How to chain a bike
The chain is one of the most important structural elements for the movement of the bicycle. And its service life depends on the regularity and quality of care. An indicator that something is wrong with the bike chain is crackling and squeaking when moving, as well as slipping it on the ratchet.
In principle, it is normal for the chain to wear out over time. And chain stretching is a visual sign of wear. The fact that the chain has become unusable can be felt even tactilely. In the normal position, this part sags slightly (by 10 or 12 millimeters), and if you pull it slightly, then it will give in for another 10-15 mm. True, this method is relevant only for models that do not have high-speed switching or have a planetary type gear.
Adjusting chain tension on bicycles without gears
For bicycles to function flawlessly without speeds, their chain should not be too tight. It is necessary to ensure its free sagging for a length of up to 5 mm. And in order to pull in this way, you need to perform a certain set of actions in the correct sequence:
- Turn the vehicle wheels up.
- Loosen the rear wheel. unscrew the nuts or fixing eccentrics.
- Adjust chain slack to the required amount. To do this, you need to carefully move the wheel along the inclined grooves (dropouts).
- At the end of the adjustment, the wheel should be fixed to its original position again. In this case, the wheel axle must be parallel to the carriage shaft.
If the chain is too tight, it will become difficult to pedal. And the elements of the chain drive will very soon become unusable. It is also bad if the bike chain is too slack. She will simply jump off the stars at a certain moment and it will be impossible to go further.
When the wheel literally rested on the dropouts and there is absolutely nowhere to move it further, but the bicycle chain dangles, you will have to remove a couple of links from it. In all likelihood, it was stretched or not at all the size for a particular model.
Adjusting the chain tension in bicycles at speeds
The tension of the chain on a bike with a parallelogram derailleur (rear) is determined solely by the spring rate of the derailleur itself. But the chain, which turned out to be too long, will start to beat against the frame, since the tensioner will no longer be able to compensate for its slack.
It should be borne in mind that insufficient chain length leads to wear of the main transmission parts, since it significantly complicates their switching. Owners of two-suspension bicycles should especially pay attention to this.
When installing a new bike chain on high-speed models, the chain should be shortened. Several links. But to determine how many specific links need to be removed, there are two possible methods:
- Pull the chain at the front and rear over the largest sprockets. And then pull on the chain, moving the rear derailleur forward and to the limit. It remains to add 2 links, and you get a chain of the optimal length.
- Or the chain needs to be thrown from the front to the largest sprocket, from the back to the smallest. And pull the chain until the rear ejector frame is in the “straight down” position and the derailleur rollers do not form a horizontal line. This is the optimal chain length, the excess must be removed, and the missing must be added.
On two-suspension bicycles, adjust the chain (or rather, adjust its length) more correctly by pressing the pendulum down to a position at which the front star cassette will be as far away from the ratchet as possible. The resulting chain length is measured-noted, and all unnecessary is removed.
Conventional speedless bikes are equipped with collapsible chains, one of the links of which has a special lock. But on professional bikes, one-piece chain structures are installed, all links of which are perfectly riveted.
However, disassembling a one-piece bicycle chain is also easy. And this can be done in one of two possible methods:
- grind the pin heads with sandpaper on one of the chain links;
- or using a universal tool. squeeze.
By the way, the squeeze is called “universal” for a reason. It can not only squeeze out the pin, but also securely fix the newly assembled bicycle chain. After all, the squeeze (well, at least most of them) have a couple of special functional and technological grooves. And one of these grooves the pin is pressed out of the roller, and the other is pressed in. As for the installation place, which is located on the squeeze a little further from the pressing screw, it is intended for riveting the chain pin itself.
Slipping like a chain drive defect
Every cyclist knows the problem of chain slippage. The chain will stretch over time and the tension will weaken. In addition, chain elongation leads to early wear of the bike sprockets. It would seem that what is easier. you just need to remove 2 links. But the “trick” is that you can do this only once, and then you need to change the chain.
