Carbon bike frame pros and cons

MERIDA BIG NINE XT

The benefits of this are great:

  • purchase of equipment from a trusted and reliable manufacturer;
  • high quality of component parts;
  • excellent suspension fork travel.

But such equipment is suitable for beginners and amateurs, but for professionals it is considered too simple.

7 Things You Didn’t Know About Carbon Fiber

The carbon frame is considered ideal for road bike enthusiasts as it makes the bike lighter and also dampens vibrations. But if the bike is equipped with shock absorbers, then there will be no special advantages from carbon fiber.

Carbon concept

It is represented by a special composite that is used by many manufacturing companies to make bicycles. Such models are suitable for both amateurs and professionals. The production of carbon frames is established in Russia, so it is not difficult to find such equipment.

Attention! To create a strong supporting structure, carbon threads are woven, after which they are impregnated with polymers, and epoxy resin is most often used for this purpose.

Carbon is considered to be a stronger material than aluminum. This is due to the special processing of the threads from which the dense fabric is formed. On its basis, not only the frame is created, but also the steering wheel, as well as the pin under the seat and the stem of the steering wheel. These components are required for the assembly of any bike. Carbon is considered an ideal choice for creating parts that are subject to severe stress.

Benefits

There are pros and cons of a carbon bike frame, so it is a good idea to evaluate its performance before purchasing a model made from this material. The benefits of carbon bikes include:

  • the material is lightweight, so the weight of the carbon bike frame is small, which makes it easy to carry;
  • high strength due to the specific arrangement of the threads in the canvas, and for each component of the bicycle, the location of the threads is individually selected, for which potential loads are taken into account;
  • excellent vibration damping, as the material distributes the shock and vibration generated during riding on uneven surfaces over the entire surface of the frame, which is considered an important parameter for mountain models;
  • the composite, even with a long period of operation, does not lose its basic parameters and rigidity, and also does not accumulate internal stress;
  • ease of repair, so if the part is damaged for various reasons, it will not be difficult to restore it correctly, and the place of repair does not lose its main positive properties.

Attention! In aluminum and steel frames, internal stress builds up over time, which leads to a decrease in strength and service life.

The most popular carbon bikes

Carbon bikes are considered to be quite in demand, and they are also offered by many large companies. But there are several models that are considered versatile, inexpensive, high quality, and suitable for both beginners and professionals. It is not recommended to buy the cheapest Chinese carbon frames, which are of low quality, so they will not last too long, and will also break with minor impacts.

Attention! Many companies offer bike rental, so you can arrange a short-term rental to check the quality and usability of the carbon model.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Carbon Bike Frames

Various materials are used for the manufacture of bicycle frames, differing in cost, characteristics and weight. Carbon bike frames are considered quite popular, which have numerous advantages over their counterparts. But they have some disadvantages, since when using carbon, the cost of the device significantly increases.

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CANNONDALE SUPERSIX 5 105

The model was developed in the USA, but components from China are used for production. The cost of equipment varies from 45 to 50 thousand rubles. This road bike has many benefits:

  • for a small amount, the buyer gets a full-fledged sports bike that can be used for fast driving or overcoming significant obstacles;
  • allowed to be used during various sports competitions;
  • quality attachments are used.

The main drawback for experienced cyclists is its meager kit, but for beginners it is considered the ideal choice. Some of the attachments are designed by Shimano. The development company fully controls the production process, which guarantees a high-quality bike.

Main characteristics

carbon, bike, frame, pros, cons

From the point of view of operation, for many, the characteristics of high rigidity and vibration damping are important. For example, due to the flexibility of the material, engineers were able to master the concept of double-suspended, non-hinged frames, in which the headstays or chainstays bend without structural deformation. This quality is precisely what determines the increased shock-absorbing ability of the carbon frame. At the same time, the weight does not increase at all in comparison with the same aluminum counterparts. the average value is 1100-1300 g. According to experts, such indicators are 200-400 g lower than that of traditional bikes. And this is not to mention the lightweight modifications, the weight of which fits into 1000 g. Otherwise, the characteristics are well within the established standards for the performance of bicycles. For example, carbon does not impose any restrictions on the use of existing wheel diameters. the average range varies from 24 to 29 inches. Now it is worth familiarizing yourself with other advantages of CFRP frames.

