. If there is no rotation, then both the anchor and the brushes may be problematic. In such a situation, the starter must be disassembled, after which it is necessary to carry out troubleshooting and check with a multimeter, putting the device in ohmmeter mode for resistance measurements.
As a rule, in the list of problems with the armature, you can highlight possible breakdowns of the winding to the case, the collector leads are unsoldered, or an interturn short circuit of the winding has occurred. By the way, the last malfunction is usually detected by a special device (PPI).
Also, the wear of the collector, especially if it is uneven, becomes the cause of wear on the brushes and the failure of the starter. One of the reasons when the insulation protrudes between the lamellas is due to the fact that there has been a displacement of the collector in relation to the shaft axis. Please note that the total depth between the grooves of the armature collector should not be less than 0.5 mm.
Checking the bendix
To check the starter bendix, the freewheel housing is clamped in a vice. To avoid damage, you can put rubber gaskets on the “lips” of the vice. Next, an attempt is made to scroll the bendix in different directions. Please note that it should not rotate in two directions.
Checking the starter with a multimeter
Having dealt with the methods described above, you can separately highlight how to check the starter with a multimeter. This method is optimal if there is no flaw detector or test lamp. The tester allows you to quickly ring the brushes and starter windings for a short circuit, as well as check the relay windings by measuring resistance.
- To quickly check the starter with a tester, it is enough to disassemble the device, then measure the resistance between the brushes and the plate, then between the winding and the body. Further measurements are taken between the collector plates and the armature core, as well as the starter housing and the stator winding.
- In parallel, you need to get readings by taking measurements between the ignition off contact and the permanent plus (we are talking about the shunt bolt for connecting the excitation windings of the starter electric motor). This way you can check the state of the relay’s pull-in winding. Normally, the indicator is from 1 to 1.5 ohms.
The tester can only carry out ringing of the winding to ensure that there are no breaks. To do this, when checking, you need to make sure that each collector lamella rings with the rest. You can also check if the voltage drops on the adjacent lamellas after 1A DC current is applied to them. Normally, the voltage is the same everywhere.
How to check the starter for performance
As you know, a starter is a device that starts a car engine. In fact, the starter is an electric motor that is powered by the battery. It is quite obvious that the failure of the starter motor significantly complicates or makes it impossible to start the internal combustion engine.
In this case, the starter rarely fails unexpectedly. In other words, certain symptoms indicate the occurrence of malfunctions. Next, we will look at what symptoms can be used to determine that the starter is faulty, as well as how to check the starter from the battery or with a multimeter.
The drive is installed on a safety circuit breaker. In fact, a tensioner button is installed in the cabin, which with a cable turns on and off the machine’s toggle switch.
An autonomous heater control panel is installed. The remote control can be started by timer and set the temperature of the cabin.
On the dashboard, the arrow that used to show the fuel level. works as an ammeter (shows the current flowing in the motor circuit). Can be used as an economizer to save energy while driving and to regulate the gas pedal position.
A sensor that showed the temperature of the engine. shows the speed of the electric motor (tachometer).
Electric Bike From Car Parts / Homemade E-bike / DIY
A homemade multifunctional liquid crystal display is installed in place of the clock.
When the ignition is turned on, the multifunction display shows a voltage of 12.3 Volts (the voltage of the standard battery). Accordingly, the battery is not charged in this mode.
With the help of the control roller of the built-in self-made programmed microcontroller, various information can be displayed on the display.
In the next mode, you can see the temperature of the engine. During the winter season, the engine temperature is 2.1 degrees Celsius.
When the circuit breaker is turned on, voltage is supplied to the controller (traction batteries are connected).
By switching the microcontroller mode, you can control the voltage in the traction battery network (at the time of shooting the video, it was 74.9 Volts)
In the next mode, you can see the voltage on each battery (on each of the 6 batteries, the voltage was 12.6. 12.4 Volts).
When you turn the key to start, the voltage converter turns on, which supplies (charges) the on-board battery (the voltage on it rises to 14 Volts).
The car moves confidently both forward and backward. Complete with a 7 kW electric motor, the native Matiz gearbox is used.
How to make an electric car? In Ukraine, craftsmen assembled an electric car with their own hands
In Ukraine, craftsmen from the city of Khmelnitsky assembled an electric car with their own hands on the basis of DAEWOO Matiz. How are self-made electric cars assembled, let’s figure it out together.
