Front and rear derailleurs
The continuity of the cycle depends on the clarity and consistency of their actions. Sometimes, especially when going uphill, switching should be done immediately after the afterburner, in order to change gears not in tension, but in free speed. This often takes a fraction of a second, and the switches must be flawlessly engaged so that the upward climb does not get bogged down.
Switches are ideally disassembled for lubrication. information about maintenance and lubrication can be found here:
How To Replace Cartridge Hub Bearings In Your Road Bike Wheels
How to disassemble
Initially, it is necessary to provide unhindered access to the flare nuts. For this, they usually remove:
- Disc brake rotor. Not in all cases can be dismantled. Make sure that the bolts do not interfere with the installation and rotation of the tapered (thin) wrench. If there is a gap between the key and the disc, it is not necessary to remove the latter. There are situations when the tool fits freely in the back, and on the front bushing it is impossible to do without removing the rotor.
- Cassette / ratchet. It is imperative to remove, otherwise you cannot reach the second cone, and the axle cannot be removed. The process of dismantling the cassette is shown in the photo.
When the flare nuts are accessible, you can unlock one of them. In this case, it is important to observe two rules:
- Only one side is allowed to unlock! The second must be locked to failure even from the factory and it is forbidden to touch it.
- You can only unlock the cone located on the side of the rotor mounting (if there is no disc brake, then focus on the side opposite to the cassette). The fact is that the cone nut, weakened from the side of the sprockets, self-tightens upon impacts or collisions with an obstacle, which is why the free wheeling of the sleeve is disturbed. And this reduces the resource and worsens the roll-forward. This does not happen with the left side, since there the cone-nut tends to unscrew, and the lock nut and eccentric prevent this. In total, such a scheme maintains a balance and you can choose a gap without prejudice to the roll.
The deconstructing procedure is shown in the photographic material. A thin cone wrench adheres to a cone-nut, and with another wrench (for convenience, it is advisable to take a more massive tool) unscrew the locknut. After that, the threaded parts are completely twisted, and the axle is removed. Next, you need to remove the anthers and remove the balls from the cups.
Attention! When disassembling, note the order in which the components are located. The ideal option is to take a photo of the placement of anthers, nuts and washers on fresh tracks, as shown in the image.
When dismantling the balls from the seats, it is important to separate them into two groups. Those on the right must be folded in one place, those on the left in another. Do not mix or confuse these groups with each other, otherwise, after assembling the perfect reel without backlash, you will not get.
Important! When removing the axle on the front wheel of a bicycle without disc brakes, mark the side of the non-rolled cone on the tire. Another landmark on this type of bike is the direction of rotation of the rubber shown on the side.
How to properly disassemble, clean and lubricate the rear hub
Immediately remember one truth: any service is recommended to be carried out with a snagged sleeve. Otherwise, the chances of assembling the wheel correctly and quickly are unlikely to work. this can only be done by a person who is already experienced in servicing bicycles.
Step-by-step instructions for maintaining the rear bicycle hub:
- Remove the cassette from the axle using a whip and a puller.
- Opening the retaining ring.
- We remove all bearings and washers. Note:the sleeve can be on industrial bearings and bulk bearings, but in any case, it is very important to remember their original location in the sleeve. This rule must be observed when removing the washers.
- We carry out a careful inspection of the bearings. if they are damaged, this means the need to replace them with new parts.
- We take out the axle. it does not understand.
- We clean the body of the rear hub of the bicycle from dirt. All internal cavities must be wiped with a dry cloth.
- When installing back, each part is thoroughly lubricated, special attention should be paid to the bearings during this process.
- The last step is to install the stopper and tighten the fastening nut. It is not necessary to apply great efforts to tighten, as this can result in a problem of free wheel rotation.
Of course, everything looks quite easy and simple, but there are a lot of nuances in servicing the rear hub of a bicycle. they must be known and taken into account in the process of work:
- First, the direct disassembly of the bushing should be started only after the cassette has been removed. over, the sleeve is disassembled from the opposite side and, as a rule, it is on the left. The locknut, if any, is unscrewed with a 15 mm wrench, then the stopper is removed (again, if any).