Repair work

Serious breakdowns of carbon fiber frames are rare, but, as already mentioned, this happens in the form of cracks and chips already in the structure of the carbon itself. By the way, the aforementioned putties are aimed not only at preventing the formation of cracks, but also preventing their increase. What to do if structural damage was found? The restoration of a carbon frame for a bicycle is carried out using specialized means. these can be resins, particles of carbon fiber fabrics, rovings and individual structural blanks. Depending on the nature of the damage, one or another remedy should be used. As for the repair process itself, it involves both mechanical tools in the form of jigsaws, files and hacksaws for metal, as well as thermal impact devices, which will just make the carbon structure pliable for restorative deformation.

Choice of carbon bikes

Actually, the main choice for the non-professional user can be between road and mountain bikes. In the first case, it will be a variant of the universal type, but without a sharp bias towards sports. Standard road bikes with a carbon frame can be used for both high-speed rides and light, leisurely walks. This solution will be the best choice for urban use. Again, the low weight of the structure will facilitate the manipulation of the equipment if it is necessary to overcome areas that are not intended for cycling.

Mountain models, due to the specifics of the operation, are often provided with carbon fiber. If you plan to use the bike often for cross-country trips, then you simply cannot find a better option. Although this group has its own nuances of choice. For example, a folding bike with a carbon frame is best left for those quiet city rides where comfort is especially important. Such structures are not so strong compared to monolithic ones, which can manifest itself in a mountain range. The best option may be a representative of the cross-country segment, which, in terms of the totality of characteristics, is suitable for extreme driving.

Bicycle carbon

Carbon plastic can actually form the load-bearing base of bicycles, transferring its own characteristics to the overall structure. It would seem that by purchasing such a model, you can count on improving driving and other performance characteristics. But there are some nuances here. First, manufacturers don’t always use all-carbon structures, leaving room for the inclusion of aluminum parts. Not to mention the fact that carbon itself is different, and you should not discount the desire of manufacturers to save money. Secondly, a carbon frame for a bicycle can improve some of its characteristics, but other elements, in turn, can remain at the traditional technical and ergonomic level. It costs nothing to engineers to provide a carbon bike with average quality saddle, stem, handlebar and seatpost materials. Often there are modifications in which, along with carbon fiber, cheap bushings, rims and tires are used. This nuance should be taken into account, paying special attention to the rest of the bike configuration.

Benefits of carbon

Based on the strength characteristics and rigidity, it can be concluded that the structure has a minimal tendency to deforming and shock loads. The process of destruction of carbon is also interesting. Of course, this will require super-extreme loads, but even such a risk cannot be completely ruled out. The fact is that complete destruction of the structure with the separation of parts cannot occur, which leads to a high degree of safety for the cyclist. Destruction can manifest itself only in separate processes of formation of cracks in the structure of fibers, interconnected by special resins. But even in this case, the bike does not pose a serious danger to the owner. Advantageous carbon bike frame and its practicality. Again, the light weight makes it easy to transport the structure. especially if it is foldable. And the appearance with original design solutions is also a plus for the carbon fiber material, which stands out aesthetically against the background of steel and even more so aluminum models.

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Main characteristics

From the point of view of operation, for many, the characteristics of high rigidity and vibration damping are important. For example, due to the flexibility of the material, engineers were able to master the concept of double-suspended, non-hinged frames, in which the headstays or chainstays bend without structural deformation. This quality is precisely what determines the increased shock-absorbing ability of the carbon frame. At the same time, the weight does not increase at all in comparison with the same aluminum counterparts. the average value is 1100-1300 g. According to experts, such indicators are 200-400 g lower than that of traditional bikes. And this is not to mention the lightweight modifications, the weight of which fits into 1000 g. Otherwise, the characteristics are well within the established standards for the performance of bicycles. For example, carbon does not impose any restrictions on the use of existing wheel diameters. the average range varies from 24 to 29 inches. Now it is worth familiarizing yourself with other advantages of CFRP frames.

