So, the bicycle bearing, as we found out, is the most important part in every moving unit. Its good condition, timely maintenance and replacement will ensure good running characteristics and travel safety.
Many cyclists are wondering what industrial bearings in bicycle assemblies are and how they differ from bulk bearings. Which is better and which one to give preference to. In addition, almost everyone is faced with cleaning or replacing bicycle hubs. A bearing is a product that is part of a support or stop that supports a shaft, axle or other movable structure with a given stiffness. It also gives an easy rotation of mechanisms, ensures the operation of its main units, a clear fixation of individual parts. This has not bypassed the technology of bicycle construction. The use of bearings is an integral part of any bicycle. At least for today. So, industrial bearings or bulk bearings?
Industrial bearings consist of two rings, rolling elements (balls, of various sizes) and a cage (some types of bearings may be without a cage), separating the rolling elements from each other, holding them at an equal distance and directing their movement. Basically, bearings of this type have an oil seal, either rubber or metal, which protects against the penetration of dust and moisture into the bearing, which makes it very protected and durable. The bearing does not require regular maintenance. Its entire service life can be spent on factory grease. Backlash on such bearings occurs only with worn bearings. If there is a backlash, change the bearing. Practically no adjustments are required. The disadvantage when replacing these bearings is pressing in and out of the bearing. This can be done with a hammer and a piece of the required pipe diameter, with the possibility of damaging both the bearing itself and the sleeve. Or contact the service station, where they will easily perform the necessary work on the equipment or with the tool. Unlike bulk, industrial ones are much more expensive. When switching from bulk to industrial, it is necessary to buy the bushing itself. And this is perepitsovka and other costs, both in terms of spare parts and work, if you do not make repairs and replacements yourself. In addition to all of the above, such bearings are distinguished by a very good roll of wheels, when bulk ones are not always. When installing the prom bearing, it is recommended to remove the oil seal and check the lubrication inside and, if necessary, lubricate well. It is best to use graphite grease. If there was no such thing, then lithol or other universal thick lubricants, grease.
Bulk bearings are a set (a certain number) of balls placed inside the wheel hub in a special bored groove (groove), along which they roll and roll to create a rolling support with the least resistance. Unlike industrial bearings, bulk bearings have a lower cost. But, they require a timely bulkhead (cleaning, lubrication), because a loose bearing is less protected than an industrial one, and is susceptible to clogging by dirt, moisture.
The enumeration procedure is not that complicated. It is necessary to remove the wheel, unscrew the fixing nuts (at least from one of the sides), unscrew the cone, which presses the balls to the groove, inside which they move, and carefully, without losing those balls, pull out the axle on which the whole thing is wound. Gently (you can use tweezers) to pull them out and clean. Then clean the cone, axle from dirt and grease. After that, grease the axle with the same graphite grease in the place (groove) where the balls are to be placed in the future, then grease the cone and screw it back. The most difficult thing in this whole business can be unscrewing the nuts, since they can become completely attached (before unscrewing, it is advisable to wet the threads in VD40 or something like that), as well as adjusting the tightening of those very cones. Because if the cone is overtightened, then the wheel travel will be heavy; if it is under-tightened, there will be a backlash that will break the bushing and knock it out of order. With timely cleaning and good adjustment, a bulk bearing will work a lot and create a very good roll-forward (according to some information, roll-forward is not worse than industrial ones).
As a result: an industrial bearing is more expensive, rolling, practically does not require maintenance (if it is worn out, then only replacement), does not require adjustment. Designed for all riding styles (thanks to its robust construction). A bulk bearing is cheaper, it is considered less rolling, requires maintenance, adjustment, less operability. Not suitable for all riding styles (jumping is a heavy load that will break these bearings).
Categories: Bicycle device, Country of advice | Tags: cycling life, bike, cyclist, mountain bike, My bike, MTB, Loose bearings, Bearing, Industrial bearings | Link
A similar bushing has been successfully installed on the Jaguar tandem built in 2004 for many years.
