Assembling an e-bike at home is not at all scary and takes one to two hours if you do it for the first time.
Connect the motor wires to the controller: Hall sensor connector and phase wires
White six-pin female and three color-coded Anderson connectors.
White six-pin female connector and three black XT150 connectors, wired by wire colors.
(Optional) 5. Connect the display
- On Light, Mark I and Mark II controllers (with Light, Light and Classic motors). white five-pin male connector. for KT-LCD3 display. Before connecting the display, remove the jumper from the connector. If the display turns off. the jumper must be put back. It won’t work without it.
On Infineon controllers. black six-pin male connector. for CycleAnalyst display.
Wire assignments and connectors are slightly different depending on the controller:
E Bike Thumb Throttle Install Wiring Video. voilamart Controller.
(Optional) 4. Connect the pedal assist sensor
Black three-pin male connector on the controller side.
XLD Brainpower XunLiDa controller and S866 shield. Accessible E-Bike Brains and Eyes
Chinese controller with screen for e-bike. My double mistake or double success? I share my opinion on the hardware of e-bikes and how to set it all up
When you assemble your first electric bike, the level of knowledge is close to zero and there is not much clarity about what should be taken at all. As a result, you take and run to buy a ready-made set, which is not always cheap. With my series of articles, I will try to tell you how cheaply you can assemble an electric bike and we will begin our story with two far from the last components. a controller and an LCD screen of an electric bike.
This set was almost the first one that caught my eye on Alishka and became sharply interesting to me when I saw the cost of about 30-32. behind the screen controller. The thing is that the most common controller on the market costs about UAH 700 (
26, we are not about China-China, but about good China). The screen for it is estimated at about 800 UAH (
30 cu) and higher. depends on the functionality. Who wants to cheaper. buys controller power buttons with three LEDs, showing the state of the batteries, but not allowing us to fully configure the controller.
The main indicator of the quality of a particular thing for me is its discussion on the forums. In particular, this controller on Endless Sphere has a whole thread discussing the connection and controller settings, where you can get the information you need. I’ll tell you about the functionality and how this kit can be configured.
I’ll make a reservation right away, the controller was bought here, but I don’t give recommendations for buying it there. The link is rather to my specific kit. The controller itself has all the standard outputs that we may need in our project. Let’s analyze them:
- Dual connector for the brake lever. It implies connection of a special brake lever with disconnection of the motor power in case of braking. Basically, this handle is needed / required if you use the PAS system or cruise control, since in both modes the motor can work without your direct participation, therefore, so that the motor stops working and gives you the opportunity to brake sharply. the presence of such a handle is mandatory on a bicycle.
- Lamp. Possibility of connecting a battery powered light. As far as I remember, the voltage there is close to the voltage of the battery used, therefore, a voltage converter should be installed under a lamp other than 36 volts.
- Conclusion for the work of the PAS system. My plug on the PAS sensor was slightly different, just below I will attach a photo with the most common pinouts. Usually red is 5v, black is ground (-), the third color that can be on the controller (in our case, blue) is, directly, “signal”
- Intellectual tuning. If we connected the phase wires and the motor does not work properly and we do not know how to connect the phase wires (do not get fooled by the same color. In the controller and on the motor, they can mean completely different contacts), the following operation should be done. we connect the two green wires. We turn on the power on the screen. If the engine turns in the right direction, we disconnect our connection from the green wires and turn off the power. If the engine does not spin at all, push the throttle handle all the way. And we do this until the engine starts spinning in the right direction. After we start to disconnect them and turn off the power.
- LCD display connection. We connect the screen to this connector.
- Throttle stick. We connect the throttle here if we use it and / or it.
- Master key. The controller came connected with it. Probably, instead of it, you can connect the “ignition key”, but I do not have it, so I did not connect it.
- Electronic brake. Not used, but probably blocks the motor from moving, thereby preventing the bike from riding.
- Hall sensor connector. In some motors, the phase wires and Hall sensor wires run from the motor to the controller in one round cable. This controller is designed for a separate connection.
- Battery powered. Red, respectively, plus, black. minus.
- Phase wires of the motor. Initially, it is better to connect by color, but if there is a mismatch, then we use the intelligent setting mode.