Choice of carbon bikes

Actually, the main choice for the non-professional user can be between road and mountain bikes. In the first case, it will be a variant of the universal type, but without a sharp bias towards sports. Standard road bikes with a carbon frame can be used for both high-speed rides and light, leisurely walks. This solution will be the best choice for urban use. Again, the low weight of the structure will facilitate the manipulation of the equipment if it is necessary to overcome areas that are not intended for cycling.

Mountain models, due to the specifics of the operation, are often provided with carbon fiber. If you plan to use the bike often for cross-country trips, then you simply cannot find a better option. Although this group has its own nuances of choice. For example, a folding bike with a carbon frame is best left for those quiet city rides where comfort is especially important. Such structures are not so strong compared to monolithic ones, which can manifest itself in a mountain range. The best option may be a representative of the cross-country segment, which, in terms of the totality of characteristics, is suitable for extreme driving.

Disadvantages of carbon

Like most new high-tech materials, carbon also has very noticeable negative aspects of operation. But it’s worth starting with a high price tag. Compared to the same steel and aluminum bikes, these models are 20-30% more expensive. Next comes the topic of maintainability, which is often cited as the main drawback of a carbon bike frame. The pros and cons in this case are interrelated, since it is the increased strength and rigidity of the material that make it difficult to restore it. But the repair work will be a separate conversation. It is also worth noting the negative impact on the structure from salt water. With such contacts, undesirable physicochemical processes occur, which in the long term can lead to a decrease in the performance of the bicycle. However, manufacturers produce special modifications for water sports, in which special protective treatments for CFRP surfaces are used.

Benefits of carbon

Based on the strength characteristics and rigidity, it can be concluded that the structure has a minimal tendency to deforming and shock loads. The process of destruction of carbon is also interesting. Of course, this will require super-extreme loads, but even such a risk cannot be completely ruled out. The fact is that complete destruction of the structure with the separation of parts cannot occur, which leads to a high degree of safety for the cyclist. Destruction can manifest itself only in separate processes of formation of cracks in the structure of fibers, interconnected by special resins. But even in this case, the bike does not pose a serious danger to the owner. Advantageous carbon bike frame and its practicality. Again, the light weight makes it easy to transport the structure. especially if it is foldable. And the appearance with original design solutions is also a plus for the carbon fiber material, which stands out aesthetically against the background of steel and even more so aluminum models.

Features of a carbon fat bike

This is a separate segment of cycling, the principal difference of which is the widened tires and the increased diameter of the wheels. This feature determines the high cross-country ability of the bike, which is appreciated by lovers of riding in mountainous terrain. I must say that fatbike bicycles began to be provided with carbon only recently, although the strengthening of the structure of such models is more than justified. over, the material finds its place not only in the frame, but also in other parts, among which the rims.

Carbon frame and bike parts. Advantages and disadvantages.

Nina Stromberg solo traveler

Should You Buy Alloy Or Carbon Mountain Bike? | Ask GMBN Tech

Recently, more and more often you can see carbon frames, seatposts, stems, handlebars and other bike components. Such details look spectacular, they are not cheap. And having a carbon friend is already like belonging to a higher social status in the cycling society.

Whether the expensive carbon hobby justifies itself, we will analyze in detail in our article.

Einstein said that everything is learned by comparison. So let’s remember what materials are used to make frames and some other components. Most often made of steel, aluminum and less often titanium or carbon. There is no point in talking about steel, it is too heavy, it is used on the cheapest bicycles. Titanium, unfortunately, is not so popular and deserves a separate discussion. Most often on bicycles of an average level and above, aluminum is found, with which we will compare our carbon fiber or carbon, as it is more often called.