The designers of such an amazing car themselves described everything in detail in their video, which they posted publicly.
So, the most interesting thing is to look into the engine compartment, what kind of power games and devices are hidden in a homemade DAEWOO Matiz.
In the back of the car (in the trunk)
A spare wheel is attached to the back of the rear seats, as there are two more batteries in its place.
In total, the machine has 6 12 Volt batteries with a capacity of 180 Amperes / hour each.
There are also 6 chargers in the trunk. separate charger for each battery.
An energy meter (Wattmeter) is installed above it. measures the number of spent Kilowatt hours, shows the mains voltage. A 10 Ampere machine gun is installed next to it.
In the trunk there is a cable for connecting the car to a 220 volt network for recharging.
In place of the filler neck of the tank, there is a connector for connecting a connecting wire from a 220 Volt household network. Next to it is the neck of a barrel for 3 liters of fuel for the autonomous heater
In the cabin
Two more batteries were installed under the rear passenger seats. For this, a square hole was specially cut in the bottom of the car. A special metal box was fixed under the bottom to accommodate batteries.
In the middle of the engine compartment there are 2 VARTA traction batteries of 180 Amperes / hour (12 Volts)
Directly above it, an engine controller is attached to the lower shelf of the dashboard.
A shunt is installed on the wires leading from the controller to the motor to measure the current.
Near to the right of the shunt there is a converter for charging the standard battery.
A circuit breaker (automatic) is installed behind the front traction battery. which helps with overloads, exceeding the set current. Provides complete safety by protecting against short circuits of the battery circuit and the motor of the electric vehicle.
Gas pedal. a resistor with a cable that regulates the supply of the required current from the controller to the motor windings. The cable is connected to the gas pedal, as well as directly to the engine controller.
Electric vacuum pump from Audi for brake operation.
The vacuum pump is controlled by a vacuum sensor located on the vacuum receiver. The receiver is fixed in the front of the engine compartment.
Radiator with 5 diodes for shunting the field winding of the electric motor.
Under it is the on-board network battery. 12 Volt 35 Ampere / hour (standard from DAEWOO Matiz)
The biggest problem with modern electric vehicles is heating and air conditioning in the passenger compartment. Even this problem was overcome by craftsmen from Khmelnytsky.
An autonomous heater is installed under the driver’s seat. The warm air pipe is brought out into the air duct of the car’s heating system.
An exhaust pipe is laid at the bottom to remove the exhaust gases from the heater.
How to remove a starter: DIY replacement instructions
If the starting device fails, information becomes relevant where it is located and how to remove the starter on its own. The main problems are the lower location of this unit (difficult to reach with the hood open) and the presence of the electrical part (the terminals will have to be disconnected). The presence of a pit or a manual lift greatly simplifies the task, as it provides access from below.
Location of the starter on the internal combustion engine
Depending on the design of this unit, the internal combustion engine and the layout of the units under the hood of the car, replacing the starter takes up to two hours. That is, it is removed in 20 minutes, at best.
There are options for fastening the body with 2 or 3 bolts, which affects the complexity of the process, respectively.
Removing the starter
There are several options for removing the starter from the engine. The choice mainly depends on whether the car owner has a garage with a pit and free time so that the starter can be replaced on his own.
It is best to organize access to this unit from both sides by removing the lower engine protection, and partially dismantling the air cooling system, removing the battery. This is possible in a lift service or in a pit garage. However, even in its absence, repair of the starter is quite possible, but with an increase in labor costs and work time.
Where is the starter?
The starting device is necessary to start the internal combustion engine by untwisting the flywheel. Therefore, before removing the starter, it is logical to look for it near the crankshaft, that is, under the engine, from the driver’s seat. The bendix engages with the flywheel, therefore the mounting holes for the mounting bolts are located on the opposite side of the starting device.
On a pit or a lift
Before you remove the starter on your own, you need to drive the car into a hole in order to provide access to the engine protection mounting bolts from below. This piece of thick-walled sheet steel is fixed at 4 points and usually does not have any problems with loosening, since it is removed very often during vehicle maintenance. If necessary, the threaded parts are pre-treated with WD-40 grease.
