How to use bike speeds
Many people paid attention to the number of available speeds when buying a bike, but not everyone uses them while riding. There are those who do not quite use the speeds correctly, which can lead to bike breakdown. Knowing the principles of shifting and speed combinations allows the cyclist to make the ride comfortable and efficient.
Cycling speeds (or gears) serve to provide a comfortable and efficient ride under the various factors that a cyclist encounters on a ride:
- type of road surface;
- need for acceleration.
The speed indicator is formed due to the work of the stars. rounded plates consisting of teeth on the outside, to which the chain clings. One group, larger and smaller, is located at the base of the pedals. the front ones. Another group, called rear sprockets, is on the rear wheel. The number of speeds on the bike is determined by multiplying the number of front sprockets by the rear.
By knowing how to use the speeds on the bike, the cyclist has the ability to adjust the chain tension. The force that must be applied during torsion depends on this. Less tension. less effort and more pedaling, higher tension. vice versa.
The question for the cyclist is how to use the gearshift on the bike. Directly changing speeds occurs using switches located on the steering wheel. shifters. As a rule, on the left handle there is a shifter for shifting forward gears, on the right. rear. There are two types of switches:
The first type works by rotating around its axis, the second by shifting the lever with the fingers. Rotational are considered less accurate than lever.
When shifting gears, the chain with a special hook moves to the selected sprocket, changing its tension. Usually, the forward gear consists of 1-3 stars, and the reverse. up to 10. The main task of changing gears is to set the most comfortable mode for movement. Making the most of your bike for an efficient ride.
The gear changes on the bike are performed in a specific order to keep the derailleurs working and reduce chain wear. The basic rule is that the chain should not be in a diagonal position. When changing gears, pay attention to the sounds made by the bike: if they are something that looks like a grinding, and also do not look like natural. this is a sign of improper shifting.
Bicycle sprockets are numbered from the frame: the closest sprocket to the frame is the first. The size of the front ones increases with distance from the frame, while the rear ones decrease. For the correct gear change, sprockets are used opposite each other: the first with the first, the middle with the middle, the extreme with the extreme.
There are no fundamental differences in how to use the speeds on different bicycles: mountain bikes with 6, 18 speeds or 21 speeds. Below is a table that contains data on gear shifting on a bicycle, their designation and application. The division is rather arbitrary, but the main switching principle should be observed on a bicycle with any number of speeds. the straight position of the chain.
|Forward gear||Reverse gear||Transfer type||Torsional force applied||Number of revolutions||Application|
|1||1-2||Reduced||Weak||High||Driving uphill or in strong winds|
|2||3-6||Average||The average||The average||Normal conditions, moderate driving|
|3||7-8||Increased||Strong||Low||High-speed highway driving|
Cycling has its own nuances, especially if it takes place in regularly changing conditions. Active use of the bike’s capabilities in the form of gear shifting will make the ride as comfortable and efficient as possible. Correct gear changes can also protect critical parts from breakage and wear.
Correct gear shifting (for beginners) part 2
So let’s start our quick overview of how a bike drivetrain works:
The principle of operation is very simple. the larger the diameter of the chainring and the smaller the rear, the harder it is to pedal, but the faster you can accelerate and, accordingly, vice versa, the smaller the chainring in front and more at the back, the easier it is to pedal, but this will not add speed. There is one more point to which you should pay attention. gear shifting occurs only when you pedal, that is, all at the same time. It is corny, but many do not know this and believe that you can just change the speed and start moving. this is not so. The moment you change the speed but do not pedal, the switch is already on a new star, but the chain is not yet, this leads to two consequences: 1) chain break at the start 2) unpleasant crunch
Below is a visualization for a more convenient perception of words:
Knowing this principle of work, it is much easier to overcome steep climbs and move at medium and long distances.
And now about the most important thing.
Transmission wear depends not only on the components installed, but also on your use. There is such a concept in bicycle terminology as “chain skew”. Chain misalignment is the operation of the transmission when the chain is bent too much. That is, if you use, for example, the largest chainring in front, and the rear derailleur of the bike is also set to the largest chainring.
So, let’s figure out what happens when this happens? It seems to you that the bike rides and rides, but not quite like that, there is an increased wear of the bike components. the chain, rear and front sprockets, derailleur rollers and the rear derailleur itself. How should you switch? Below I will give examples for 7 and 8 rider bike drivetrains, as these are currently the most popular among beginner cyclists.
Shifting rules for Shimano21 speed:
Shifting rules for Shimano24 speed:
Below is an illustration for a more comfortable perception of my words.