Consider the benefits of carbon:

  • Lighter than aluminum. One frame is 300-400 grams lighter. For whom weight matters, the difference will be felt, especially if the other possible components are also carbon.
  • Spectacular appearance. Technology allows you to embody more complex design forms.
  • Does not corrode.
  • Effective vibration damping without loss of rigidity due to the fibrous structure of the material.
  • But here’s an interesting fact, if carbon is so beautiful, why some of the top models are re-fitted with aluminum frames. For example, the Specialized S-Works Allez with a partial carbon hinge, but with an aluminum frame. What are the disadvantages of carbon bike components??
  • Carbon is quite fragile, it is afraid of pinpoint impacts, side loads. It requires careful handling, the frame must be laid down with care and carefully packed during transport. And unlike aluminum, the carbon frame, if it breaks, then sharply and in half, increasing the athlete’s injury rate. Therefore, it is not recommended on long hikes and expeditions.
  • High price. Production requires special precision and is still not fully automated, which is why products made from this material are so expensive.
  • A low-quality flaw, which can be difficult to detect in a carbon frame, can easily break. Therefore, it makes sense to buy frames only from top manufacturers.

Let’s summarize: where to stay in the choice.

The aluminum frame is more reliable, but carbon has better stiffness and vibration damping characteristics and is lighter, which is very important for athletes. The main disadvantage is fragility and high cost. In my opinion, if you are not going on long expeditions, carbon is an excellent option with a good and high-quality hitch.

If there is no money for the frame and components from top manufacturers, and you are looking towards unnamed China, I would definitely advise you to take aluminum. Better a good aluminum frame and expensive reliable components than the cheapest carbon and a simple hitch.

Another helpful article on choosing mountain bike tires.

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There is still such a thing, a concept. material fatigue. This is a gradual accumulation of microcracks and other defects under load, which sooner or later leads to the destruction of the structure or to significant changes in mechanical properties (rigidity). If we arrange the frame materials in ascending order of susceptibility to this very fatigue, then it will turn out like this: titanium, steel, aluminum, carbon. Those. CFRP frames are the most susceptible to fatigue. In other words, a titanium and steel (chrome-molybdenum) frame. practically eternal, aluminum is able to live for quite a long time (many years). And what about carbon? It is believed that under the loads typical of professional sports, the carbon frame is designed for an average of a year of use. After a year, even if it does not break, its mechanical properties change significantly (the very rigidity for which we value this carbon falls). Professional loads are, of course, not amateur skating. The roll can be several tens of thousands of kilometers per season. But, all the same, it should be borne in mind that the carbon frame does not last forever. Most “not eternal” in comparison with all other options.

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Magnesium alloy frame

This is a rare material, and the quality of magnesium frames is still debated today. The main advantage of magnesium alloys is their low weight, but most professionals doubt its reliability. Today, magnesium alloys are more often used as a material not for the frame, but for the suspension fork.

Pros of magnesium: the lightest material, which allows you to get high driving dynamics; good roll.

Minuses of magnesium: prone to corrosion and unstable to shock and damage; high price, fragility (service life does not exceed three years).

There is a debate about the strength of magnesium frames. manufacturers claim that this material is very durable if used correctly, and you can hear the opposite from the lips of athletes. Over time, perhaps this dispute will be resolved, but for now we will turn our attention to the most unusual material for a bicycle frame. carbon.

Carbon frame

Carbon is a composite material based on carbon fibers bonded together by resin. The characteristics of this material differ significantly from any metals, since carbon has a fundamentally different origin and structure.

Carbon frames can be one-piece (monocoque) and composite, in which carbon tubes are connected by metal parts. Monocoque frames are more durable, due to the unity of the material, greater rigidity and lightness of the frame is achieved. Carbon is a very flexible material, so monocoque frames come in a wide variety of shapes. There are also combined frames with a metal frame. They have very high driving characteristics, but they contain all the pluses of both metal and carbon fiber, as well as all the minuses.

Several factors affect the hardness and strength of CFRP. The first is the amount of resin that holds the fibers together: the less, the stronger. The second is the number of layers. If there are many layers and they are located in different directions, the strength increases. On a bike with a carbon frame, the bunny hop jump is easier because the frame is lighter. Carbon is the only material where rigidity can increase not only in certain places, but also in certain directions (due to the location of the carbon fibers), which is why carbon frames are often used in professional cycling.

Pros of carbon: low weight; strength and durability (if used correctly); the possibility of strengthening the frame both in any place and in any direction; unusual frame shapes.

Cons of carbon: very high price, for non-professional frames. the risk of breakage due to improper design, as well as instability to impacts, as a result of which the entire frame can collapse; danger of corrosion in metal assemblies of composite and combined frames, complete inability to repair.