And further. A new chain on an old ratchet is not ice at all. Slipping will probably remain on small sprockets. So you need to change the ratchet too.
How to make a do-it-yourself electric motor for a bicycle. DIY bike wheel motor
But moving with a muscle pull is often tiring, especially when traveling long distances and during steep or long climbs. In such cases, the electric motor installed on the bike is invaluable.
A wide range of such equipment is on sale, but some inventors go further and decide to make a wheel motor for a bicycle with their own hands. To implement such ideas, in addition to knowledge and skills in the field of mechanics and electrical engineering, you must have:
- A wheel with a diameter of 20 to 28 “- new or used, but always in perfect condition. perfectly adjusted on the spokes and does not write out” eights “on the go.
- Battery and storage case or bag.
- Speed controller.
- Controller. a board that ensures the correct operation of the wheel motor.
- Fuse and wire kit.
- Tools, equipment and materials for the manufacture of an electric motor.
How to make an electric wheel for a bicycle?
To start making a wheel motor at home, you need to thoroughly understand the principle of its operation. The brushless DC motor is spliced into the rim and can be installed instead of the front or rear wheel (or simultaneously on the electric motor instead of 2 wheels). The power of such electric motors can be both 250 and 1000 W. depending on what speed and traction characteristics you need.
If you want to use a home-made motor-wheel for a bicycle, it is very important to correctly calculate all the nodes, otherwise there is a great risk of galling and jamming of the electric motor, destruction of parts and failure of the entire electric bike. Therefore, before starting the assembly, it is necessary to find out the suitable parameters of the device being created. calculate its power, developed speed, operating voltage.
It is also important to determine the parameters of the wheel on which the electric motor will be installed. When the do-it-yourself motor-wheel circuit has been developed, and all the details for its implementation are available, you can start assembling. When connecting electrical components, it is important to ensure good insulation of the wires connecting them. It is also necessary to protect the mechanisms of the electric motor from the effects of negative factors. sand, dust, dirt, etc.
Recommendations for self-assembly of the wheel motor
- If you are planning to make a wheel motor yourself, pay attention to the following recommendations:
- When assembling, you can use used parts if they are in good working order and suit you in size and characteristics.
- It is important to make sure of the quality and strength of the materials used, as well as the compliance of the designed electric motor in terms of power and speed. the durability and energy consumption of the entire structure depends on the quality of the components.
- Extremely accurate strength calculations must be performed and new components must be rolled in to reduce the risk of unexpected breakage.
- Before manufacturing the wheel motor, it is recommended to calculate the economic feasibility of its creation. It is possible that the electric motor developed by you will be more expensive than the purchased version, it will be inferior in terms of technical characteristics and aesthetic properties.
Buy or do it yourself?
The question of the advisability of creating an electric motor with their own hands is controversial. for most cyclists the idea of making an electric motor on their own is at least bewildering. Indeed, there are a lot of reliable models of various capacities on sale, incl. in ready-made kits with all the components required to equip a bicycle with electric traction. But still, some craftsmen are desperate to develop their own electric motors.
If you are confident in your abilities and that you can correctly make calculations for reliability, strength and safety, you have all the necessary parts and have the skills to assemble electric motors, feel free to get down to business and post the video “make a wheel motor yourself” to the network. But in most cases, it is much easier and safer to use a ready-made kit for electrifying a bicycle, moreover, it can be selected in full accordance with your needs.
Read more about choosing a wheel motor in our previous article.
DIY electric bike
This article will discuss how you can turn an ordinary bicycle into an electric one with your own hands. Such a bicycle will run on a battery, which, when discharged, can always be recharged and then continued. Of course, there are already many ready-made solutions for this kind of homemade products, for example, a motor-wheel, but here everything is assembled from scratch. According to the author, the homemade product fully justified its hopes. Since the engine is not too powerful here, the bike cannot move from its place, first you need to accelerate it with your feet to a speed of 10-15 km / h, which is not so difficult. Well, then an electric motor is turned on, which supports the movement of the bicycle and you no longer need to pedal. An electric motor accelerates the bike to 34 km / h when driving in a straight line. The bike consumes 100-300 watts when driving on a straight road. When driving downhill, consumption increases to 600-800 watts, to save money, you can help with your feet. Peak current consumption of the motor was 1200 watts.