Difficulties can begin when you have to tune the controller to suit your parameters. I was not able to find the decryption of the parameters right away. Data taken from this
P01 Screen backlight level (1-3) P02 Miles or kilometers (display value) P03 Battery / motor voltage setting (based on this the residual capacity is calculated) P04 Display sleep timer (1-60 minutes, 0 = do not turn off the backlight) P05 Number assist speed (0 = 3 levels, 1 = 5 levels) P06 Wheel diameter (costs 26, but the feeling that you need to set more because the speed is incorrect) P07 Number of speed magnets (1-100, I have 20) P08 Speed limit after which the engine is switched off (0-100 km) P09 Start with or without assistant (0 = start without assist, 1 = start with first assistant level) P10 Select driving mode (assistant, throttle stick, without throttle and assistant, throttle stick) P11 Motor acceleration sensitivity (1-24) P12 Motor acceleration start level (0-5) P13 Select the number of disk magnets pas (5,8,12) P14 Current limit (1-20A) P15 Controller trip voltage (be careful not to set the voltage too low, I set 30.5, set below 30 not desirable, and the mileage gain will be insignificant) P16 Reset ALC (accumulated kilometers. Press the button for 5 seconds) P17 Cruise speed (0 disabled, 1 enabled) P18 Display speed correction (50%
150%) P19 Motor selection (0 direct, 1 gear) P20 0 = Protocol No.2, 1 = 5S Protocol; 2 = Alternate; 3 = Alternate (the default is 0, I didn’t really understand what the parameter is)
The data on the number of magnets can be taken from the motor seller, in fact it seems to me that the values of P06 and P07 are selected more to correctly display the speed. When the mood is fully led by the article I will add.
At the top of the display, the error of our kit is also displayed. I don’t really see the meaning of translating, since a literal translation will not give anything, but from what is in the instructions plus or minus it is clear what the problem might be:
0 normal status 1 Reserved 2 brake 3 Power sensor failure (ride sign) Not implemented here 4 6KM / H cruise 2 brake 3 Power sensor failure (ride sign) Not implemented here 4 6KM / H cruise 5 Real-time cruise 6 Battery undervoltage 7 Motor failure 8 Turn fault 9 Controller failure 10 Communication reception failure 11 Communication failure 12 BMS communication failure 13 Headlight failure
Along with the topic on Endless Sphere, no less discussions of this kit can be found on another resource on the Pedelecs forum. On it, I found instructions for the controller, where all my settings items are described in more detail. You can download the instruction by clicking on this link.
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It is nice to understand that in a sense, “poking my finger into the sky” I got to the controller, which is great for the implementation of an electric bike with a motor power of up to 350 watts. Frankly, from my point of view, this power behind the eyes will be for normal driving both in the form of pedaling assistance and in the case of using the throttle stick. In addition to electric bicycles, this controller is often installed as a replacement for gyroboards, scooters and other vehicles where the power of the motor wheels does not exceed 350 watts. If I understand correctly under this brand there are more powerful controllers, but the post about which I personally dealt with.
Knowing the parameters of the motor / controller and understanding what and where to connect, you should not have any questions about what to do with this whole set. But “if suddenly”. I will be glad to hear your questions in the Комментарии и мнения владельцев under this post.
Electric bike. Main controls. PAS system
For most e-bike owners, at first, it is not entirely clear how to properly use the capabilities of the control system. Due to the fact that different models of e-bikes are supplied to different regions of the world, including countries with a number of restrictions, they can be equipped with three control systems: Pedal assist system; Throttle handle; Pedal assis system and accelerator handle. The essence of the pedal assist system is that the controller connects the electric bike to the engine while the cyclist is pedaling. As soon as the pedaling stops, the engine is switched off after 1-2 seconds. The connection of the motor to the wheel motor can be carried out at several power levels, selected by the cyclist on the remote control. The choice of the desired power is made with the buttons “” and “-“. On the same remote control there is a button for turning on the headlight and an indicator of the charge level of the power battery of the electric bike.