Aluminum bike frame

Speaking aluminum, they always mean an alloy with zinc, magnesium or silicon, sometimes scandium. Alloys are different, they are marked with numbers (6065, 7000, 7005, and so on). The best characteristics are possessed by aluminum alloys with a seven thousandth grade. Alloys of aluminum with scandium are comparable in characteristics to titanium, but they are rarely used due to the complexity of their manufacture. The aluminum frame is always easy to distinguish by the large diameter of the pipes. But due to the low weight of the material, aluminum frames are one of the lightest, aluminum is used in the creation of bicycles of almost all brands. Felt bikes, for example, are often equipped with aluminum frames.

Pros of aluminum: low weight; good dynamics and sensitivity to the road; resistance to corrosion (but do not forget that all bushings and bearings are in any case made of steel, therefore, the aluminum frame needs care); the aluminum frame has good load capacity. it can handle a heavy cyclist.

Minuses of aluminum: poor vibration damping; poor roll-forward (coasting motion without acceleration); accumulate fatigue, so they can break down after long-term operation, and are difficult to repair. Frame service life. approximately 10 years.

Steel frame

Steel is one of the most common materials and is simple and cheap to make. For bicycle frames, simple alloys (Hi-Ten) and chromium-molybdenum (Cro-Mo) are used. Butting technology is also often used in the manufacture of steel frames, but if in aluminum frames it is designed to increase strength, then in steel frames. to reduce weight by thinning the frame in places where the load is small. But using butting raises the price significantly for an inexpensive, overall steel frame. Steel frames are specially hardened to increase strength.

Today, simple steel is used only in inexpensive models; only chromium-molybdenum alloys can compete in performance with other materials.

Advantages of steel (Cro-Mo): relatively low price; Flexibility of the frame, which allows you to soften vibration and shock, as well as smooth cornering; good roll forward; high strength and durability of the material; good maintainability.

Cons of steel: heavy frame weight; danger of corrosion; there are restrictions on the weight of the cyclist. In general, buying a bicycle with a steel frame is a long-term investment because with good care it can serve you for years.

Bicycle frame and material selection

There is no definite answer to the question of what material the best bicycle frames are made of. Every owner will praise their frame and put its benefits above the rest. The opinions are unanimous on one thing. a good frame should be light and strong. Better yet, lightweight, durable and inexpensive. How to choose just such a frame? To get an objective assessment, you need to compare each material in terms of its advantages and disadvantages, and then choose what is best for you.

Bike frame

Bicycle frames are generally made from metal alloys. These are steel, alloys based on aluminum, titanium and magnesium. Another material. carbon, is carbon fiber, so it should be considered separately.

The most important characteristic of a metal is its rigidity, the higher it is, the less the metal is subject to deformation. But it is directly related to density, which in turn affects the weight of the material. Consequently, the higher the rigidity of the metal, the heavier the frame made from it. Steel (30) has the highest rigidity, followed by titanium (15-16), and the lowest is aluminum (10-11). But this does not mean that aluminum frames automatically become outsiders.

Thanks to a more massive structure and the use of butting technology (the pipe walls have different thicknesses, increased in places of heavy load), aluminum has quite decent characteristics. Let’s consider in more detail.

Bike frame material

Titanium bike frame

Titanium alloys used to make bicycle frames perform well but come at a high price. Therefore, it is rarely used by amateurs. this material is for professional cyclists. But the titanium frame is also durable, which for many is a decisive criterion when buying.

Advantages of titanium: very durable (service life is calculated in decades); resistant to corrosion so much that it does not even need painting, so the article on how to paint a bike simply won’t be useful to you with such a frame. The titanium frame is shock and scratch resistant, so it retains an attractive appearance for a long time; softens vibration and is very durable, therefore ideal for a mountain bike; is lightweight.

Cons of titanium: high price and low maintainability. But given the fact that the frame has increased strength and in conditions of non-professional sports it is very difficult to damage it, there remains one drawback. the price.

Structural parts of frames

Bicycle frames come in a wide variety, but the design is much the same. There is a basic set of structural parts that are found in the structure of almost all frames.