Attention: In some cases, the work is interfered with by the cover protecting the muffler, which will also have to be removed. On foreign cars, under engine protection, there can be a duplicate plate made of polymer material, which also needs to be dismantled.
The replacement of the starter begins with the dismantling of this ICE starting unit, however, with the protection removed, it is convenient to unscrew only the lower bolt. The top fasteners are easier to unscrew from the top. To do this, depending on the layout of the units and components of the machine under the hood, you will have to remove:
- terminals from the battery (in any case);
- pull the battery out;
- dismantle the air filter housing if necessary;
- unscrew the bracket on which the cooling pipe is attached.
- from the starter, it is necessary to disconnect all the wires suitable to it from the battery, therefore, the nut fixing the cable “” is unscrewed, then the wire suitable to the control contacts of the solenoid relay;
- unscrew the lower starter mounting nut with a key of 13.
Work continues from above, from the side of the car hood:
- unscrew two or one remaining upper bolt with a 13 key;
- the starter is retracted by the body towards the passenger seat so that the bendix comes out of the seat near the flywheel;
- this knot is pulled out through the top.
Depending on the type of internal combustion engine, the starter dismantling operations may vary:
- C-type engine. classic dismantling according to the above scheme;
- F-type engine. first, the starter mounting bolts are dismantled with their own hands, then the protection is removed, the rear engine support is disconnected;
- V8 engine. in the presence of 16 valves, the protection is removed, the starter mounting bolts are unscrewed, the right front wheel and the reinforcement of the exhaust manifold are dismantled, the rear engine support is removed.
Service station employees are familiar with such nuances, therefore, it is recommended to replace the starter by specialists.
Installing a winch on a car
After such preparations, you should proceed with the installation. To connect each element into one unit, it is necessary to use bolts with a diameter of ten millimeters, since smaller ones may not withstand the ultimate loads. After the winch has been secured to the site, connect the power supply and install the switch. He will have to carry loads of up to ten amperes, because the starter uses a lot of energy.
To connect the installed winch to the car’s electrical network, it is optimal to use copper wires with a cross section of 3 mm2. This wiring ensures a steady supply of electricity to the starter without loss. The switch installed on the winch is convenient for its operation. If it is not there, then you will have to open the hood lid each time and connect the wires manually.
Before using the winch for the first time, you need to check how tightly the structure is assembled. over, if it is mounted in the front of the vehicle. First, we test at idle, no load. Thereafter, the vehicle should be dragged along a level, hard surface. And if everything worked out as planned, the winch is checked with a fully equipped car on good off-road.
We make the winch ourselves or buy
It should be immediately noted that a home-made winch is practically not inferior to factory models in terms of power characteristics. In addition to the mechanical one, the winch can be driven hydraulically and electrically. But such structures are either laborious to manufacture in a private garage, or unproductive in difficult road conditions. In addition, mechanical versions are oversized, which will not allow them to be installed on a small car.
At the beginning of production from the winch starter, it is necessary to prepare all the necessary components, which are selected in accordance with the construction drawing. For a homemade winch you will need:
- The starter itself is powered by 12 volts.
- Drum mount.
- Drum for rope winding.
When assembling the winch, the design drawings must be kept in sight, and not rely on your memory. oversights during assembly are impermissible. It is recommended to arrange all the necessary tools in the workplace in advance. The design can be based on a used or new starter specially purchased for this purpose. This results in significant time savings. It must be remembered that for a heavier car, a powerful starter is needed. To increase the efficiency of the structure, it is more reliable to take a starting device with a planetary gearbox. With little electricity consumption, it can develop a very high power.
Assembling a homemade winch
For many motorists, making a mechanism on their own is a big plus, since, making something for yourself personally, you do it conscientiously. In addition, its device is scrupulously researched, for this reason the driver understands well all the individualities of his craft, and will be able to repair it in extreme conditions. If the necessary parts are ready, the winch can be assembled within a few hours, at the end of which the testing process should begin.
The main element of the future winch will be a drum with a rope wound on it, for this reason its assembly starts with its manufacture. If it is not feasible to use a ready-made drum, it can be made from a thick-walled steel pipe and a pair of metal sheets five millimeters thick. Two circles are cut to size and welded to the pipe at both ends. It remains to fix a gear on one of the circles, using which force will be imparted to the drum to rotate it.