- Secondly, you need to be extremely careful when removing the washers and rings. they will need to be laid out on a pre-prepared sheet of paper in the exact order, if this moment is overlooked, the assembly of the rear bicycle hub after cleaning and lubricating it can turn into a real torment.
- Thirdly, after twisting the housing of the rear hub, its axis will begin to give in. just at this moment the bearings will appear. And again, you need to be extremely careful when removing the bearings. the parts are small and easy to lose. We remove each bearing with a knitting needle or tweezers, carefully wipe it with a cloth soaked in kerosene or gasoline, and put it aside. Just in the process of wiping, the bearings must be carefully inspected for damage, and if there are any, then the part must be replaced.
Note: in the articles and instructions for servicing the rear hub of a bicycle, you can find a recommendation to use acetone to wipe bearings. this is permissible, but it should be borne in mind that the aroma from such a product will not be the most pleasant, and acetone can corrode the skin on the fingers. And one more thing. many kulibins, in order not to lose small bearings, use a magnet. in no case should this be done! The fact is that the bearing is magnetized and during the operation of the bicycle, iron dust is attracted to these small parts. the fact that the hub will soon become unusable can be predicted with confidence.
It is highly undesirable to confuse the left and right parts when disassembling / assembling the rear hub of a bicycle. this can lead to wheel play. If at least one ball is lost, then you will have to carry out a full replacement of the bearings. Sometimes, when opening the bushing, iron dust can be observed near the axle. this means that the bearings are completely worn out, they must be completely replaced.
Types and arrangement of the rear / front hub of a mountain bike
In the MTB class, only two types of sleeve mechanisms are common: axle-cone-ball bearing and axle-industrial bearing. It is clear from the names of the classes that the difference between them lies in the structure of the supports.
How to lubricate the carriage
Lubrication of the carriage on a bicycle is done by simply placing grease in the cups and on the surface of the bearings, on the bushing, and by distributing them evenly. In addition, before lubricating the carriage, it is advisable to thoroughly wash the bearings and all cavities, the surface of the bushing, for example, with kerosene. It is flushing that will subsequently make it possible to properly lubricate the carriage.
About the types of lubricants
Greases with an increased m of any element. such as lithium or calcium.
Lithium greased. such as Litol-24, it is good to lubricate the bearing axles, the carriage. It is lithium that gives the lubricant a specific slip, and it exhibits antifriction properties. In addition, lubricants with the addition of lithium do not thicken in frost up to 50 degrees and do not liquefy even at midday temperature in the desert, since they are capable of not changing their properties when heated to 150 degrees. The negative side is a fairly high water solubility, therefore, the lubrication points must be sealed with sealed anthers. In addition, this lubricant is not recommended to be applied to aluminum surfaces.
Calcium greases are greases and work well for a long time. An example of such a lubricant is Uniol. Unlike lithium, they have high adhesion, or adhesion to the surface, and hold for a long time. In addition, they help to resist corrosion in wet conditions. These lubricants are yellow or greenish. It is very important that they do not react with aluminum, unlike lithium greases. Therefore, their price is high and they can be used to lubricate expensive bikes.
Aerosols are a special type of lubricant. which can contain several components, for example Teflon. Their advantage is the ability to penetrate into hidden cavities and hard-to-reach places, including due to adhesion and surface tension. Their predecessor is kerosene, which has a truly unmatched enveloping ability, even able to get out of the vessel. With the help of such lubricants, it is possible to process cables, all types of threads, especially when loosening heavy and stuck connections. Examples of such lubricants are LM 40, LM 47 and others.
Perhaps the most famous quick-acting aerosol lubricant is the well-known WD-40. Among other things, it creates a hydrophobic layer and displaces water.
Lubricants with m silicone. Easy to apply, dust and water repellent.
Wax lubricants: on the chain, for example, the coating can last for several months under dry conditions. But the wax is subsequently capable of falling off itself in the form of scales and flakes. If the bike is operated in water, mud, fords are crossed or riding occurs in spring or autumn, then you need to choose another lubricant, because the wax is not fluid and cannot effectively penetrate into the chain connections.