An article written back in the late 90s, recently found in the archive.
On modern domestic sports and inexpensive mountain bikes, bushings with a screw-on easily removable ratchet are used in the rear wheel. Such a design allows you to quickly upgrade the bike by replacing the entire sprocket block, since now there is a large selection of them on the market from different manufacturers at quite affordable and good quality.
Large loads on the drive wheel on velomobiles (and it is not necessarily the rear one), the need to constantly adjust the resulting backlash and simply the rapid wear of the bushings pushed us to the need to develop a more durable and reliable unit suitable for making on our own.
The main requirements are to ensure high durability through the use of standard ball bearings and to minimize the need for adjustments during operation at a minimum cost and without the use of expensive and scarce materials and technology. So that all the details can be produced on the most affordable equipment by the teenagers. members of the “Tourism and velomobiles” club, which I headed. And the most important thing is that in all connection dimensions, they should be similar to traditional hubs, and they could be used when modernizing conventional bicycles.
Three options were developed. Structurally, they are all made according to the same scheme. a steel case on both sides are pressed in two bearings with a spacer sleeve between them.
– the axle is inserted into the bearings and tightens the whole set with a special nut.
In this case, only one bearing on the ratchet side is fixed in the housing either by punching out at three points, or by gluing it onto the seat. The size of the spacer sleeve provides a floating fit on the other side of the bearing. After assembly, the bushing is immediately ready for use without additional adjustments. Many
summer intensive year-round operation of dozens of specimens confirmed the high reliability and practicality of the solutions used.
The first two options differ from each other only in the technology of manufacturing the case.
In the first version, the body is machined from a solid metal bar. This option is preferred in a one-off production. Material. almost any low-carbon steel from St3 to Steel 45.
Welding attachment (diagram).
When manufacturing a small batch of about 50. 100 pieces, the welded version of the body is preferable, although this increases the number of technological operations.
Body blank. pipe 36×3 mm. Material. Steel 20, Steel 30.
– We cut the body blanks from the pipe to a length of 86 mm.
– From sheet steel (the grade does not matter), although Steel 10 is better with a thickness of 2.5 or 3 mm (the thicker the better, at least 4 mm) in any convenient way we make flange blanks with an inner size of 36 mm and an outer size of 58-60 mm.
– In the device we weld the flanges at a distance of 16 and 10 mm from the edge using spacer rings of the appropriate length between the base and the flange. For pressing, we use three clamps, which we place evenly at 120 degrees. First, we make three tacks with a semiautomatic welding machine (welding with steel wire in carbon dioxide). we wait for the part to cool completely in the conductor and weld the seam completely. When welding with a semiautomatic device, the weld is carburized and self-heated, so that the cutter does not “burn” the bushings during subsequent turning, the bushings must be annealed, heating them to a dark cherry color and slowly cooling in air. If you have gas welding at hand, after tacking, the flanges can be brazed with hard solder, which better fills all the gaps and is softer on a lathe.
– We do fully turning according to the drawing. We control the thread with the ratchet that we will use. domestic and imported ratchets differ slightly in thread completeness. It is not necessary to make a tight fit under the bearing, otherwise the outer ring of the bearing will be crimped and the bearing will rotate tightly.
– We mark the holes for the knitting needles on the flanges, punch them and drill them with a 2.6 mm drill, remove the burrs on both sides of the drilled holes with a larger drill. When marking, it is convenient to use a primitive template or a jig with marked holes, cut from thick cardboard. So
In this way, you can make bushings with any number of spokes, for example 32. to use the rim from the front wheel, or 28. from the “schoolboy”.
– The coating depends on the possibilities. from chrome to paint.
– Dimensions of special nuts are summarized in a separate table.