In the case where a planetary gearbox is used, the assembly of the winch becomes much easier, because there is no need to mount the gearbox in a separate housing, which is difficult to find. The winch at its base is high-torque, not heavy and small-sized. It is quite simple to mount it in the front of absolutely any jeep. At the end of the winch assembly, it is required to connect the starter motor to the onboard power supply. In addition, you need to carefully consider the location for the control panel. It should be away from rotating mechanisms and as closed as possible from dirt and moisture.
If a vehicle with a plastic bumper is equipped with a homemade winch, which is unable to withstand a serious load, you will need to build a power element in advance and thoroughly attach it to the car body. Additionally, a platform for attaching the winch is installed on it; for this, a sheet of steel with a thickness of four or five millimeters can be used. At the end of the marking, holes are drilled for attaching a homemade winch.
Homemade winch from a car starter
It is enough to fix the winch cable for any nearby tree and turn it on so that the vehicle can freely get out of any swampy area. But if a jeep, for example, UAZ, has the ability to overcome the crossroads without using the proceeds from the outside, then ordinary cars, whose owners often go to a place where there are no roads as a class, are not in such an advantageous position. Without the help of a winch, they will not be able to get out, even if they are stuck in a shallow puddle. The winch will cost a decent amount of money, but it can pull a massive car out of the quagmire. Not every car owner can afford to purchase a strong and small-sized model. A good way out of a difficult situation would be to make a winch from a car starter.
A significant number of vehicles built for cross-country driving have high ground clearance and a very powerful engine. This allows them to easily overcome difficult road obstacles. But there are situations that, despite the powerful characteristics of SUVs, they are still unable to pull themselves out of the quagmire. In order not to be lost in a hopeless alteration, such cars, even at car factories, can additionally be supplied with strong electric winches as an additional function. This significantly increases the chances of the vehicle on its own to overcome impassable off-road.
How to use the winch for a long time and safely
At the end of the installation and testing of the effectiveness of a homemade winch, it is time for its intensive use. Depending on the weight of the vehicle, the stress on the vehicle when rescuing from swampy soil can be quite serious. To prevent the mechanism from causing injury to the user, it is most reliable to wind a strong cable onto the winch drum. When purchasing it, you need to make sure that its technical characteristics meet all safety requirements.
It is clear that when using the winch, the cable and other moving parts need regular inspection and lubrication. You will need systematic cleaning from dust and dirt, which accumulate abundantly on it. During the period of using the winch, one should not forget that the starter is not designed for a long operating time. you should not turn it on for more than ten seconds, followed by a rest for up to a minute. And also make sure that at the time of pulling out the car, its interior is free of passengers.
Starters that do not have a gear unit have a direct direct effect on the rotation of the gear. In this situation, car owners who have gear-less starters benefit from the fact that such devices have a simpler design and are easy to repair (read about DIY starter repair). It is also worth noting that after the current is applied to the electromagnetic switch, the gear immediately engages with the flywheel. This allows for very fast ignition. It is worth noting the fact that such starters have high endurance, and the likelihood of breakdown due to exposure to electricity is minimized. But devices without a gear have the potential for poor performance at low temperatures.
Types of starters
Among the large number of such electromagnetic motors, only 2 main types are distinguished: starters with and without a gearbox.
Car starter: diagram, principle of operation and types
Many experts advise using a starter with a gearbox. This is due to the fact that such a device has a reduced current requirement for efficient operation. Such devices will provide torsion of the crankshaft even with a low battery charge. Also, one of the most important advantages of such a device is the presence of permanent magnets, which reduce problems with the stator winding to a minimum. On the other hand, with prolonged use of such a device, there is a possibility of breakage of the rotating gear. But this, as a rule, leads to a factory defect or simply poor-quality production.
Starter and its functions
The car starter motor is a small 4-way electric motor that rotates the crankshaft first. This is necessary in order to provide the required speed for starting the internal combustion engine. As a rule, to start a medium-displacement gasoline engine, it is necessary to have a starter, which has an average of 3 kW of energy. The starter motor is a DC motor and draws energy from the battery. Taking voltage from the battery, the electric motor increases its power using 4 brushes, which are an integral part of any car starter.