Electric bicycles equipped only with pedal assist control system are mainly supplied to the countries of the European Union. The pedal assist system is installed due to the fact that EU legislation does not allow the use of an electric bike in scooter mode. Therefore, all bicycles supplied to the EU countries do not have an accelerator (gas) handle, although the control controller has a special connector for connecting the accelerator handle. The pedal assist control system is convenient enough for an electric bike without a lot of interference and infrequent maneuvers. But it is not suitable and even dangerous for traffic where frequent maneuvering is required. For example, in narrow winding passages, city traffic jams, along forest paths. Imagine this picture:. you have pedal assist mode enabled. You entered a courtyard where there are many parked cars. You need to make a turn in the passage between cars, your speed fades, and you want to add speed a little. Turn the pedals slightly and at this moment for 1-1.5 seconds (rather unexpectedly) the electric motor turns on (“helps you”) and you, not having time to lay the turn, ram one of the cars. When driving on country roads or forest paths, such obstacle situations will be repeated many times. Even starting off in the pedal assist “LOW” mode causes some anxiety if there is an obstacle in the path of your movement. A sufficiently high level of training is required from the cyclist. It seems that the European legislator, who prepared this norm, has never sat on an electric bike that has only a pedal-assist control system and does not have an accelerator handle.
Another thing is the presence of the “throttle handle” (accelerator), which is located on the handlebars of the electric bike. By turning the throttle handle, you have the ability to accurately and dosed add or remove engine power. Precise maneuvering in all driving situations and starting off is not difficult. Want to. pedal and connect the engine to the required power, or you can fly with the breeze like on a scooter without resorting to pedaling.
Finally, you can take advantage of the hybrid driving mode. turn on one of the pedal assist modes, and in necessary situations add the necessary power to the engine with the throttle stick. Also quite convenient.
How to check the throttle stick on an e-bike
After replacement or initial installation, the accelerator handle must be checked according to the following algorithm:
- slightly raise the drive wheel;
- press the button for turning on the electrical components;
- depending on the design features of the handle used, smoothly press the speed control lever or turn the grip;
- if problems are identified, identify and eliminate their cause;
- with correct operation of the control, check its operation in the quiet driving mode.
Electric bike throttle grip device
The internal structure of all models is almost the same. There is a Hall sensor inside and a permanent magnet is attached to the case. Depending on the current position of the speed control lever, the sensor determines the position of the magnet, changes its output voltage and sends a control signal to the controller. According to this signal, the controller regulates the engine speed and the driving speed. In practice, this looks like the dependence of the speed on the angle of rotation of the throttle.
The red wire is supplying 4.5V from the controller. There is also a black wire (ground) and a white signal wire, which, depending on the position of the lever, outputs a voltage of 2-3.5 V. The controller is usually supplied with a control voltage of 0.8-4.2 V. If there is an on / off button in the handle design. the charge indicator or ignition switch, the currents supplied to the handle correspond to the total voltage of the electrical components. 24, 36, 48 or 60 V.
The typical location for the throttle stick on an e-bike is on the right handlebar. To avoid the handle breakage, at the start it is necessary to avoid its sharp rotation until it stops. In addition, a smooth start has a beneficial effect on the operation of electronic components and helps to avoid breakdown.
Why does the throttle stick on an e-bike not work?
Despite the simplicity and reliability of the design, the throttle handle sometimes refuses to work. As a rule, the internal cause of malfunctions lies in the unsoldering of the wire, peeling off the magnet or the Hall sensor falling out of its socket.
From external factors, power surges, rough handling, mechanical damage, natural wear, loss of tightness and ingress of water into the control can lead to malfunction of the handle. Other causes of breakdown are not excluded.
Variety of models
Most throttle sticks are compatible with any control controller, as they all supply 5 volts and, as a rule, support the operation of the throttle lever on the hall sensor. Compatibility is confirmed by the presence of 3 wires on the control controller for connection to the throttle lever.
All models are sized for the traditional 22.2mm handlebars. By type of construction, they are:
- Kick or lever. ATV-type models that have a small lever (tongue) to adjust the speed, which is controlled by the thumb. In addition, such a control element usually contains an on / off button for electrical components and a battery charge indicator. On long journeys, using the lever models will strain the wrist.
- Full arm. models of a scooter or motorcycle type, providing for the rotation of almost the entire handle, except for the base fixed to the handlebar. Some models are additionally equipped with an ignition switch and a battery charge level indicator.
- On the half-arms there are gripshift devices with a rotating part in the form of a wide ring. A practical solution that is user-friendly and easy to operate. In addition, there is usually a battery charge indicator and an on / off button for the electronics on the case. The swing angle of the movable ring is generally up to 70 °.