The variant with a welded body is interesting in that when using bearings of the 60102 type with an internal bore of 15 mm, an interesting suspension with a cantilever wheel mount can be made. It was used on a bicycle that was published on the second cover page in “MK” number 6 for 1996. By the way, the bike has no breakdowns on the move to this day.
Oil MC1000 or LITOL-24 type greases are used as a lubricant.
A correctly assembled wheel, without rubber, with a light jolt should make from 150 to 200 revolutions.
The welded hub for the front wheel is manufactured in exactly the same way. Bearings type 60201. for a bicycle and 60102. for a velomobile.
The third option is the most unexpected. The smallest bearing is installed in the most loaded place of the structure. But the design has proven its manufacturability and reliability during long-term operation.
A workpiece. a worn-out housing from the rear wheel hub of a road bike of the “Torpedo” type (a big plus. there are already all the holes for the spokes and a minus. you cannot use the standard plastic protection for the spokes from mountain bikes. It is placed only on the hub with a flange diameter of 55 mm). Housing
from the sprocket side, it is turned flush with the spokes flange. On this side, insert part 7 (according to the assembly drawing) and braze. Further turning according to the drawing.
There is a 14 mm collar on the rear wheel axle. not for the bearing stop! The distance sleeve rests on it. Installation begins with bearing 60101, which is fixed in place by punching out from the end at three points. Then we insert the axle assembly with a podnipnik 60202 and a spacer sleeve and tighten it with a nut.
aluminum body recessed,
a steel sleeve is pressed into it with a slight interference and bore “clean” under the bearing seat.
Cantilever drive wheel.
Used on a full suspension bike with cantilever wheels:
identical bodies are used either as a hub for a regular bike.
Or under axles with cantilever mountings, under trailers, velomobiles, etc.
wheels with such bushings were initially installed on the winter version of the Cherry velomobile
And now, after replacing the axles, they are standing on the Archimedes.
Types of bicycle bearings
According to the type of construction, parts are divided into two types: rolling and sliding.
Rolling bearings are two mating parts with grooves, into which rolling elements. balls. are inserted. Their even distribution helps to minimize friction in the assembly and, consequently, to extend the life of the entire bearing. The fixation of the position of the balls is ensured by special partitions. separators. Simple parts without baffles will require more frequent adjustments.
They are used on a bicycle in moving parts where high resistance to abrasion and pressure loads is required and slippage is not allowed. steering column, bushings, carriage. Can also be installed in complex mechanisms. shock absorber hinges and switch rollers.
Plain bearings are ballless parts. They are two elements that rotate tangentially relative to each other. Materials for manufacturing. bronze, steel alloys, metal plastics and everything that has a low coefficient of friction.
Compared to rolling bearings, they are less resistant to abrasion, since the two parts interact directly with each other. Wear causes a gap to appear, which causes backlash. Because of this, periodic replacement of the entire assembly or worn out components, as well as adjustment.
Rolling bearings on bicycles are divided into two types: cone-cup and industrial.
The first. bulk bearings. are open-type parts. They are represented by a cup in which balls are distributed along the groove, fixed with a cone nut. The body is pressed directly into the part itself. the steering column or the bottom bracket.
Prom bearings are closed parts, completely inserted into the movable unit. This is their fundamental difference from bulk. The system is protected from moisture and dirt penetration, resulting in a longer service life compared to cone-cup designs.
Advantages of loose-type rolling bearings:
- ease of removal and installation;
- can be adjusted in the field;
- it is permissible to change components separately.
Disadvantages include frequent adjustments and the need to clean up trapped dust and dirt.
Prom bearings do not require adjustment, lubrication or cleaning. The position of the balls, the amount of lubricant in the closed housing are kept constant. No water or abrasive gets inside the cartridge.
However, if the bearing is worn out, it will need to be replaced entirely. Far from civilization, this is problematic. The price of “prom” is significantly higher compared to the cost of bulk.