Principles of operation of a starter with a gearbox
When the current is supplied from the car battery, driven by the ignition circuit, to the gear starter, the current is supplied to the starter armature through the gearbox, which increases the power of the passing voltage several times. Next, there is a transfer of torque from the armature to the gear. All this also happens with the help of a gearbox, which is endowed with constantly working magnets, and special brushes that are capable of generating more resistance than the brushes of a conventional starter allow it to ensure its constant and efficient operation.
DIY impact screwdriver from a starter
Hello to all homemade lovers. In this article, I’ll show you how to make an impact screwdriver that will help you unscrew rusted or sour fasteners, such as a bolt in an aluminum case. All the parts that are needed to assemble this homemade product are easily accessible, especially if you are a car owner.
Before you start reading the article, I suggest watching a video showing the entire assembly process, followed by testing the finished impact screwdriver.
In order to make an impact screwdriver from a starter with your own hands, you will need: Angle grinder, cut-off wheel, goggles, gloves Locksmith vise Defective car starter Old knob with a square Metal pipe with a diameter equal to the diameter of the bendix Metal lathe, through cutter A pair of small springs Metal washer Welding machine, welding mask, gaiters Drilling machine, drill for metal with a diameter of 5 mm Tap with M6 thread Kern M6 bolt Boring bar Small hammer Masking tape Hammer paint spray
Step one The first step is to disassemble the faulty starter from the car, only two parts are needed from it, this is the electric motor armature and the bendix, on which the principle of unscrewing will be based. You can buy a non-working starter at the metal reception, for which they will ask for a penny in comparison with buying a factory version of an impact screwdriver.
Step two: Now a part with slots is needed from the bendix, it can be sawed off using an angle grinder with a cut-off disk installed, and then finalized on a lathe to the desired size. When working with an angle grinder, be careful, the power tool must be firmly held in your hands, and do not forget about protective glasses and gloves. The spline part will further put on the shaft and transfer rotation to it from the impact.
Step three.In order for this screwdriver to be able to install different heads, you need to cut off the square part from the wrench using an angle grinder.
Do-it-yourself electric bike from scrap materials
Today you will learn how to make an electric bike assembled by yourself from an angle grinder. a step-by-step description of the creation process with a photo, and a video of testing an electric bike.
Now we will consider this homemade product, the author decided to create a vehicle, taking an old bicycle as a basis. In the process, the author did not pay special attention to the appearance of his model, the main task was to create a full-fledged electric bike.
Do-it-yourself electric bike assembly
This creation of technology was made from the following materials: grandfather’s bicycle; grinder (angle grinder), power 750 W; inverter (voltage converter) 12V-220V; lithium batteries; buttons with power adjustment; wires; a piece of sheet metal; bicycle handbrake grips and cable.
The angle grinder does not need to be disassembled to make it come true, it remains safe and sound. The angle grinder can be removed from the bike at any time and used for its intended purpose.
This design provides for the transmission of torque from the grinder shaft directly to the tire on the wheel. This is done by means of such a sleeve shown in the photo.
We put the sleeve itself on the shaft of an angle grinder. To ensure a good grip between the hub and the tire, some bumps have been welded onto the hub, and the sander is then secured to the bike frame using such a grip device. If you press the handle on the handlebar, the cable will pull the lever that presses the shaft sleeve of the angle grinder against the tire on the wheel.
Thanks to this, we can ride a bicycle only by pedaling. To switch to the use of electric traction, simply press the handle on the steering wheel, and after that the shaft is immediately pressed against the tire on the wheel.
The next step will be to connect the electric motor to a 220V power source, the author has done this in the following way.
Electric Bike From Scrap. Simple E-Bike 1000w. Homemade
He fixed the inverter on the trunk of the e-bike.
The inverter is a voltage converter. Here, work was carried out with a 12V-to-220V AC converter, just to provide power to the angle grinder.
To make this whole system work, we use a 12V battery. The author resolved this issue in this way. He had a pack of batteries from mobile phone chargers. Of these batteries, a battery was connected, which gave out 12V and 20A.
The battery was connected to the input (12V) of the inverter, the output of the inverter (220V). by means of the power button. to the angle grinder.
The self-made vehicle has passed all the tests, the electric bike can travel at speeds up to 50 km / h.
At the same time, one drawback is a slight slip of the shaft sleeve on the angle grinder on the tire on the wheel when the electric bike starts to move. If you want a faster start of the bike from a place, put a piece of rubber from the bicycle tube on the hub.