Materials and tools for assembling homemade products:. 6354 kv200 type electric motor. ESC speed controller. wattmeter (copy of Turnigy 130A);. LiPO 6S 22.2V 5a-h battery;. bicycle throttle (controlled by the thumb);. brake levers (in they have a pressure sensor);. rear rack (used as a structural element);. 16-tooth ratchet;. gear wheels and belt (ready-made).
Step one. Installing an asterisk
In most cases, the sprocket is attached to the spokes, but the author decided to abandon this design. As a result, the sprocket was bolted to the brake disc with bolts. Also on the disc you can see six screws in a circle and two closer to the center of the brake disc. These screws fix the threads so that the disc does not loosen when driving. Step two. Install the ratchet The ratchet is installed on the cup from the carriage, for fixing the ring from the native cup is used. Step three. Rear Hub The rear hub acts as an intermediate shaft. It is installed in a U-shaped section of a professional pipe. Step four. Installing the large gear wheel A pin is used to secure the gear wheel. Otherwise, the bushing will clamp itself with the cones. The gear has a groove and the pin is inserted into a hole that is in the shaft. As a result, the pin fits into the groove of the wheel. Step five. Small gear Two gouges are used to fix the small gear. Step six. Installing the engine To mount the engine, a standard crosspiece is used to the L-shaped structure, which was found by the author in the bins. Step seven. Attaching the chain tensioner The chain tensioner is attached to the side element of the trunk. Everything is mounted on a structured plate made from a thick sheet of aluminum. General view of the bicycle Step eight. Homemade electrical circuit How the circuit is arranged can be seen in the picture. It has been slightly modified in comparison with the original. So, for example, the variable resistor was removed in the servo tester, and a hall sensor from the throttle control knob was installed in its place. The author installed a 1 kOhm back-up resistor in the button circuit, without it spontaneously switching modes, probably due to interference. Another nuance of the electrical part is that the author has spaced the power plus and the measuring plus. Also, in the future, it makes sense to put an isolated 5V to 9V converter, due to the fact that there are understated power readings. As for the battery, it works without a BMS. To prevent overdischarge, the author used a battery monitor that was set to 3.3 V. When the voltage gets too low, the device starts to make a sound. The battery is charged with the IMAX B6 clone, the Li-Io mode with balancing is used. Conclusions and ideas for improving the bike First of all, the author plans to install a larger engine on the bike so that you can ride longer. In addition, the idea of energy recovery is being considered. That is, instead of braking with brakes, you can brake with the engine and at the same time charge the batteries, thereby replenishing the expended energy. But how to implement this is a rather complicated question. After all, if you remove the ratchet, then the bike will be rather uncomfortable to ride with pedals. In addition, you will need to finalize the electronic part, add new nodes, and this also requires thinking. Another disadvantage of recuperation is that it generates too much current to charge the battery, this will lead to its rapid failure. In this regard, an additional circuit will be needed for charging.
On this, the assembly of the electric bike can be considered complete for now. In any case, the DIY is worth the cost, since it will save a lot when compared to buying a new e-bike.
DIY snow chains on wheels
Chains for car wheels are an attribute necessary in every vehicle for movement in harsh weather and climatic conditions. Thanks to them, it is possible to move not only on the snow surface, but also on sandy soil, loose yellow soil or even slush. The high price of original chains to increase cross-country ability makes car owners create chains on wheels with their own hands.
The necessary components for this can be found without any problems at any point of sale selling fastening equipment. Snow chains are removable guards that improve the vehicle’s driving performance and act as a “load carrier”. They were not created for one type of car, so they are relevant for the following vehicles:
- off-road vehicles;
Each type of chain depends on the size of the wheel size. For all-terrain vehicles and heavy vehicles, such attributes are complemented by auxiliary spikes, which contribute to better vehicle cross-country ability.