The throttle stick on a personal electric vehicle is used to control the electric motor. A 5 V power cable is connected to it, and there is a Hall sensor inside. Taking into account the angle of rotation of the throttle lever by the rider, the sensor outputs a voltage from 0 to 4.2 V. Based on this data, the controller doses the power supply to the wheel motor. Accordingly, with the help of the throttle handle, the electric motor is driven and turned off, the power supply to the engine is regulated, the torque and speed of movement are changed.
In addition to the handle, lever or trigger of the accelerator, the PAS system can be used to control the electric motor. If desired, it can be used without the throttle, but the power control in this case will be less comfortable. The best option is to use the throttle stick or install a PAS system in addition to it.
How to connect the throttle stick to an e-bike controller
Classic connectors are used to connect the throttle stick to the e-bike controller. Typically, the control controller has a dark 6-way connector for this purpose. An identical connector is also found on the accelerator handle, which is equipped with a power button and a battery charge level indicator.
If there are differences in the connectors, you can determine the purpose of the wiring by their color:
- for speed control. red 5V, white signal, black ground;
- to turn on the controller. closed wiring of brown-yellow color;
- for the battery charge level indicator. green.
The exact colors of the wires are indicated in the instructions for the particular product. If there are additional buttons and levers on the speed control lever, you can determine the corresponding wires using the tester. When dialing, it will show a signal when the button is on and zero when it is off.
When connecting the handle, the wire should be fixed to the frame without tension using plastic clamps or electrical tape. This is important not only for the appearance of the e-bike, but also for preventing wire breakage while riding. The wording “no stretch” means that no overtightening should be felt when turning the steering wheel. To protect the contacts from moisture and dust, the joints are treated with silicone sealant.
Electric bike throttle handle repair
Repair actions involve identifying and eliminating the cause of the problem. Most often, they consist in replacing a failed Hall sensor with a workable analogue of the SS49E series. A clear sign of a sensor malfunction looks like this: when the electric bike is turned on, the handle shows the battery charge level, but nothing happens when gas is added.
In this case, you need to find among the wires of the controller the connector to which the throttle stick is connected. Usually 6 wires go from it: 2 for the power button, 1 for the charge indicator and 3 for the Hall sensor. You need to supply power to the e-bike controller and find a 5-volt line with a multimeter. Usually this is the red and black wire, and the 3rd wire connected on this mowing line is the signal.
To check if a signal comes from it when gas is added, you need to put the positive contact of a multimeter on it. When the grip is rotated or the trigger is turned, the voltage value at the output of the Hall sensor should change. It does not change, which means that the Hall sensor is faulty and must be replaced. For this:
- The throttle handle is disassembled: the window is removed, pushed with something flat and the rubber jacket is pulled together, the plastic latches are carefully removed. The main thing is not to rush so as not to break them. Next, you need to remove the return spring, unscrew the screws and remove the plastic housing cover.
- Inside there are a power button, a battery charge indicator and a Hall sensor. It must be removed from the seat and see the number written on it. Instead of a faulty sensor, you need to install the same, but serviceable one. Remove the heat shrinkage from the sensor legs and unsolder the wires. Next, put on a new heat shrink and solder the leads of the new sensor. After soldering, tighten the heat shrinkage to the sensor and warm it up with a hair dryer. Proceed in the same way with all 3 wires.
- Reinstall the soldered Hall sensor and lay the wires neatly.
- Before assembling the handle, it is advisable to treat all rubbing elements with a solvent-free lubricant to reduce wear on plastic and extend the life of the control.
- Next, you need to correctly install the housing cover, return spring, glass, rubber pad, viewing window and fixing pad.
- The repaired and assembled throttle stick only needs to be tested.
The process of disassembling and assembling the accelerator handle of an electric bike in order to replace the Hall sensor is clearly demonstrated in the video for this article.
Installing or replacing the throttle grip
Activation and change of the torque value of the motor-wheel in e-bicycles can be done according to one of two mechanisms: applying the appropriate force to the pedals by the cyclist (in “pedelec” e-bikes) or turning the accelerator handle, or in other words. throttle ).
The accelerator handle (throttle grip) is one of the mandatory components of an electronic bicycle kit, designed to convert a bicycle to an electric one and perform the function of controlling (adjusting) the speed of rotation of the motor-wheel.
The accelerator handle is the device without which the creation of a full-fledged, comfortable e-bike for a cyclist will be simply physically impossible.