Some of the switching rules, especially the middle chainring, in front of the rear sprockets may differ from those given by me. It depends mainly on your front derailleur (foot width) and rear sprockets.
For example: if you have a Shimano TZ-30 front derailleur installed, then the middle chainring will work with all rear wheels except the extreme 2 on each side, and if you have, for example, ShimanoTX-50, then the middle chainring will work with all rear wheels except the extreme ones (the largest and the smallest).
All of the above is described based on our experience in practice, and not on recommendations and articles on the Internet. If you adhere to the rules for changing speeds on a bicycle, then your bike will serve correctly and reliably, and will not let you down at the most crucial moment.
Correct gear shifting (for beginners)
Back in the dashing 90s, there was no such understanding as changing speeds on a bicycle. Our iron horses had the same speed and were similar to each other, we braked with pedals and did not think that a cool novelty would appear soon. Bicycles with speeds have a foothold in the market, probably forever. But whether their owners know how to use them correctly, we will discuss below.
It would be strange to have a bike with different gears, but not be able to use them. Even modern children, when they receive a long-awaited two-wheeled friend as a gift, first of all ask the question about the number of its speeds. There is no limit to their joy when they hear some big number (supposedly, the more, the cooler). Cycling professionals always rely on their strengths, and not on this or that gear, but competent gear shifting will only multiply the cyclist’s abilities.
If earlier the driver of the bike hoped only for himself and adjusted to the terrain, now he has his own assistant.
Bikes are now equipped with two chainrings: front and rear. The front sprocket is the leading and the rear driven.
Correct selection of gear for this or that type of driving is of great importance. There is a whole block of rules on how to switch speeds on a bicycle:
- It is forbidden to switch speeds if the bike is not moving (planetary gears do not apply to this);
- While driving, you need to switch speeds at a time when the pedals are not spinning. At this point, the circuit is not under load, hence switching is easy and smooth. Otherwise, it is fraught with difficulty in shifting gears, breakdown of the entire mechanism or chain;
- When climbing a hill, you should not increase the speed; this must be done before climbing;
- If you are new to cycling, you need to change speed after speed without jumping over several. ;
- A severely skewed chain will adversely affect the bike’s performance.
Gear shifting and all the nuances
The simplest bike has up to three stars on the front wheel and up to ten on the rear.
For clarity, you can consider a standard 3×8 drive:
- The largest sprocket at the front is designed to ride on level ground with minimal wind resistance. In classic driving, as a rule, it is paired with several sprockets (from the eighth to the fourth);
- The second largest sprocket at the front is designed for driving on dirt or uneven roads. Comes in conjunction with 7th to 2nd rear chainrings. Combination with all rear sprockets is not excluded. At this speed, the bike is more maneuverable, it overcomes wind resistance well;
- The smallest sprocket at the front is combined with the fourth to first chainrings. This transmission is used when driving over rough terrain, on strong descents and ascents, in sandy and wetlands.
Cadence is the number of cadences the cyclist takes in one minute. Each cyclist has his own cadence, which must be chosen correctly in order not to get injured, and the pedaling speed was comfortable.
You don’t need to pedal too slowly or too fast, in the first case it is a waste of energy, and in the second you will quickly get tired. Only personal feelings will help you find the perfect cadence. This is influenced by the physical training of the driver and the direction of the wind.
You need to move without changing the rhythm in any gear. This will save you strength for a long time, which in turn will help you travel more distance.
They say that it is obviously impossible to match the speed to the road conditions. There are all sorts of calculations and calculations about this, but they are designed for ideal driving conditions, where the road is smooth as glass, and the wind does not resist at all. As soon as one condition changes, all calculations turn into complete zero. Before choosing a speed, many factors affecting it are taken into account: road quality, ascents and descents, temperature, tire pressure, sports training and the cyclist’s well-being, adrenaline and blood sugar levels, etc.
Cadence plays an important role:
The average pedaling figure ranges from 95 to 115 rpm (assuming driving on a flat surface);
Average pedal scrolling figure ranges from 70 to 90 rpm.
But these figures are for professionals only. Beginners need to start to gradually improve their performance, from each gear you need to squeeze the maximum and only then switch to the next, there is no rush.
Do not also forget about your health, for example, high gear combined with a slow pace will negatively affect the joints of the knees.
In bad weather and bad road conditions, you need to downshift for more torque. The same goes for riding upwind or steep climbs.
September 19, 2018, American, Denise Mueller-Korenek, set the world speed record on a bicycle, 295.6 km / h.
Shifting gears while climbing
In order for your iron horse to serve you happily ever after, you should not switch gears while moving (pedaling). This contributes to the wear of the elements.
