Adjusting the rear and front derailleur of the bike


adjusting, rear, front, derailleur

Shimano. Rear Derailleur Setting. Shimano rear derailleur adjustment

The topic of today’s article is about customizing your bike. After all, there are a lot of different units in it, which requires close attention and regular maintenance. Especially closely we will dwell on the products of the Shimano company. Setting the rear derailleur has some nuances. If you have installed equipment from another manufacturer, then you should not neglect the materials described in this article, since the principles of operation and debugging are common for all such products, because they have a similar design.

Tensioner and its adjustment

This adjusting screw is used very infrequently as it helps to adjust the position of the upper pulley in relation to the cassette along which the chain travels. If it is not twisted, then the above parts can touch each other and cause a lot of inconvenience. However, this situation is very rare, since this unit is fastened reliably enough and there is no backlash in it, which would contribute to its weakening.

Shimano’s rear derailleur setup is very accessible, however it may seem a bit overwhelming for beginners. Although this mechanism is simple in design, adjusting it requires meticulous attitude and patience. Haste is inappropriate here, especially if the work is being done for the first time.

How To Adjust Gears On Bicycle? Front And Rear Derailleur Adjustment.

Adjustment position

Operating principles

Rear derailleur operation is still a mystery to many cyclists. After all, he can reliably and unpretentious perform his functions, but one fine day “live his own life.” If you have no experience in eliminating such “independence”, then this can be a significant problem, especially if such a malfunction falls like snow on its head on the way. Therefore, usually novice cyclists take their “iron friend” to the workshop, where an experienced specialist fixes this problem within a few minutes. However, what operations he performed, what he regulated, lubricated or twisted, remains unknown. Therefore, you need to be patient and understand the principles by which the Shimano rear derailleur functions. If you follow the guidelines below, you will have no difficulty in further servicing your bike with your own hands. It is only important to study the necessary theoretical basis and independently confirm it in practice.

Important setup steps

Jacket and steel cable

The adjustment of this tool is very important, since the cable is responsible for how far the speed switch moves when the shifters click. If the tension is excessive, the convenience of gear selection becomes much more difficult, and sometimes the chain can jump to adjacent sprockets or very slowly downshift. At the same time, if the effort is not enough, then nothing will happen when the position is changed. Therefore, a properly tensioned cable can eliminate half the hassle of Shimano Alivio systems. Their rear derailleur is often inconvenient due to the structural features. After all, the line of the middle class, to which this type of device belongs, is not intended for too intensive use, like a professional one, for example, Deore or its analogues.

Adjusting the rear and front derailleur of the bike

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So there are two rules that need to be taken very carefully when setting up the front derailleur:

    Derailleur frame must be parallel to stars (front).

In order to adjust the height and rotation of the switch, it is usually enough to unscrew the mounting bolt. The bolt is usually for a polyhedron (picture below).

After an approximate adjustment of the switch position. do not tighten the mounting bolt too much, it is likely that during the adjustment process you will have to move the switch a little.

Let’s get started. To begin with, you need to set the lowest speed (on the rear cassette the largest star, on the front. the smallest), more precisely, you need to set the chain to the position closest to the frame. Now you need to unhook the cable in order to subsequently adjust its length correctly (tension). To do this, unscrew its fastener and release it, remembering to pull the cable jacket out of the stop (the shirt can interfere with the free movement of the switch). Next, on the shifter of the forward speeds, we screw it in until it stops, and then we unscrew the cable tension grandmother by 1-2 turns (after twisting the grandmother by 2 turns, we leave the possibility of fine tuning).

Next, we find on the switch two limit screws that regulate the extreme positions of the switch frame. Rotate the Low screw which limits the movement of the frame towards the bike frame. It is necessary to achieve such a position so that the chain passes as close as possible to the part of the frame located closer to the frame (see the figure below).

Having adjusted the position, we fix the cable: insert the shirt into the stop, check in the same way that the shirt does not jump out of the grandmother on the shifter, insert the cable into the mount (there is a special canvas into which the cable must fall), tighten it (conveniently with pliers) and wrap the fastening bolt.

We proceed to the next step. we switch the speeds to the maximum position, when there is the smallest star in the back, and the largest in front. In this position, you need to achieve a minimum clearance between the part of the switch frame farthest from the frame and the chain, for this we turn the High screw, which limits the movement of the frame in the direction from the frame. Now look if the entire switch has moved in height, if it has moved. try to move it very carefully and finally tighten the front derailleur mounting bolt.