The structure and the required types of this structure
The material for this design are:
- metal cable, the diameter of which must be at least 0.4 cm;
- hooks of various sizes;
- clamps with screw fitting;
- mechanical chain tensioner;
- small fasteners.
The principle of use includes the same order of placement of all links on the surface of the wheel tire. The device will rupture and the possibility of sliding will be lost if this condition is violated. One of the most common models, tested by many specialists, consists of external and internal parts that extend over the entire surface of the wheel tire.
The parts are vertically connected to each other by “load carriers”. Do-it-yourself wheel chain creation is available even for beginners. There are three main chain patterns:
Each model in its current configuration has positive and negative sides. The most accessible and quickest way to manufacture is the “ladder” technique.
After accurate measurements, you can find out how many meters of the chain you need to create. However, it should be borne in mind that, on average, it will take about 14-15 meters to assemble a car’s chain attachment. In general, the recommended material is stainless steel materials that can withstand continuous loads and are able to resist abrasion on abrasive surfaces. But first you need to figure out what, in principle, there are snow chains on wheels.
Many options for “factory” products are presented by various manufacturers. Today we can distinguish between soft and metal chains. The following elements of car safety are soft:
- plastic chains for wheels;
- rubber products;
- polyurethane couplings.
They can differ not only in material, but also in design. Such metal and soft ones are in demand in equal measure. Metal ones are considered the most durable and reliable to use. It can be used both on light vehicles and on heavy trucks. May differ in pattern. Soft chains are made from plastic, rubber and polyurethane. The principle of their action consists in special stripes with spikes.
Plastic wheel chains are among the latest materials developed. They are not particularly distinguished by their strength and are used exclusively on a loose surface, more often on snow.
Rubber snow chains are put on passenger cars. They are popular in city car operation.
Polyurethane chains are in the highest demand on the market. According to their characteristics, they are considered better than rubber because of their characteristics:
- increased wear resistance;
- resistance to various chemical products;
- reliable against cracks;
- good flexibility;
- good extensibility (even at subzero ambient temperatures).
Advantages of polyurethane products:
- the possible speed of movement reaches 60-80 km / h;
- noiselessness and smooth running of the machine;
- the chain links are thinner than metal ones;
- minimal wear of the wheel tread;
- having spikes made of metal and plastic;
- have excellent all-terrain capability on surfaces such as snow, mud and ice;
- can be installed on any rubber.
The disadvantages boil down to factors such as:
- hardening of car tires in frosty weather, which makes installation difficult;
- not as durable as iron;
- more expensive than metal.
How to make chains on wheels with your own hands
In each case, a different manufacturing method is used. It is slightly different for both metal products and other materials.
Do-it-yourself anti-slip chains are a reinforcing wire connected by plates that have the ability to stretch and cover the wheel in a circle. The device looks like this: along the inner and outer rim of the tire, two axial ropes are held, connected by rubber plates “load carriers”.
Step-by-step production algorithm:
- Cut off four axial branches, about 83 links each. For connection, “load hooks” are used, hooks are installed on both sides, for the following connections.
- All parts must be connected. The first connection is attached to the sixth link, and all subsequent ones after ten links.
- Carabiners are attached to both ends of the rubber plates and after the fourth transverse plate we attach a piece of chain to one of the axial branches. The tension structure is held to one edge of the existing segment with a clamp, a hook is fixed to the other edge, for further hitching.
The metal chains are robust and offer the ultimate in all-terrain performance. At a critical moment, you can get by by wrapping a tire with a rope, but, of course, not everyone has it in the trunk of a car. And this threatens a dangerous accident for the braking system, since it violates the principle of the installation.
Consider how to make the chains for wheels yourself from metal. This requires:
- metal chain;
- clamps with screwed sleeve;
- Angle Grinder;
- vise for fixing;
- chain tensioner.
Examine the chain carefully, making sure there are no manufacturing defects. You can determine the size of the chain links after specifying the size of the required tire. Experienced drivers suggest making sure that at the point of intersection with the ground surface, the structure is in contact with two plates. This increases the traction force and strength of the entire auxiliary system.
Do-it-yourself preparatory work for mounting a wheel consists of the following steps:
- cutting axial structures;
- cutting of vertical structures;
- fixing the vertical part on the sixth axle chain carabiner;
- installation with rings or a hook of further vertical plates every nine links;
- a longitudinal workpiece is installed in the center, we fix the segment, it consists of six carabiners and one tensioner with a hook.
With a certain experience, this whole process takes no more than 45 minutes. If an electric welding machine is available, you may well refuse and not use threaded connections. However, this will affect the quality of the material and aesthetics.
It is worth considering that such implementations in the design of the car are fraught with certain disadvantages:
- the mechanical load on the gear, steering rack and suspension increases significantly, as a result of frequent intensive or unreasonable use of such accessories, the steering rack breaks;
- wear of rubber increases;
- the efficiency decreases;
- loud noise is produced;
- the maximum speed of movement is limited, which cannot be higher than 50-60 km / h.
By the type of contact, the surface of the chain is distinguished by the pattern:
- “Ladder” is the simplest type of chain. The simplest option, in which the cross plates are connected to two ropes in parallel.
- “Rhombus”. the knitting of the chains is set according to the pattern of the tire, provides good durability and improves the quality of grip.
- “Honeycomb”. an intricate structure in which the ropes are connected diagonally, as a result we get a kind of weave.
When self-produced, the snow chains are fixed on the tire with the following locking mechanisms:
- The S-shaped lock structure is locked with a square or possibly a hex key. But there were complaints about the lack of regulatory elements and weak fastening. Installing such a device is quite inconvenient.
- The hook lock structure is widespread and in good demand. Having laid the chain correctly, you will not encounter problems. Fastening is carried out with one screwdriver. Dismantling the structure takes place without any particular difficulties.
- The ratchet type locking mechanism is used on heavy vehicles. The main advantage in this mechanism is its strength and ease of use. Mounts without tools.
An incorrectly installed mechanism interferes with the operation of the sensors of the anti-lock braking system and wheel arches. On SUVs, where the second axle is connected, the mechanism is permanently placed on a working pair of wheels. Installation work is done in two ways:
- with jacking up;
- on a level car.
The first method using a jack is very simple. You fix the machine at a height with a jack, reduce the pressure in the wheels to get the job done easier. Put on the chain and snap the locks.
- lay the chains in front of the wheels of the machine, not allowing the links to twist;
- you drive in with a pair of wheels on a chain, before reaching the end of about 30-40 cm;
- put on the parking brake;
- Throw the long side of the chain mechanism over the wheel tire so that the hook and clamp are on the outside of the wheel;
- connect the last link of the axle part and the hook to the inside of the wheel;
- we connect the carabiner clutch to the tensioning system and fix the knot;
- fix all vertical parts over the entire surface of the wheel, direct over the entire area of the tire and tighten.
For the same direction of the structural elements and to achieve the maximum fit of all links, it is necessary to drive the car for about 50 meters.
A real alternative
- unpretentious in manufacturing;
- easy to install;
- robust and efficient model.
Required details for creation:
- a rubber part with a VAZ muffler mount;
- chain with a diameter of at least 0.5 cm.
It remains only to cut the chains of the required length for the tires.
DIY kits for assembling bracelets are another option for a useful device for moving a car around problem areas. They are set at a reasonable price and at the same time they demonstrate good quality.
The set includes elements:
- rifled chain parts;
- fastening materials;
It is important to know that the use of anti-slip chains is not permitted on hard road surfaces such as asphalt or concrete. When traveling on snow or loose ground, keep a speed of 15-20 km / h. Slip is strictly not allowed, so do not press on the accelerator sharply.