The most common mistake is that cyclists do not use the front derailleurs without realizing how convenient and effective it is. Accelerates faster and the rear derailleur helps you better adjust gears.
The first step is to select the speed, and only then adjust it using the rear switch.
Tips for maintaining your gearshift system
Cyclists are always very sensitive to their bikes. Some even talk to them and ask them not to let them down at the next race. Many treat their pets as if they were alive, so you need to take good care of them often and well. There are times when the gear changes by itself or doesn’t change when you need it. In most cases, this indicates worn-out parts, but often there are cases when grass, dirt and debris gets into the mechanism or the part needs to be lubricated. With regular and proper technical inspection of your two-wheeled friend, he will serve you for a long time and faithfully.
Always listen to your bike. If something is wrong with him, he will definitely let you know. Sounds that are not inherent in the normal operation of the bike are already a sign that you need to look at the details.
Always check the chain for contamination, adequate lubrication and elongation. Replace every season.
A professional cyclist (as mentioned above) feels his bike well, and intuitively understands when and how to change speed. Everything happens so reflexively that when you need to change the speed, then you do not think about it, but simply do.
In this article, we analyzed how to properly shift gears on a bicycle, learned what cadence is and how important it is to determine the optimal pedaling rhythm for yourself. Gave advice on caring for the gearshift system and found out the absolute record holder of cycling.
How to properly shift gears on a bike
If you’ve never ridden a high-speed bike before, the presence of handlebar levers and a row of sprockets on the crank arm and cassette are sure to ask you a lot of questions. In addition, sometimes happy owners of a bicycle with speeds or a simple mountain bike hardly understand why speeds are needed at all.
On a flat road with good coverage, it is quite possible to do without gear changes. The cyclist simply selects the optimal chain position and a comfortable gear ratio. The speed of the bike is determined by stubbornness and physical form. But it’s better to learn to play with gears here, choosing the optimal cadence depending on the angle of inclination and road conditions. Favorite gear ratio of most beginners 2-5 or 2-4.
To drive up a hill, drive through sand or snow, the speed ratio alone will not be enough. On bicycles at the same speed in such a situation everything depends only on the intensity of pedaling, the strength of the cyclist’s muscles, riding technique and the ability to “pull” in time.
The presence of gears greatly simplifies this process, but only on condition that the speeds are changed correctly and in a timely manner. In addition, you shouldn’t forget about the health of your knee joints. It is much more useful if the knees do not overload on difficult areas, but do more movements. i.e. more cadence.
In order to properly use gear shifting, you need to understand how it works. The principle of operation of the bicycle transmission is based on the same gear ratio from school physics. This is how all manual transmissions work. To simplify, if a small star turns a large one, this is a power low gear (i.e. you can go up a hill without effort), and if a large one turns a small one, then the opposite is true. It will be high speed gear or overdrive.
Accordingly, on a bicycle we have an open transmission. There are large stars in front (2-3 pieces in the standard case), and a cassette of 5-8 stars behind. It remains to throw the chain between them. This is what the gear selector is for (both front and rear derailleur).
The movement of the chain through the blocks is provided by the front or rear derailleur, and the derailleur is associated with the levers on the bicycle handlebars (shifters). The right trigger usually adjusts to the front, the left trigger to the back. By combining different positions of the chain on the sprockets, the cyclist varies the speed of the bicycle, and with this, the gear ratio, and therefore the muscle effort required to obtain the result, changes. Shifting on the front block allows you to radically change gear ratios and quickly jump between main modes. Moving around the cassette makes it possible to more accurately select the desired ratio.
What are the transfers for?
The larger the sprocket at the back, the lower the speed of the bike, but the less effort it will take to twist. Low gear is ideal for uphill climbing, sandy, uneven terrain or snow. The wheel moves slowly, but with great force. Accordingly, if you get stuck in mud, this is the ideal ratio.
High gear provides a quick set of speed, but at the same time requires great physical effort from the cyclist. It is good for high-speed movement on flat roads, as well as for downhill driving.
As a rule, in each situation, the most convenient gear ratio is selected over time. Experienced cyclists don’t even think about it, changing gears automatically. A beginner needs to set everything empirically, because the speed of the bike will depend not only on the gears, but also on the physical condition of the rider. As we said earlier, riding in one gear with a high-speed bike is very bad. At least, the cassette is erased faster, and then a bike with speeds is not needed. But first of all, this demonstrates the inability to use the technique.
How to use gears correctly?
The gearshift mechanism is highly susceptible to adverse factors. In order for it to serve for a long time and never fail, several basic rules should be observed from the very beginning.