Having achieved the required position (see the figure below), you can try how the speeds will switch on the go. Switching on the spot and on the go are usually quite different.

Fine finishing can be done with the grandmother on the shifter or with the bolt stops. If the speed does not shift upward well, i.e. to a large star. you need to unscrew the bybyshku, if the speeds do not switch down well. the grandmother needs to be screwed in. Restraint bolts inherently only affect the end positions. If the chain does not bounce off the largest sprocket, screw in the high bolt; if the chain does not move well from the smallest sprocket, screw in the pain Low.

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This entry was posted on 04/20/2011 at 11:03 pm and is filed under Science and technology. You can follow the discussion of this post using the RSS 2.0 feed. Comments and notifications are now closed.

Adjustment elements

Today the aftermarket offers a huge variety of rear derailleur models for riders. They have a completely different price category and are designed for both amateurs and professional athletes. Despite all the differences, each of the proposed models has the same principle by which you can customize it, and this setting is carried out with the same elements:

  • fasteners in the form of a bolt with a nut, designed for fastening the cable;
  • hollow adjusting drum for adjusting the cable tension;
  • a limiter marked with the letter L, whose function is to adjust low gears (in other words, large sprockets);
  • limiter marked H, the function of which is to adjust high gears (small stars);
  • chain tension adjusting screw.

Some older models of the rear derailleur lack cable and chain tensioners. These elements are transferred to the handlebar shifters, which allows you to adjust the tension while the bike is moving.

Setting the travel limit to the largest sprocket

Loosen the adjusting screw marked L so that it does not interfere with the speed selector. Next, while pedaling the bike, you need to throw the chain onto the largest sprocket on the tail of the bike. Then, by adjusting the screw L, you need to set the rear gear shifter to such a position in which its guide roller will be level with the largest sprocket in the cassette.

Debugging the cable

The cable must be tensioned and secured with the fixing bolt. If the holder has a special groove for the cable, it must be inserted into it, otherwise the cable will be squeezed. Next, you need to adjust the tension of the cable using the appropriate screw so that when the shifter is pressed, it jumps from one sprocket to another without difficulty. It is worth noting that if you correctly adjust the transition between two adjacent stars, thanks to the index system for changing speeds, the setting will also affect the rest of the stars in the cassette.

The final stage

The final step is to check that the rear gearshift setting is correct. This can be done by cycling. If the settings are correct, when the speed changes, the crackling of the chain will not be heard and it will easily move from one sprocket to another.

The most important settings for the rear derailleur

Preparatory stage

The preparatory stage includes cleaning the main elements of the switch and stars from dirt and other blockages. And you also need to install the chain on the middle front and smallest tail sprockets.

Debugging the circuit

Adjusting the chain tension begins by placing it on the small sprocket in the front and the large sprocket in the rear wheel. Using the chain tensioning screw, adjust the clearance between the upper tensioner roller and the sprocket so that it is about 5 mm. Next, you should change the position of the chain, transferring it to the small star of the tail of the bike and the large chainring, and check if the tension is set correctly in this position.

High gear limiter (screw “H”)

When the screw, which is responsible for limiting high-speed gears, is not tight enough, the chain will sooner or later lose contact with the small sprocket and break off it. On the one hand, it will be clamped by the so-called frame feather. On the other hand, the asterisk itself will block it. If, on the other hand, you properly attach yourself to the high-speed gear limiter screw, tightening it very strongly, then it is able to block the rebuilding of the chain to the smallest sprocket. However, do not take any hasty action. As practice shows, rebuilding to high gears fails not because of an incorrectly adjusted limiter. Usually the problem is with a bent switch. Also, a deformed rooster can become the cause of the failure.

Bringing the chain to the level that is in the highest gear (in which case the large sprocket is in the foreground and the small sprocket is moved to the rear) is the primary condition for adjusting the peripheral state of the speed control switch. You will also need to unscrew the anchor bolt and reduce the tension in the cable. As for the adjusting drums, which are equipped with the shifter and the lever of the rear speed switch, they, on the contrary, must be tightened to the limit.

The main purpose of such manipulations is to expose the rollers, which are in the speed mode switch, on the same level with the smallest star.
In that case, if you turn the stop screw “H” to the right side, then the frame of the speed mode switch can be shifted towards the wheel spokes. But unscrewing the screw in the opposite direction will allow, on the contrary, to move the frame away from the spokes.