  • The front triangle (despite its name, is made up of four tubes, not three) includes:
  • head tube;
  • three tubes: main, upper, seat.
  • As for the rear triangle, its design consists of a set of parts:
  • seatpost;
  • carriage assembly;
  • top and bottom feathers;
  • dropouts are brackets that serve as a mount for the rear wheel.
  • Also, any type of frame is equipped with individual elements that are needed to install some specific components:

    • the steering column is inserted into the head tube;
    • the carriage is placed in a special hole;
    • the seat tube, together with the seat, is also inserted into a special hole.

    Varieties

    All existing frames, which are the backbone of bicycles, fall into two broad categories.

    • Female species can have a slightly lowered top tube, or they can be produced without it at all. When creating such designs, the features of the female body are taken into account, therefore they are the most convenient and comfortable option for cyclists.
    • Men’s frames are familiar to all designs, without any obvious differences.They are more common.

    There is also a more detailed classification, which is based on the operational features of the frames and their purpose.

    7 Things You Might Not Know About Carbon Fiber

    Off-road bike frames are divided into the following types:

    • the hardtail has no rear suspension and no rear shock absorbers, so this design is ideal for MTB (mountain bike);
    • soft-tail is designed for off-road vehicles with a pair of shock-absorbing devices, this type of frame is not designed for jumping, but it copes perfectly with bumpy roads;
    • the two-suspension version with a rear shock absorber is designed for active driving, installation of a trunk is not provided;
    • tandem off-road frame allows for wide tires and suspension forks.
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    Road structures are available in the following varieties:

    • the classic version is developed for a city bike, has a vertical seat arrangement, allows you to install a trunk;
    • the road bike frame is characterized by excellent aerodynamics and dynamic coasting, it is designed for low landings, there are no fastenings for the trunk;
    • Rigid is available for bicycles without shock absorbers, which can be used on an extremely flat road for a hard ride;
    • cyclocross is needed to perform maneuvers, as well as to drive on uneven roads;
    • bicycle frames touring. the best option for long arrivals and travels, they have a streamlined design and are distinguished by a high level of comfort, it is possible to install two trunks at once;
    • tandem frames are designed for two-seater bikes.

    Folding bike frames deserve special attention. Most of them are characterized by their small size and the presence of a hinge in the middle of the pipe. Selected models are equipped with a telescopic mechanism that makes it easy to extend / fold the handlebar and saddle.

    Functions and requirements

    A bicycle frame is like a human skeleton. This rough comparison allows us to visualize the functionality of this important detail. Only this structural element cannot be replaced with a new one. If it breaks down, you will have to buy a new vehicle.

    The frame must be strong, reliable, with a long service life. Only in this case will it be able to withstand the load that occurs during driving.

    Also, the bike frame should be light, but this requirement is secondary in importance. Therefore, you should not chase lightness and base your choice of cycling on this indicator. This can lead to choosing a bike with poor ride performance.

    A few more points can be added to this list of requirements:

    • vibration damping demonstrates the frame’s ability to smooth out shocks and reduce operating vibrations;
    • maintainability of the frame allows the user to carry out repairs after the end of the warranty period.

    Manufacturing materials

    Bicycle frames are made from all kinds of materials, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages.

    • The steel frame comes in two varieties: made from chrome and molybdenum, or made from structural tensile steel. The first option is more preferable due to the use of butting technology. The chrome-molybdenum pipe turns out to be lighter when compared to similar models made of structural steel. Steel frames look sleek, but they are afraid of corrosion. this is their biggest problem. It is easily solved by keeping the paintwork in good condition.

    It is necessary to remove cracks and scratches in a timely manner so that moisture does not get through them.

    • Aluminum frames are not made from pure aluminum because it is very soft. To increase the strength characteristics, silicon and zinc can be added to it. By the first digit of the alloy designation, you can find out about the base metal, which is also called alloying. In the 5000 series, the reinforcement is achieved by magnesium, in the 6000 series by silicon. Compounds 7000 are based on aluminum and zinc, magnesium is present in small amounts. Raw materials with a large amount of magnesium are most susceptible to corrosion. The main disadvantage of aluminum structures is the ability to accumulate fatigue deformations. Because of this, welds and contact joints are weakened.