After buying a new bike, the first step is to set up the gearshift system. If it is already configured and works stably, then of course, you don’t need to go into it. We will tell you how to do this in another article. For example, here we wrote about the rear derailleur.
There are some simple guidelines:
Switch on the go
You can only change gears while the bike is in motion. In a stationary state, the shifter will also work, but the position chain will not change. Then, after the start of the movement, there will be a sharp jump from one star to another. This could cause the chain to jump off or become stuck between the sprockets.
Switch in advance
Switching speeds is possible only when there is no pedal load. When climbing up, overcoming bumps or quickly screwing in, the load is maximum, and it is too late to fold the gears. This should always be taken care of in advance. For example, if you see a rise in front of you, then you need to switch at least a few meters before it. Otherwise, the mechanism may simply not work. In addition, there is a possibility of damage to the stars and breaking the chain. However, you can switch on the mountain. High quality equipment allows you to do this. But both with an expensive quality body kit and with the simplest switch there is a way to switch on the mountain. It is enough to accelerate the bike until inertia appears, then release the pressure on the pedals and, while rotating the pedals while the bike is inertia (or is at the balance point), change the gear. In this case, switching will not cause difficulties.
Switch step by step
For the same reason, on inexpensive switches, you cannot simultaneously throw off or raise the gear by several values at once. This needs to be done in stages: click. chain movement. several turns of the pedals. click- and so on. In case you are trying to throw over several stars, you will need to make sure that the chain is in the right position and only then make efforts.
There is such a thing as prohibited transmissions. When changing speeds while riding, make sure that there are no strong distortions of the chain. If the front of the chain is on the outermost sprocket, and the back is on the outermost sprocket (or vice versa), then, in addition to the likelihood of the chain slipping, there is a risk of its premature wear and damage to the mechanism. The more parallel it is in relation to the frame, the better. Optimal combinations of front and rear chain positions can be indicated as follows:
- 3. large front. 4-8 back
- 2. middle front. 3-6 back
- 1. small front. 1-3 back.
The best way to shift gears on a bike
As already mentioned, gear changes can only be made with minimal pedal load.
Therefore, the optimal speed switching scheme looks like this:
- Pedaling vigorously, accelerate the bike.
- Then stop pedaling. The moment when the bike is still moving by inertia at high speed without the assistance of a cyclist is optimal for gear shifting. If we are talking about grief, then you need to feel the balance point (although if you have enough strength before acceleration to move by inertia, it is even better).
- At this moment, you need to click the shifter and hear the characteristic throwing of the chain.
- After pressing, start pedaling again. at least until you hear the click of the chain that jumped to the adjacent sprocket. If there was no click, or instead of it you hear the crackle of the chain hanging in an indefinite position, slightly press on the same lever without pressing it all the way. Continue pedaling while doing this. The chain will change position within a few seconds. However, the technique only works when we have direct thrust. Therefore, the focus will work only in those cases when the switching (and up or down) is provided by pulling the cable. Otherwise there is little use. Then you can simply shift to the next gear, hear the shift and return the handle back. True, the chain can slip through the desired star. This happens on inexpensive, low quality switches or improperly configured hardware.
If you are doing everything correctly, but gears are still difficult to shift, pay attention to the condition of the chain and sprockets. After each ride, they must be cleaned of dirt and excess moisture. This is especially important when skiing in winter. The chain should be lubricated as often as possible. in the winter before each ride, in the summer once a week. The cause of switching problems may lie in the wear of the mechanism. If suddenly the chain starts to slide right over the teeth, then it’s time to change either the cassette or the corresponding star. Also, if the switch is already old, then the return springs could weaken and positioning could be lost. Such equipment will definitely not work to set up ideal work.
How to properly switch gears on a bike
In fact, cycling gear shifting is a trained art that depends on the rider’s physical condition, long-term training, and the design of a particular bike. Consider various factors in this article.
First of all, the correct shifting depends on the bike device. Previously, there were no shifting problems, as there were no speeds on most bicycles. All obstacles were overcome with the power of the rider or on foot. To understand how to change speeds, you should study the design of the shifting system itself.
Speeds and stars
The first derailleur bikes were models such as the Tourist, the massive heirs to sport bikes from the 70s. They did not have a front derailleur, but the cassette allowed you to choose one of four speeds.
Over time, the number of available speeds grew, and now bicycles with 18, 21, 24 and 27 values are becoming the de facto standard. Usually this is a combination of 3 stars on the front derailleur and 6-9 on the rear, in a combination of 3 and 7 stars, 21 speeds are obtained. Some high-speed models have already acquired 10 stars on the rear derailleur, but so far this is a rarity.