Based on the voltage sent from the throttle grip, the controller adjusts the travel speed of the electric bike by controlling the power supply to the electric motor. The rate of the developed speed of the electric bike directly depends on the angle of rotation of the throttle handle. Carrying out smooth turns of the accelerator handle, it is possible to accurately and dosed regulate the power of the electric motor. Let’s try to figure out how to properly install this device on a bicycle.
Basically, the process of replacing all types of bicycle accelerator grips (lever, grip, scooter) is quite similar, there are only small, rather insignificant differences in the installation mechanism. The standard seat for an e-bike throttle is on the right handlebar. Before installing the throttle handle, the standard grips are removed from the bike. Fix the accelerator handle to the steering wheel with a screw, tightening it with a hexagon (2.5 mm). When installing the lever-type accelerator handle, it is important to make sure that its location will be convenient for turning on the button responsible for activating the electronics, comfortable turning the moving lever with the thumb of the right hand, practically without tearing it off the surface of the steering grip.
The wire coming out of the throttle handle is connected with a plug contact with the corresponding connector of the controller according to the diagram on its body. When replacing the accelerator handle, be sure to pay attention to the wiring.
After connecting the throttle handle, check its operation for serviceability by pressing the on / off button of the electronics, by smoothly turning the moving lever or grips. To prevent wire breakage during movement and create a more aesthetic appearance of the e-bike, the wire is fixed to the frame using plastic clamps or electrical tape, but without resorting to excessive tension. The fixing of the wire should be such that when the steering wheel is turned to the left or right side, its constriction is not created almost to the stop. The place where the plug of the accelerator handle is connected to the controller is lubricated with silicone sealant in order to prevent moisture and dirt from entering the contacts.
Sometimes it is necessary to replace the throttle grip on an e-bike due to its breakdown. The reason for this may be damage as a result of inept handling of this kind of device on the part of the cyclist, or the failure of Hall sensors, the role of which is reduced to tracking the angle of rotation of the accelerator handle and generating a guidance signal for the wheel motor, initially supplied to the controller. In accordance with the voltage supplied from the throttle grip, the controller changes the power supply to the electric motor. Hall sensors can fail due to a leakage of the body of the accelerator handle, water flowing into it, all kinds of mechanical damage, electrical voltage drops. As a rule, this kind of malfunction is solved by replacing the broken magnetic field sensors with new ones. the SS49E series. In case of mechanical damage to the accelerator handle and the impossibility of repairing it, it may be necessary to completely replace it with a new one.
Before starting the first operation of a new accelerator handle on an electric bike directly on the road in motion, it must be checked for serviceability in the garage by lifting the wheel with an electric motor above the ground, turning on the bicycle electric kit using the appropriate button and smoothly twisting the grip or pressing the moving tongue.
E-bike malfunctions and their elimination
As in the case of the operation of any electromechanical device, sooner or later there may come a moment when some kind of breakdown occurs in the electric bike. It goes without saying that in order to identify and recognize a problem, you need to know how a given vehicle operates in normal operation. over, it is important not only how the electric bike rides, but also how the elements of electronics, control and power behave during regular use. It is this kind of knowledge that can be the key to troubleshooting e-bike problems.
E-bike malfunction symptoms
The On button does not work. / Off. Electronics.
Electric bike throttle connection issue solved
Controller faulty or incorrectly connected.
Replace the element where the power button is located.
Replace the fuse with a new one with the same specification.
Check the correct position of the brakes.
Check controller connection, repair if necessary.
Inspect the motor connection, repair it
Inflate the tires to the maximum pressure indicated on the sidewall.
The output transistor in the controller is out of order.
Repair of the motor-wheel / controller wired system
Overheating from low tire pressure.
Faulty controller or temperature sensor.
Inflate the tires to the maximum pressure indicated on the sidewall.
Replace or repair the controller.
Inflate the tires to the maximum pressure indicated on the sidewall.
Malfunctions in the electronics (controller)
Some of the Hall sensors of the wheel motor burned out
Other engine malfunctions have occurred
Low battery voltage (battery discharged)
Some of the battery cells give a drawdown
Check battery voltage with a voltmeter, replace defective battery.
Elimination of defects of the throttle handle. Pre-check the throttle handle with a voltmeter. the voltage on the signal drive should vary from 1 to 4.2V with a smooth change in its position.
Repair the power activation button / lock.
If the operation of the electric bike reveals other malfunctions that differ from the above, contact a technical center specializing in the repair of electrical transport equipment.