    It is better not to use an aluminum frame for more than 10 years, there are exceptions, but they are very rare.

    • The titanium construction stands out for its long service life. Its strength is on par with steel frames. The main advantage is its high resistance to corrosion. Titanium structures are difficult to work with, because such frames are distinguished by an impressive cost. Such parts are commonly found on expensive sports bikes that are selected by professionals. Not every novice athlete or just an amateur can afford such a purchase.
    • The carbon bike frame is created from a multi-component material where thermosetting resins and carbon fibers are present. Only in carbon fiber can the stiffness be changed in the desired direction. Even at the production stage, the direction in which the carbon threads will be weaved is chosen: it can be transverse or longitudinal. The strength of the product depends on the amount of resin between the carbon matter: the more it is, the lower the indicator will be. During overloads, brittle resin is primarily destroyed, only then the threads suffer.

    Carbon fiber frames are available in two versions: composite and monocoque. In the first case, the structure is assembled from separate parts. The second option is more reliable, since the frame is one-piece.

    Carbon structures have the highest strength.

    • Magnesium frames are very rare because this material is expensive. There is no lighter frame yet. Such designs perfectly reduce vibrations, but they turn out to be powerless before pinpoint impacts. Also, magnesium is afraid of corrosion and exposure to aggressive environments. Magnesium is absolutely not suitable for cycling tourism, since heavy loads are destructive for frames of this type.

    Bicycle frames: varieties and selection criteria

    A bicycle consists of a large number of parts, each of which performs important functions and is irreplaceable. One of these is the frame.

    Geometry

    This concept plays an important role in the formation of the main characteristics and functional features of the cycle frame. Geometry is directly related to the shape, dimensions of the pipes, the angles at which they are connected to each other. The most important of these are the following characteristics:

    • angles of inclination of the seat tube, as well as the head tube;
    • length of the upper and seat tubes.

    Many manufacturers indicate on their models the dimensions that refer to the frame. You need to be guided by these indicators, because it is on them that the choice of any bike should be based:

    • Saddle height refers to the height of the seat, in other words, the distance from the center of the carriage and the midpoint of the saddle;
    • Stack is the vertical distance from the center point of the bottom bracket to the topmost area on the steering column;
    • Reach refers to the horizontal distance that starts at the center point of the carriage and ends at the top of the steering column;
    • the concept of Bottom braket drop can be translated as carriage offset, which will indicate the degree of lowering of the center of the carriage in relation to the center of the rear hub;
    • Handlebar drop means the handlebar offset or the vertical difference between the upper extreme points of the saddle and the handlebar;
    • Saddle seatback denotes seat offset or the horizontal distance of the front of the saddle from the center section of the bottom bracket;
    • Standover height refers to the total height, in other words, it is the distance between the ground and the top pipe that belongs to the front triangle;
    • Front center denotes the gap between the center points of the two components: the carriage and the front hub;
    • Toe overlap refers to the distance from the user’s foot on the pedal to the front wheel when making a turn.
    • The top tube starts at the center of the headset and ends at the center of the seat tube. The stability of transport and its maneuverability depend on this value. with an elongated pipe, transport will behave better on the road.
    • The angle of the steering well (glass) is formed between the desired element and a vertical line located exactly parallel. Increasing this parameter improves the bike’s ability to maneuver.
    • The seat post angle is obtained by tilting it in relation to the straight parallel. The shift of the center of gravity, the predisposition of the bike to extreme riding and the quality of grip on the road surface depend on it.
    • The wheelbase is determined by the distance between the center points of the two hubs. An increase in the indicator will entail an increase in stability, maneuverability, stability.
    • The chainstays of the rear triangle usually start at the center of the BBC and end at the center of the rear wheel hub. The shorter this length, the higher the strength and reliability of the frame structure. Also, the grip indicators go to a higher level.
    • Ground clearance is the distance to the bicycle bearing assembly. This indicator has a direct impact on cross-country ability and speed capabilities. With an increase in clearance, the bike‘s behavior becomes more confident, which is important for difficult road conditions. At the same time, the speed indicators are falling, because the golden mean is important in this indicator.

    Manufacturers