Actually, “speed” is a star, and the total gear ratio is obtained from a combination of the current stars selected by the front and rear derailleurs.
Correct switching does not require much knowledge. Almost all bicycle models are equipped with a cable that brings the force from the shifter. the control of the switch. to the switch itself.
When the cable is pulled, the derailleur frame moves and transfers the chain to the chainring of a larger diameter, when released, it falls or moves to smaller stars. These actions are performed without auxiliary mechanisms, using the flexibility of the chain and friction with the switch frame, i.e. the chain and all elements are under stress; transmissions are not provided for in normal operation. Because of this, there is a recommendation not to switch gears under load or without movement.
Despite the fact that nominally there can be 27-30 speeds in the transmission, i.e. combinations of sprockets, not all of them are recommended to be used, as they are dangerous for the mechanisms of the bicycle. Why is this happening? Not all stars are in the same plane, which means that when they are combined, the chain experiences a load at a small angle, which causes additional friction and, as a result, bending of the links, then stretching of the chain and subsequent damage to both the chain and the stars.
The basic rule is the approximate parallelism of the chain of the plane of the stars, without distortions. In numbers, for the current classic 24-speed mountain bike, the value on the rear derailleur should be between double and triple the value on the front, with a few exceptions at the edges, such as combinations 1-1. Those. out of 24 options, it is recommended to use the following gearshift scheme:
- On 3. the largest chainring. reverse speeds 6, 7, 8.
- 2 stars. rear 6,5,4.
- On 1 star. rear 1,2,3.
Of course, these rules may be violated depending on the conditions, but they have already become a generally accepted standard.
Consider the physical fitness of a cyclist.
Cadence is the cadence at which the cyclist rides. Ideal for long journeys is a stable cadence, i.e. if the pedals rotate evenly throughout the path, and the uneven terrain, the headwind is compensated for by combinations of speeds.
But if endurance is important only over long distances, then at any time you should keep in mind the health of joints and muscles. Many novice riders overload their knees, delivering maximum effort with each crank revolution. Not only does this tire and damage the muscles, but with prolonged repetition it will affect the health of the knee joint. Professionals use stable and frequent movements without serious strain on the legs. This mode is the safest for both cyclists and bicycles.
Training and preparation
To prepare for driving at the start of the day or season, it is recommended to use downshifts. The first 10-20 minutes of a long ride, the legs need a “warm-up”, for which the ideal cadence of 60 rpm (movements per minute) and the minimum load. i.e. speeds with 1 and 2 chainrings.
A similar recommendation in a more global sense. the first hundred kilometers of the season, especially on a mountain bike, should be overcome in low gears so that the legs “remember” the skills and are not damaged by too serious changes in the daily load.
When it comes to gear shifting, these are almost always standard derailleurs, but there are other models, for example, planetary hub and “hello” from the automotive world. automatic transmissions.
Urban bikes and designer choppers usually do not have a front derailleur, but there is a rare thing in the bicycle world. a planetary hub, when the gear and shift system is packaged in a single closed mechanism that is installed inside the wheel. This principle is used on cars, but does not find much recognition among cyclists, absorbs too much energy (up to 10%).
On the other hand, the planetary hub does not have any mechanical factors limiting shifting. you can change gears both under load and at the “inappropriate” moment. The mechanism will work properly.
Of course, manufacturers do not live quietly in a stable market, and they are looking for new uses for their engineers’ talent. So, for a long time, the top firms Shimano and SRAM have been producing small batches of automatic gearboxes, where, using electronic sensors (Shimano Nexis, Auto, etc.), they switch speeds in the planetary hub.
There are also rare models with automatic gear shifting on a mechanical basis. the rotational speed is determined by the centrifugal force of the load, which is why the mechanism changes the gear ratio.
you can make a small list of theses, according to which, even before gaining the proper experience, you can switch quite accurately and correctly using the following speed switching rules:
- switch only while driving and without serious load;
- control the bike using the transmission, not muscular effort;
- switch in advance, and not at the last moment, or when “it became too difficult”;
- shift gears one by one and in turn in front and behind;
- do not deviate from the normal combinations of stars;
- keep the bike clean and avoid excessive wear of the parts.
How to properly switch gears on a bike
For lovers of active recreation in recent years, a large selection of bicycles has been offered, designed both for walking around the city and for extreme recreation. Almost all modern models have several gear changes, but not everyone knows their exact and correct use. Meanwhile, this system allows you to operate the bike competently and carefully. How to properly switch speeds on a bike, we will consider in more detail below.
It is important to learn how to switch gears correctly
If you use a bicycle with one gear for movement, then the additional load applied when driving off-road, in contrast to racing on the highway, will immediately be noticeable. Well, if it is necessary to overcome hills and hills ahead, then the loads increase many times.
It is in order to reduce these loads to a minimum, as well as to regulate them, that modern gear changes have been created. It is imperative to learn how to use them correctly so that cycling is as efficient and comfortable as possible on any trail, especially when going uphill.
Gear shifting must be clearly coordinated with each other to prevent premature chain breakdown and failure of the entire transmission. Having learned how to make a competent gear change, the cyclist will select the most optimal pace in riding and spend the minimum amount of energy.
Many bicycles currently produced have up to 3 stars in the front (in the system) and 7 to 12 in the rear (in the cassette), with a chain stretched between them. The shifter or shifters (with numbers corresponding to the speeds) are located on the handlebars of the bike:
- on the left is a shifter that adjusts the front speed;
- on the right. the shifter moves the chain along the cassette;
- the connection of the mechanisms on the steering wheel and on the frame is made by two cables.
When shifting the shifters, the chain is shifted to the desired stars.
Just like that, not knowing how the gears work, you shouldn’t click on the bike speeds. There are such combinations of front and rear sprockets, which can subsequently lead to a breakdown of the transmission. they absolutely must not be allowed.
Correct chain position
The main rule for the position of the chain is its parallel arrangement relative to the plane of the sprockets, without kinks and distortions. If, sitting on a bicycle, look from above at the chain in the transmission, you can see its location:
- The front and back of the chain lie parallel or under a slightly noticeable bend. these are the correct speeds;
- There is a sharp bend between the front and rear of the chain. this is a skew. It will be visible when setting the first speed at the front (left shifter) and the highest at the rear (right shifter). This ratio is not correct and may damage the bike chain and mechanisms.
Correct gear ratio
Depending on the situation on the roads, the quality of the tracks, one or another speed is set. Let’s consider the basic principles using the example of a typical 3×9 transmission.
The chainrings (system) are responsible for choosing the difficulty of the track and driving:
- The first star. the smallest, is selected when the bike rides through mud, sand, off-road. Climbing the mountain and rocky trails also pass on it;
- The second is larger in size, suitable for a track with numerous turns, where the bike is waiting for an unpaved road, bumps and small irregularities;
- The third is the largest, chosen for driving on a flat highway, for maximum speeds.
Each of the forward gears of the system corresponds to a set of rear (cassettes).
The cassette is needed to fine-tune the gear shift of the bike for a specific situation on the road (for example, going down and uphill). Back stars are numbered in reverse order from front stars. The first is the largest, then the numbering increases, and the diameter of the stars decreases, depending on the number in a given bicycle model.
There is a simple formula by which you can calculate how to properly use gear changes. For this, the total number of reverse gears is divided by the total number of forward gears and the ratio of the reverse gears is obtained for each of the forward ones. For example, with a transmission of 3 front and 9 rear stars, each front will correspond to 3 rear (9: 3 = 3).
Using an example, you can easily navigate the gear change:
- On a straight and level road, the cyclist is advised to use the large (third) chainring, which means that 9.8 and 7 rear chainrings will fit it;
- On a country road, with irregularities, a rider on a bicycle bike should choose the second front one and the corresponding 6,5,4 rear ones;
- If the cyclist has a route on mountain trails and ascents, then the changeover of the chainring must be set to the first, small one. A set of suitable reverse gears for her. 3,2,1.
This arrangement is considered an ideal solution, but in practice, one more chainring is allowed to the set of rear sprockets. For example, to the front first small. 4,3,2,1.
How to select speeds
When starting a bike ride, professionals recommend choosing second forward gear and driving a short section of the path, pedaling intensively. This is the most advantageous speed option for the cyclist and his legs. Starting from a large third forward gear will result in too much load and not enough in first gear to maintain balance on the bike.
Having picked up the pace and orientated yourself on the track, you can choose the right gear on the cassette. If the road surface is even, smoothly select reverse gears on the right shifter. Up to the maximum speed corresponding to the second chainring, it will be 7. Only in this position is it possible to switch to the third large forward gear.
When the track deteriorates or there is an ascent ahead, switch the speed of the bike as follows:
- smoothly adjust the reverse gears to the minimum (in the example with the second sprocket, this is 4-3);
- switch the front sprocket to a small one. the first;
- after passing difficult sections of the track, you should again select the second front and, if necessary, then the third.
It is important to know that:
- the front second (middle) star is the main working one, with which the bicycle begins to move and ends it with it;
- speed switching is carried out only on a moving bicycle;
- at the moment of switching the speed, it is impossible to pedal diligently, at this moment the rolling should be inertial;
- the switching zone before going up, down or other changes on the road is considered a few meters before the obstacle.