A bicycle is not an easy machine. Before you lubricate your bike, you need to know that, in addition to the places for lubrication, there are areas where lubrication is completely undesirable. These include wheel tires (accidental ingress of grease on large areas can lead to skidding and the impossibility of emergency braking), rims (in the case of using tick-type brakes), as well as brake discs and pads. In addition, if oil gets on the rubber chamber, it can begin to corrode the rubber, which will lead to its rupture for a considerable length.
How to lubricate a bicycle chain
- increase the chain tension by moving it to the corresponding large sprockets;
- carefully clean the chain from dirt, you can use a rag by pressing it against the free section of the bicycle chain and turning the pedal;
- then we lubricate the chain, it is better to apply the lubricant over the top point of the roller (if the bike is standing with its wheels up). Make sure one drop falls on each link.
- When the whole chain is lubricated, you need to intensively turn the pedals in the opposite direction for a minute. idling of the chain, and then, choosing an average speed, turn the bicycle chain in the forward direction.
- At the final stage, you need to remove all excess oil from the outside with a soft clean rag, since the main action of the lubricant is to work on the inner joints of the links, and from the outside, ordinary grease clings to dust, poplar fluff and contaminates the rollers and rear sprockets with its deposits. So don’t be afraid to rub the chain properly.
In addition to lubrication, you need to monitor the mileage of the chain. On average, it needs to be replaced after every 1500. 2000 km for the following reasons:
- it starts to sag;
- fuzzy gear shifting;
- the extended chain damages the cassette sprockets on the rear wheel.
Also, the question often arises about how often to lubricate the chain.?
There are no uniform standards. It all depends on the feelings of the bike owner:
- if resistance or crunch appears in the circuit;
- after driving through dust and sand;
- after any walk that exceeds 3-5 hours.
Some people lubricate the chain after 100 km of run, regardless of operating conditions. Probably this decision is the most correct, as it teaches you to regular maintenance.
How to sort out a hub with a coaster brake
Bicycles with one gear and foot brake are still popular today, because many people simply do not need a bicycle with gears for their purposes. Also, single-speed hubs are available on all children’s bicycles up to 20 inches. They are reliable, simple in design, but the problem is that if a low-quality lubricant is used in the hub, it will strongly resist rotation and it will be frankly difficult to ride a bicycle. And if an adult can resist this resistance, then the child after a short period of time simply will not want to get on the bike anymore. Therefore, take care of changing the grease in the rear hub.
We’ll be looking at the rear wheel bulkhead for an adult bike, but keep in mind that the construction is exactly the same on kids’ bikes. For the purity of the experiment, we took a new wheel, weakened the cones so that it spins easily, but also does not play. This is how it spins
Bearing grease. We will use Mobil XHP 222 multifunctional grease. You can get by with cheaper greases such as lithol.
!Important. The lubricant must be plastic (not liquid).
We start work on the right side (where the asterisk is located).
Remove the retaining ring holding the star with a screwdriver
Remove the star and the metal boot, then grab the 15 mm cone with a cone wrench and loosen the lock nut with a 17 mm wrench
Unscrew and take out the right side of the coupling together with the bearings
We take out the left part of the clutch together with the brake lever
As you can see, this is not the worst option for lubrication. Despite its overly viscous consistency, judging by the flash photo, the grease is similar to graphite. But this happens on adult bicycles. Unfortunately, for children, either a drying paste or Moment glue is laid, which simply do not allow the wheel to spin normally. It’s good if the bushing manufacturer regrets the lubrication. then your child will be able to ride more or less normally. Otherwise, cycling will take place with a great deal of suffering.
First, remove as much of the grease as possible with rags or toilet paper. Take some kind of cleaner (we used a pressure cylinder carburetor cleaner) or solvent and clean as much of the inside of the bushing as possible. By the way, the beloved WD-40 is also suitable.
Wipe clean the parts. If you don’t have a cleaner, you can simply wipe it down more thoroughly with rags.
Apply grease to the inside of the bushing housing, including the surfaces that the bearing interacts with
The main task is to assemble the left side of the clutch and completely install it into the bushing together with the pads.
We install a washer in part of the coupling, behind it a spring so that the antennae are directed outward
Lubricate the cone next to the brake lever, install a bearing on it
!The bearing should rest against the bushing cup with balls, and on the other side should be supported by a cone.