Once the level adjustment is complete, tighten the cable tightly. However, you will need to use an anchor screw to firmly fix it.

Adjusting the rear derailleur of the bike

After making sure of the normal geometry of the rear derailleur and the integrity of the fastening, as well as understanding the adjusting screws, you can proceed to the direct setting of the switch:

The first step is to adjust the upper limit of the rear derailleur. To do this, you need to place the chain on the large front sprocket and the rear small sprocket of the ratchet (or cassette). Next, you need to release the cable by unscrewing the nut clamping it. By turning the screw “H” it is necessary to ensure that the derailleur rollers and the smallest rear sprocket are exactly in the same plane, and the chain runs strictly vertically.

Setting the upper limit of the rear derailleur

Do not forget to put the shifter (shifter) in the position of the smallest star. Next, tighten the cable tension drum clockwise until it stops. If there is no drum on the derailleur, then it is located on the shifter. After the procedures have been completed, it is necessary to secure the cable to the switch. The cable is pulled by hand, you do not need to pull it with all your strength with pliers. The cable should fit directly into the groove of the washer under the cable clamping nut.

We pass to the second stage. setting the lower limit of the rear derailleur and here we will make adjustments with the screw “L”. Before starting the adjustment, set the chain to the smallest crank sprocket and the largest sprocket. Under no circumstances should the cable be released. With the screw “L” it is necessary to ensure that the derailleur rollers are in the same plane with the large sprocket of the rear derailleur.

Setting the lower limit of the rear derailleur

And that’s not all, there is a third stage. where you will need to check how the chain transitions along the rear sprockets and, if necessary, add on the brakes. To do this, put the shifter in the second speed position (without pedaling). We begin to rotate the pedals and at the same time unscrew the cable tension drum counterclockwise until the chain jumps to the second star. Then we click the shifter to the first and second speeds (back and forth) and with the help of the tension drum we achieve the perfect jump of the chain. Once you have achieved a perfect shift from first to second speed and vice versa, you can assume that the rear derailleur is adjusted, since all other speeds automatically become adjusted.

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Rear derailleur setting

It is the setting of the derailleurs that causes a lot of problems for novice cyclists, therefore this article is devoted to the issue of the correct setting of the rear derailleur of the bicycle.

Preparing to adjust the rear derailleur

Make sure the rear derailleur, cock, or frame mounts are straight before adjusting. often than not, speeds start to shift poorly after falls and hits in the area of ​​the rear derailleur. The guide rollers of the switch must be in the same plane, and the chain must pass through them strictly vertically.

Rear Derailleur Adjustment Elements

To adjust the rear derailleur of a high-speed bike, you need to understand what the screws are for (see fig.).

  • The H and L screws are stop screws designed to prevent the chain from slipping off on the largest and smallest sprocket. In general, the main part of the adjustment is done with these screws.
  • Tension drum. designed to adjust the cable tension.
  • Retaining nut. required to directly attach the cable to the derailleur.

Can’t adjust bike speeds

It happens that the switch is already worn out and imperceptible backlashes are formed in the joints of its parts. For very cheap and entry-level switches, such backlash is already found on new switches. In such cases, more fine tuning is required. If you are unable to adjust the rear derailleurs using the method above, then this is most likely your case. What to do in this situation.

For more fine tuning, it is necessary to remove the chain, as it interferes with using our eye to the fullest. In addition, with the chain removed, there is no need to change its position on the driving sprockets as it is adjusted. Due to the presence of backlash, the switch boundaries will have to be set not perfectly evenly, but with a very scanty offset (half a millimeter).

So, we unscrew the cable and with the screw “H” it is necessary to achieve not an ideal line between the small star and the rollers, but with a very small outward displacement (from the wheel spokes). Next, press the switch towards the wheel with your hand as much as possible and adjust the upper limit (screw “L”) with a very small outward displacement, in this case, on the contrary, towards the wheel. After simple manipulations, we put the chain and cable in place and check the switching using the method described in the third stage of the usual setup. If the speeds are still shifting, then you can try to increase the offsets of the boundaries of the rear derailleur.

This method of fine tuning the rear derailleur should help tune even the deadliest derailleurs. Do not forget that the switch itself must be intact. If there is a rooster, it must be even. If the switch is attached to the frame, the attachment point must not be distorted.

If you have any questions about setting up the rear derailleur or would like to share your method, you can share with us and other site visitors in the comments block below.