What not to do
Summing up, I must say what not worth doing:
- roughly switch gears without observing the relationships between the stars. the elements of the mechanism will be damaged;
- do not follow the assignment of gears and the type of road. this leads to breakdowns;
- adjust the reverse gears first, and then the forward ones. this is unacceptable;
- switching regulation under loads from pedaling. this leads to accelerated wear of the chain and the entire transmission;
- do not regularly clean the bike. dirty elements of the chain and sprockets hinder the operation of the transmission and increase its wear.
Learning to properly switch the speed ratio of a bike is not difficult. It takes some time to get used to and get used to. But in the future, cycling will be much more comfortable and easier, and gear shifting will reach automaticity and will be intuitive.
Cycling speeds how to use 21
Understanding the essence and purpose of a different number of speeds. you can start choosing a bike with the best number of gears for you. Try to consider all the nuances: your riding style. preferred speeds and the type of surface (or lack thereof) on which you will ride. If you are still confused by something. try to ride. using different switching modes. focusing on the comfort of the trip.
You need to select the transfer based on your capabilities and feelings. But there are a couple of things to keep in mind, whether you’re driving uphill or just on a flat road. First. cadence (cadence). Too low a cadence is harmful to the knees, given that the load on them increases greatly. Optimum can be considered 90-100 rpm. / Min. This is approximately the frequency at which pedaling is not difficult, but at the same time I did not chatter my legs. When changing gears, you should always focus on these numbers and try to get used to them, then the ride will be efficient. Second point. select a gear in which the chain moves as smoothly as possible from the chainring to the rear. You need to try to make the chain go as smoothly as possible. Gears such as 1-8 (7), 3-1 (2), and any other gears that show that the chain is noticeably bent and begins to touch the front derailleur frame should not be allowed. By the way, it may also depend on the setting of the front derailleur. It may be that the clutch runs quite smoothly, but the front derailleur is poorly tuned and therefore the chain is rubbing against it. The length of the carriage shaft is also important. If the bike is in stock configuration, then most likely the carriage shaft is of the appropriate length, but if someone once changed the cartridge and missed a little with the shaft length, then there may already be problems. The first (small) sprocket in the front is generally needed very rarely on steep hills or in heavy mud when driving slowly. medium-sized slides should pass the middle one in the front and 2-3 in the back. Although, of course, here again everything is individual and depends on the cassette (rear sprocket) that you have installed. On the “mountain” cassettes (large sprocket 32-34 teeth) it turns out like this.
Great, thanks for the shifting instructions! 🙂 Already switch, I drove 30 km without preparation on a very hilly terrain, drove 50 slides 🙂 Format 2 = 3 best! 🙂 But along the way I retested all your advice 🙂 I started with advice 2 = 3-6. 2 = 3.4 good and very. But when I went to 2 = 5, or 2 = 6, I realized by the sound of the chain that it was wrong and left these speeds. And later I realized why, there are 6 rear sprockets on my bike, and not 8 as in the example. In this regard, the question: If the bike is 18-speed and there are 6 (six) stars in the back, then what is the format for the 2nd big star? 2 = 3-4? or 2 = 3-5? That 2 = 6 is a gross violation, I know. And accordingly, which other formats, for the 1st and 3rd big stars? 1 = 1-4 test, nothing squeaks, and just at speed 1 = 4 the bike goes uphill optimally, 1 = 3 slower, and 1 = 1.2 it’s not clear why these speeds are, you pedal, but the bike is almost not moves. And the format for the third big star. The third big star has never tested, because the terrain is very hilly, nowhere to accelerate. At a speed of 1 = 4 I climbed without preparation, tired, against a strong wind up a steep long hill :), but I want to call in all mountains at a speed of 2 = 3 after a little training.
I have 21 gears (3? 7), sometimes the following happens: the front sprockets do not want to switch from second to third, but switches from first to third. and so it can happen in the reverse order (from 2 to 1 does not want and from 3 to 1 wants). the same bullshit happens on the rear sprockets with different gears. a previously acquaintance was doing something there. and everything passed. for a while. Now the friend left and the problem appeared again. And even at low speed, I can not shift in forward gears. just not enough strength. is going very tight. I don’t know, it’s okay. or with a bike ?
Final stage. chain lubrication. Gently apply a drop of viscous oil: a drop to each pivot (if special chain oil is available) or dot spray every three links. After completing this procedure, grasp the pedal and rotate it for a while. oil will penetrate into closed circuit components. Take a rag in your hands and carefully, squeezing the chain through the rag in your hand, wipe off any excess oil on the chain. The procedure is almost complete. sit on the bike and try to get all lubricated components in motion. switch the speed switches back and forth one division, try the braking system. Easily wipe off any oil residues on the outer parts and your bike is as good as new!
Every mountain bike must have a front suspension fork on it, or else you’re buying yourself all the potholes in the road. Of course, the presence of a shock absorber itself is a dampening factor for the speed, but extinguishing is not as great as the headache is strong. The task of the suspension fork is unambiguous. absorb the impact of the front wheel of the bicycle on the road surface. On a rigid fork bike, impact energy travels through the fork, handlebars, and your hands straight to your head. After riding on bad roads 3-4 hours a day for a week (this is how much a simple bike trip takes) and the issue of purchasing a suspension fork will be resolved immediately. The simplest and cheapest (800. 1500 rubles) plugs have metal springs inside. The springs, of course, will be compressed from the impact, but then abruptly “will shoot ” back. Such forks are usually installed on the simplest bicycles. On mid-range bikes, two other options are used “toppings ” forks. In the first case, elastomers (soft polymer inserts) are installed. complex forks combine the benefits of both options. There are efficient forks that use springs in combination with elastomers and hydraulics. A normal fork (firms RST, Manitou, Mozo) of the primary and middle class with a travel of 60.90 mm can fit from 3000 to 6000 rubles.
The first check of the correct size. height “standover ” (below in the first picture). This is the distance from the ground to the middle of the top surface of the top pipe. If, standing over the top tube in the shoe you are going to ride, you cannot vigorously jump on your heels without touching the top tube, then the bike is definitely too big for you to ride it safely. A bike that you will only ride on tarmac and never ride off-road should have a standover height at least 3.5 centimeters less than your crotch height. A bike for traveling on various unpaved trails. by 5-8 centimeters, and the bike for the present “mountain ” riding on very rough terrain. 10 or more centimeters.
Choosing the right saddle for your riding style is extremely important because, in addition to comfort, the saddle is critical to proper circulation and leg work. Manufacturers offer dozens of saddle options for all types of cyclists. these are comfortable soft walking models, hard and narrow racing saddles, saddles for long cycling trips and difficult cross-country trails. Good saddles also take into account the male and female anatomy, so you can always find a model that suits you. The seat is adjustable in three directions. in height, in longitudinal displacement and in tilt. When buying a bike, ask the seller to adjust the saddle so that it is comfortable for you. You can subsequently change these settings if necessary. For details on how to change the saddle position on each specific bike, see the owner’s manual.
Basic rule. this is the approximate parallelism of the chain of the plane of the stars. without distortions. In numbers. for the now classic 24. speed mountain bike. the value on the rear derailleurs should be between double and triple the value on the front derailleur. with a few exceptions. at the edges. eg. combinations 1-1. That is, with 24 options, it is recommended to use the following speed switching scheme:
Firstly. correct shifting depends on the bike design. Previously, there were no shifting problems, as well as speeds on most bicycles. All obstacles were overcome with the power of the rider or on foot. To understand. how to switch speeds. the design of the switching system itself should be examined.
In fact. switching speeds on a bike. it is Trained art. which also depends on the physical condition of the rider. and from lengthy preparation. and from the device of a particular bike. Consider various factors in this article.
When the cable is pulled, the derailleur frame moves and transfers the chain to the large diameter sprocket. upon dismissal. comes or moves to lesser stars. These actions are performed without auxiliary mechanisms. using chain flexibility and friction with a derailleur frame. that is, the circuit and all elements are stressed. transmissions are not provided for in normal operation. Because of this, there is a recommendation not to switch gears under load or without movement.
Particular attention should be paid to the moment at which the switching is carried out. It is necessary to switch gears one at a time, simultaneously with the rotation of the pedals. In this case, the pedals should be pressed very lightly, in order to avoid a heavy load on the chain. If shifting with or without pedaling, there is a high risk of damaging the switches (especially when using entry-level equipment), breaking the chain, and even getting serious injury. For example, about approaching a steep climb, it is better to pre-select the desired speed.
Gear shifting should not be neglected. This will help save energy and reduce the likelihood of serious injury. For example, in low gears, it is very easy to hit almost any grade. and in high gears it is possible to reach top speed. Just try and enjoy all the possibilities of a modern mountain bike !
At low cadence. that is, if the pedaling speed is too low, you have to press hard on the pedals to maintain the speed of the bicycle, muscles quickly clog. high risk of joint diseases. Low cadence. one of the causes of knee pain when cycling.