Ceramic and ceramic-metal bearings should be noted separately. They are completely or partially made of ceramics, due to which they have higher corrosion resistance compared to their metal counterparts. In addition, they are better able to withstand temperature extremes. Parts of this type are installed on high-end bicycles.
Adjusting a cup & cone type bearing (rear wheel)
Replacing wheel hub bearings
The hub is not just a wheel pivot. Without the built-in articulation mechanism, forces would be transmitted unevenly to it, and the bike would not be able to move. The same symptoms appear when the bearings are worn out.
Disassembling the hub is as easy as disassembling a fork. For the rear wheel, the procedure will be slightly more complicated than for the front wheel, since you will first need to remove the cassette with sprockets. On a single-speed bike, the retaining ring and the sprocket itself are dismantled.
In general, the disassembly looks like this:
1. Remove wheels from dropouts.
Dismantle the sprockets with a cassette puller and a locking whip. On single speed, open the stopper with a screwdriver or a special spreader.
Unscrew the fastening nuts with a 15 wrench. For the rear wheel hub, unscrew the nut on the side opposite to the stars.
Pull out washers and bearing units. Bulk ones are being moved, industrial ones are being replaced by new ones.
Clean parts and replace damaged components.
Pull out the axles, wipe the inner cavities of the bushings.
Reassemble in reverse order. It is important to place the bearings correctly and press the cones in the same way as before disassembly. In no case should it be skewed, the details should exactly fall into their rightful places. It is not advisable to swap them during a bulkhead. This threatens backlash and deterioration of wheel travel.
New bearings are selected in advance according to the old ones. they must be the same as they were before the repair. Lubrication is the key to rebuilding and replacing (in the case of “bulk”). When installing the “flush”, the assembly itself does not need to be lubricated, only the inner cavities of the bushing and the axle. After installation, we check the performance of the wheels: smooth running without play and clamps indicates that the parts are installed correctly.
Maintenance and replacement of carriage bearings
Periodic cleaning, lubrication and replacement of worn parts will help prevent sudden movement problems on your bike. Signs of a faulty carriage condition:
- “Clamps” in the pedals. difficult rotation or cranking;
- connecting rods dangle;
How to Change Bearings in Stans Bicycle Hubs
To remove the connecting rods and carriage cups, you will need special tools. pullers and an internal hex wrench. The dismantling process is as follows:
1. Turn over and fix the bike.
Unscrew the retaining nuts with a hollow wrench. You can also use a hammer with a chisel, however, the nuts must be knocked out carefully so as not to damage the connecting rods.
Using a puller, twist them off the axis. It will take a lot of effort here.
Pull the cups out of the glass with a carriage puller. The first is to unscrew the cup from the side opposite to the stars. Then remove the axle.
Remove bearings, inspect and replace damaged parts.
Clean in kerosene, refit and lubricate. When installing, carefully monitor the position: on the one hand, the bearing is placed with balls outward, on the other. inward.
After replacement, cleaning and lubrication, reassemble the carriage in reverse order. After tightening the connecting rods, check their rotation: the lack of effort and cranking indicates that you need to tighten the cups, and vice versa. In these cases, you will have to repeat the disassembly and adjustment.
Prom bearings are installed immediately, no adjustment required.
Useful to pay attention
Board index »Bicycle forum» Crocodile breeding
Disassembly and replacement of bearings on the front fork
The wear of the hinge assembly of the fork manifests itself in backlash, heavy steering and extraneous sounds from the speaker. It is not recommended to postpone the problem indefinitely, because the serviceability of the steering, along with the brakes, is a guarantee of safety.
How do I change the bearing for the fork? At first glance, getting close to him is not easy. The assembly is securely pressed and hidden in the head tube. However, in practice, everything looks simple:
- Turn the bike over and unscrew the front wheel.
- Put the bike in the normal position and pull out the stem with the stem (you need a wrench or hex for the inner nut).