Setting the travel limit to the smallest sprocket

To do this, you need to sit down at the back of the bike and turn the adjusting screw marked “H”, at the same time, the spreader is installed so that both the rollers and the smallest sprocket in the wheel are in line.

Note: there is one trick in the implementation of this process. if the bike has been used for a long enough time and the spreader is not new, then it can be qualitatively adjusted by setting the frame not in a straight line, but shifting it to the right of the wheel literally 1-2 mm.

You can check the correct setting of the travel limit on the smallest sprocket by rotating the wheel: the chain will not jump to the side, and the whole mechanism will work almost silently.

Release the cable

To do this, it is enough to screw in the tension screws on the rear spreader and on the handlebar near the shifter all the way, and then pull the cable out of the clamping screw.

Experts do not recommend completely removing the released bicycle cable, but inspect it for damage (if they are found, the cable will have to be completely replaced) and thoroughly lubricate it, having previously cleaned it of dirt, it is imperative.

Rear derailleur setting

It is convenient to lubricate, adjust and repair chain drive units with the rear wheel raised. To do this, you can tilt the bike, leaning on the side stand, hang the bike on hooks or an ironing board, ask a friend for help. A rear wheel stand will help out well in this situation.

  • clean the derailleur and sprocket cassette well;
  • place the chain at the front on the middle sprocket and at the back on the smallest sprocket.

The rear spreader must be cleaned to properly set up. Namely: clean the tensioner rollers from dirty grease, remove the blades of grass and sticks from the cassette of sprockets, wash and lubricate the chain. Even after this simple work, the switch starts to work much better.

  • screw in the tension screws on the rear spreader and at the shifter all the way;
  • pull the cable out of the retaining screw.

It is not necessary to completely remove the cable from the bike, but it will not hurt to inspect it for damage and lubricate it.

Setting the travel limit to the smallest sprocket: crouch at the back of the bike and turn the adjusting screw H, set the transfer device to a position in which its rollers and the smallest sprocket in the cassette will be in a straight line.

There is one trick here: if the spreader is no longer new, and it staggers, then you can adjust it more or less accurately only by placing the frame not in a straight line, but literally moving a hair to the right, away from the wheel.

If the setting is done correctly, then when the wheel rotates, the chain does not try to jump to the side and works silently.

  • we fix the cable with a mounting bolt, pulling the cable not with pliers, but by hand;
  • we tighten the cable by rotating the hollow screw with a drum, so that the spreader easily switches from one sprocket to another and back with one click and pressing the shifter.

It is enough to adjust the transition only between two adjacent stars, and the shift will be adjusted on all the sprockets of the cassette. This is the advantage of the index gear change system.

If a groove is provided for the cable in the clamp, then make sure that it hits exactly in it, and does not squeeze, being fixed incorrectly.

Setting the travel limit to the largest sprocket:

  • we loosen the adjusting screw L so that it does not interfere with the movement of the spreader;
  • turning the pedals, we throw the chain to the largest sprocket at the back;
  • by turning the adjusting screw L, we align the spreader in the position when its rollers and the largest sprocket of the cassette are exactly on the same line.
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Again, if your bike has a padded derailleur, then it is advisable to shift its frame a little from a straight line, but already towards the wheel, when adjusting. Sometimes this is just a little bit is not enough for the wobbly derailleur to throw the chain onto the largest sprocket in the back.

  • we transfer the chain to the smallest sprocket in the front and the largest in the back;
  • if, when the chain rotates, the upper tensioner roller touches the sprocket in the cassette, then tighten the chain tension screw. It is necessary to set the gap between them, approximately equal to 5 mm;
  • move the chain to the largest sprocket in the front and the smallest at the back and check the chain tension in this position.

When is it necessary to adjust the rear derailleur

The process under consideration should not be carried out constantly, with systematic maintenance of a two-wheeled vehicle. as experienced mechanics say, “do not interfere with the bike ride.” Therefore, you need to clearly understand what may be the reason for adjusting the rear derailleur:

  • The cable and its jacket are either faulty or require lubrication.
  • The attachment to the rear spreader frame (called the “cock”) is curved.
  • Cassettes and / or sprocket chains on the rear wheel are worn out.
  • The tensioner rollers are clearly jammed on the rear spreader.
  • The shifter for changing the speeds on the steering wheel has become unusable.

Steering wheel switches

If the shifter on the steering wheel breaks, then it will not be difficult to understand, since the cable tension will immediately weaken, or it will simply stop pulling. Chasing expensive Sram, Shimano components in the hope that they will not work better is not worth it. For an ordinary inexpensive bike, the speed of gear changes and the weight of components are not as important as the maintainability and cheapness of replacement parts.

about setting the rear derailleur in a short

The ropes and their shirts

As strange as it sounds, most often the adjustment of the rear derailleur consists in cleaning and subsequent lubrication of the cables and their shirts. These bike parts can be of high quality, or worse quality. both of them will work for a rather long time if the bicycle owner at least once a month cleans them of dirt and lubricates them with liquid oil.

Note: if during the next service a torn cable or a damaged casing (its shirt) is found, then they must be completely replaced with new parts.

Steering wheel switches

If the shifter breaks on the handlebars, the cyclist will feel it right away. the cable tension instantly weakens, so it’s easy to “diagnose” the problem. In this case, the shifter must be replaced, but experienced cyclists do not recommend purchasing expensive components. with proper operation of such parts, even not the highest quality will manifest itself only on the positive side.

Rear derailleur fine adjustment

From time to time, you will have to fine-tune the rear spreader in the following cases:

  • If repairs, replacement, adjustment of chain drive units were carried out.
  • New cables and shirts installed on the bike.
  • Low-quality cables stretch a lot during operation, and plugs at the ends are squeezed out of the shirts.

Switch adjustment is performed by unscrewing the hollow cable tension screw half a turn to the left. It is easier to unscrew the screw when the cable tension is released. when the shifter is reset to the highest speed. Be sure to check the accuracy of the installation while riding a bike.

That’s all about setting the rear derailleur. If you follow all the guidelines here, the rear de-clutter on your bike will work like a Swiss watch. But in no case should you suffer with an overly stubby switch. Better to replace it with a new one.

Fine tuning the bike’s rear derailleur

If the speed switch is set correctly, then during its operation you will have to adjust it only slightly, due to stretching or replacement of the cable.

Adjustment is made with an adjusting drum located on the shifter, on the speed switch itself (for mountain bikes) or on the upper part of the lower frame tube, near the shirt stop (for road bikes) of the cable on some switches there may be two drums. Adjustment can be done with any adjusting drum, it makes no difference which one to use.

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Before tuning, shift the shifter to the highest gear (small sprocket), make sure the shift lever is in its full position.

Next, switch the shifter to the next speed and pedal forward. The chain should move to the next sprocket. If the chain does not cross, then the cable is not tight, turn the adjusting drum counterclockwise and the cable will be taut. Turn the drum half a turn and try changing the speed again. Be careful, if you overtighten the drum too much, the entire shift chain can shift, as a result, the gears will shift normally, but there will be malfunctions in the extreme positions. Therefore, first of all set up the first two switching steps.

Principles of fine-tuning the speed selector

If the chain moves to a large sprocket with a deceleration, then the cable is loosely tensioned. turn the adjusting drum counterclockwise.

  • To set up switching to small sprockets, loosen the cable;

If the chain moves to a small sprocket with deceleration, then the cable is weakly loose. turn the adjusting drum clockwise.

If the reverse gear shifting on one chainring is normal, and on the other it is bad, most likely the cock will be bent.

Tension adjusting screw (“B-tension”)

Modern switches have two levers. The first one (“A-pivot”) is located below and provides the elevation of the gearshift frame up to the small sprocket. The second (“B-pivot”) moves the selector frame in the opposite direction to the large sprocket. The spring tension on these levers must be balanced to ensure smooth shifting.

Most rear derailleurs have a screw (Shimano terminology “B-tension adjuster”) to adjust the spring tension of the “B” lever. As a result of the adjustment of this screw, the height of the guide roller is adjusted (the angle of inclination of the chain from this roller to the sprocket).

To tune, slide the chain onto the large sprocket at the back. By unscrewing the adjusting screw counterclockwise, the roller rises up (closer to the sprocket). This increases the tension of the chain, and the accuracy of gear shifting increases. Be careful, the roller should not touch the star, leave a gap of 5 mm.

Campagnolo rear derailleurs

Since 2001, all Campagnolo derailleur models have the A-tension adjustment for the lever spring. In fact, this setting is the exact opposite of the above “B-tension adjustment”: loosening the spring of lever “A” achieves the same result as tightening the spring of lever “B”.