We fall with antennae into special holes made in the cone. For clarity, the photo without lubrication
Lubricate part of the coupling, put pads on it. The protrusions on the pads must lie on the cone between its protrusions
In this form, we install the resulting structure into the sleeve body.
We install a bearing of a larger diameter into the bushing housing with balls inward, and a bearing of a smaller diameter into the right side of the coupling, after having lubricated all surfaces
We tighten the coupling, fasten the cone and locknut, then grab the cone and tighten the locknut. It is important to choose a moment when the wheel turns easily, but does not have any backlash.
We install the boot, the asterisk, and then put the retaining ring in the groove specially designed for it
The video shows a visual result of changing the lubricant (compare with the video at the beginning of the article)
An hour-long video of single speed hub with coaster brake overhaul will perfectly complement our article.
What are the bike hubs?
Only a high-quality rear hub will provide minimum friction for rotating wheels, improving rolling. In addition, its use will increase the resource and will not create problems when riding bike bikes in wet weather.
Rear hubs differ in characteristics associated with:
- the location of these parts;
- compatibility with a certain type of brakes;
- the material used for the manufacture;
- suitability for a certain number of knitting needles;
- weight and size.
Maintenance of the rear wheel hub of a bicycle: repair and its features
Winter is in full swing, which means it’s time to prepare bicycles for the summer season. The main problem is the bike’s rear wheel hub. Its repair is the most difficult. Not everyone can assemble the rear wheel hub.
Both the material for the front and rear bushings and the manufacturing methods are the same. These are stamping, turning and casting. The latter are the heaviest parts, the cheapest and not reliable. The material for them is steel.
The best choice is considered to be parts that are made of aluminum alloy. Even more robust titanium alloy bushings. But, their price is many times higher than analogs. Therefore, they are used exclusively on professional bikes.
Material for making bushings
Most often, there are rear steel bushings, less often. from an aluminum alloy, even less often. titanium (Shimano XTR, for example).
If there are no questions with the front bushings, then with the rear ones, which differ in the presence of a seat for sprockets, there are more than enough of them. In the models produced earlier, the sprockets were screwed onto the threads and were solid.
How To Replace Bike Wheel Hub Bearings
But this design is now a thing of the past, since threaded connections have enough disadvantages:
- the ability to strip the thread during installation;
- uneven wear on stars and ratchets;
- low rigidity and low strength;
- significant energy losses
True, they are still installed in separate models, giving preference to cheapness, but, in general, they are becoming a thing of the past, giving way to cassettes. The spline connection of the hub and cassette offers the following advantages:
- light weight;
- reduction of losses due to the ratchet mechanism installed inside the splined drum;
- an increase in rigidity due to a greater distance between the bearings and an increase in reliability (it is not realistic to tear the cassette off the splines);
- ease of installation;
- interchangeability of individual sprockets without dismantling the cassette.
In addition to the ratchet mechanism, the design of which is very simple and represents spring-loaded pawls, teeth clinging to the ratchet, thereby transmitting torque from the sprockets to the wheel, there is another type of rear bushings. roller.
This is how the classification of these parts looks depending on the type of sprocket attachment. But, the hubs also differ in their attachment to the bike frame:
- using eccentrics.
The latter are less preferable for extreme types of driving, since they do not hold the wheels well enough. For these bikes, there are MAXLELite and MAXLE eccentrics, which do not have a clamping nut on one side.
There is a thread on the axle instead and on the bike fork dropout there is a corresponding threaded hole. For installation, thread the Maxle eccentric through the threaded hole, twist the axis in it, then clamp the entire axis with a special eccentric, which is a pipe cut into 4 petals. a cone, which ensures reliable fixation when clamping.
Designed for disc brakes only. Maxle Lite features material and half the weight
Division of bushings by application
For road models and high-speed (tourist, mountain, road) there are certain types of bushings. For the first option, the choice is bushings, the mechanism of which has a free play and one driven sprocket.
On-road models are equipped with drum brakes. Suitable for the rear wheel of a high-speed bicycle, a hub with a free wheeling, no braking mechanism. In addition, they are divided into cassette and ratchet.
There are different standards for bushings. The larger the diameter of this part, the higher the reliability. In mountain bikes and cross-country bikes, bushings are used, the diameter of which is in the range of 9-10 mm, for a more extreme bike. 14-15 mm.
The axles of the rear and front bushings differ in length: for the first it is 108-110 mm, for the second. from 135 mm to 146.
There are also exotic options. Novatec D882SB-SS 36H QR10 hub, for example. The length of its axis is changed using adapters.
Industrial bearings are made non-separable. Their plus in long-term operation and the possibility of replacing the entire bearing, without replacing the entire part.
The bushings on the bulk bearings are adjustable. Plus, they have better protection against dirt.
The rear wheel hub on bicycles is the most expensive part. Beginners perceive the replacement as a bad dream. And it goes out of order much earlier than the front one, since it has the greatest load when driving.
The bushings, in addition to the function of holding the wheels, are responsible for the brakes. They are divided exclusively into V-brakes and disc brakes. It is very rare to find (on some models of city bikes) drum brakes.
As in the previous case, the nodal mechanism of the bicycle carriage is lubricated with thick substances. Initially, thick grease is plentifully poured into the carriage when the bike is being assembled. As for the care of racing bike models, here the carriage is treated exclusively with liquid lubricants.
Types of lubricants
What lubricant to lubricate the bike with? Currently, there is a wide variety of products that can be used to lubricate certain running gears of a bicycle.
- Liquid oils are bicycle lubricants that are suitable for the maintenance of all categories of chains, brake and shock absorption systems. Thanks to the liquid structure, they effectively envelop the treated areas, ensuring the smooth functioning of bicycle parts for a long time.
- Aerosols. ideal for lubricating threads, switches, cables.
- Plastic type of grease. used when it is necessary to seal various joints.
- Lithium greases. a special type of greases with a whole host of additional components.
- Calcium lubricants. are classified as plastic substances. Designed to care for all kinds of nodes and connections.
Bicycle Rear Hub Lubrication
The bearings of the rear hub are lubricated no more than once a month. For this, it is advisable to use liquid oils, which are poured into the bushing mechanism with just a few drops.
If we talk about the lubrication of the brake systems in the bushings, then such actions must be performed extremely carefully so as not to damage anything. These elements are lubricated with machine oil or bone oil, common in the care of sewing machines. This will be enough for the bike wheel to be fully lubricated.
It should be noted that treating the bushings with an excessive amount of oil is fraught with the appearance of a slipping effect while driving. In addition, lubricant flowing out of the bushing will collect dirt on the surface of the mechanism in the form of fine debris and road dust. This, in turn, can lead to premature wear of the parts. Therefore, bicycle bearing grease must be applied wisely.
To lubricate the front fork, simply fill a conventional medical syringe with liquid oil. The procedure is carried out by pouring grease under the protective plastic caps, which are located at the top of the legs of the suspension fork.
The rear shock is also treated with a liquid oil. There should be absolutely no problem when choosing the right lubricant consistency for the care of the front and rear shock absorption systems.
For the bike to be fully lubricated, the pedals must be refinished. To do this, the constituent elements of the pedals must first be disassembled:
- the cap that protects the pedal nut is removed;
- the nuts are unscrewed, and then the lock washers are removed and the cone is removed;
- bearings are dismantled and pedals are removed from the axles.
Further, the parts of the pedals are thoroughly washed in kerosene, after which they are wiped with a rag. As soon as all the constituent elements of the pedal mechanism are dry, they are lubricated with liquid oils. At the end, the pedals are assembled in reverse order and installed.
Shift and brake cables
It is possible to take care of the brake and shift cables using both conventional liquid oils and all kinds of aerosols. For effective lubrication of this element, a small amount of oil, literally a drop, is enough. over, only the inlet and outlet openings of the elements through which the cables pass are lubricated.
Liquid synthetic oil is the most effective lubricant for chain lubrication. It is not necessary to lubricate the inner surfaces of the chain rollers, because such actions do not actually entail any practical sense. Instead, it is recommended to oil the outside of the links on both sides. It is convenient to cope with the task, having at your disposal an oiler with a thin end.
Once the lubrication of the bike is complete here, turn the gears and gently wipe the outside of the chain with a dry piece of cotton.