- Unscrew the lock nut with an adjustable wrench and pull out the lock washer.
- Unscrew the cup.
- After dismantling the housing, carefully remove the bearing itself. The parts on the forks of most bicycles are not equipped with separators, so we make sure that the balls do not scatter.
- Inspect all components carefully. Be sure to replace rusty, knocked-out balls with new ones.
- Clean the glass, bearing and cup from dirt, and then lubricate thoroughly.
The installation of the fork is carried out in the opposite order: after pressing in the bearing, the glass is twisted, then the washer and the lock nut are thrown. Checking the tightness of the glass: when the bike is tilted, the front wheel should deviate from the straight position by 15. 20 degrees. If it practically does not move, it is necessary to loosen the hinge. A large deflection of the wheel indicates a weak tightening, and the glass needs to be tightened.
Bicycle hubs and rear wheel axle
Industrial bearing bushing
Many people dislike bushings on flare nuts because of the difficulties associated with adjusting them after assembly. In this regard, the worn out support is often changed to the version with “slips”.
The advantages of the industrial bearing design include easy maintenance. There is no need to adjust anything here: the bearing fits snugly in the cup and on the axle, there are no flare nuts. In theory, such a wheel should not have any backlash, which is demonstrated by expensive specimens. In cheaper models, low-grade rolling bearings are used, in which the clearance is observed even from the packaging.
For your information. Backlash in the bushings due to “slip” is eliminated only by replacing the bearings. The latter are difficult to remove, therefore, when critical gaps appear, the mechanism is replaced as an assembly.
Typically, the hub body is the wheel hub. It has flanges on which the spokes are attached, and due to the presence of a set of sprockets on the rear wheel, the spokes have a slightly shorter length on one side. In bushings with loose bearings, the inner surface has tracks along which the balls move.
Step-by-step instructions for replacing the bearing on the rear wheel hub
The bushing (axle) allows the wheel to rotate. It rotates in the presence of a hinge mechanism. It transfers the efforts from the muscular strength of a person and the movement of the bicycle occurs. When the part is worn out, the bike stops moving.
When you determine that the bearing is out of order, it needs to be replaced. In this case, it is necessary to disassemble the sleeve.
In the case of a rear wheel, it is more difficult with it. To get to the bushing, you need to remove the cassette together with the sprockets.
If you have a bike with one speed, then you need to remove the retaining ring and sprocket.
I advise you to carefully read the article and replace the bearing yourself. You do not need to contact professional specialists. you will need money. Better save and fix yourself.
You have decided to perform a replacement, then follow the instructions:
Installation is carried out in the same sequence as, and dismantling only the other way around. We pay attention to the installation of all parts without skewing. Backlash is not allowed.
We check the correctness of the bearing replacement. We manually scroll the wheel. If it rotates smoothly and quietly. you did everything right.
Cleaning and lubrication
It is necessary to clean the balls and cups in contact with them, cone-nuts, axle. In a sleeve with good dust protection, the lubricant is usually clean, so cleaning can be carried out without chemicals. with an ordinary clean rag. If dirt is present, use one of the degresers we have recommended for cleaning the chain in the material, how to clean old bicycle chain grease at home.
How to make a DIY replacement of the bearing on the rear wheel hub of a bicycle?
Replacing the bearing on the wheel hub is not very problematic.
Although you need a little skill or read my article carefully.
The reasons leading to the failure of the parts are different:
To keep the bearing always in working order, it needs to be maintained. Basically it is necessary to change the grease.
But if a bearing breaks down, it needs to be replaced.
When choosing a new product, you need to focus on the brand of the bike assembly.
By mistakenly installing a bearing that does not correspond to the bicycle’s passport, you risk your safety when driving.
The most common type. Particularly in the Shimano range, you will not see a knot on the “slip”. The company explains this by the fact that the design based on cone-nuts has better reel. The configuration elements of such a product are shown in the figure: